国新办 2021-04-07 74次
Poverty Alleviation: China’s Experience and Contribution
The State Council Information Office of the People’s Republic of China
I. The Solemn Commitment of the CPC
II. Final Victory in the Fight Against Extreme Poverty
III. The Strategy of Targeted Poverty Alleviation
IV. Exploring a New Path of Poverty Alleviation
V. A Global Community of Shared Future Free from Poverty
Poverty is a chronic affliction of human society and a common challenge faced by the whole world. Poverty and its associated problems, including hunger, diseases, and social conflicts, are serious impediments to people’s pursuit of a better life, so the eradication of poverty has always been a wish to be fulfilled. The history of humankind is the history of relentless struggle against poverty.
China is the world’s largest developing country, with a population of 1.4 billion. In addition to its weak foundations and uneven development, the nation had long been plagued by poverty at a scale and a level of severity that has rarely been seen anywhere else in the world. As a result, the challenge of poverty alleviation in China almost defies imagination.
今年是中国共产党成立100周年。100年来，中国共产党团结带领人民，以坚定不移、顽强不屈的信念和意志与贫困作斗争。中共十 八大以来，在以习近平同志为核心的党中央领导下，中国组织实施了人类历史上规模空前、力度最大、惠及人口最多的脱贫攻坚战。2021年2月25日，习近平总书记在全国脱贫攻坚总结表彰大会上庄严宣告，脱贫攻坚战取得了全面胜利，中国完成了消除绝对贫困的艰 巨任务。
This year marks the 100th anniversary of the founding of the Communist Party of China (CPC). Over the past century, the Party has united and led the Chinese people in the battle against poverty with unwavering faith and will. Since the 18th CPC National Congress in 2012, the Party Central Committee, with General Secretary Xi Jinping at the core, has fought a decisive battle against poverty that is unprecedented in scale and intensity, and has benefited the largest number of people in human history. At a grand gathering held on February 25, 2021, to mark China’s achievements in poverty alleviation and to honor its model fighters against poverty, General Secretary Xi solemnly declared: Victory in the battle against poverty is complete, and China completed the arduous task of eliminating extreme poverty.
占世界人口近五分之一的中国全面消除绝对贫困，提前10年实现《联合国2030年可持续发展议程》减贫目标，不仅是中华民族发展 史上具有里程碑意义的大事件，也是人类减贫史乃至人类发展史上的大事件，为全球减贫事业发展和人类发展进步作出了重大贡献。 China is home to nearly one fifth of the world’s population. Its complete eradication of extreme poverty – the first target of the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development – 10 years ahead of schedule, is a milestone in the history of the Chinese nation and the history of humankind, making an important contribution to the cause of global poverty alleviation.
Poverty is not predestined, nor is it unconquerable. China’s experience in poverty alleviation indicates that courage, vision, sense of responsibility, and the eagerness to take on challenges are the most essential. With strong will and determination, as well as practical action, one can make steady progress towards overcoming poverty and realizing common prosperity.
This white paper is being issued to record the course of the Chinese people’s great fight in eliminating extreme poverty, introduce China’s approach, and share its experience and actions in poverty alleviation.
I. The Solemn Commitment of the CPC
中华民族是历史悠久、勤劳智慧的民族，创造了辉煌灿烂的中华文明。中华民族又是饱经苦难的民族，广大劳动人民长期处于贫困 状态。几千年来，中国人民始终为摆脱贫困艰难求索。近代以后，在封建腐朽统治和西方列强侵略下，中国沦为半殖民地半封建社会， 亿万民众处于贫困甚至赤贫状态。中国人民始终不屈不挠、奋力抗争，始终梦想实现国家富强、民族复兴，始终梦想过上幸福美好的生 活。 The Chinese nation has a long history, diligent and intelligent people and splendid civilization. Over the history of thousands of years, eliminating poverty has been the persistent goal of the Chinese people, who suffered hardships and difficulties frequently. From the middle of the 19th century, foreign aggression and the decadence of the imperial dynasty reduced China to a semi-colonial, semi-feudal society, and hundreds of millions of its people were plunged into poverty or even extreme poverty. But the Chinese people have fought with fortitude to realize their dream – achieving economic prosperity, national rejuvenation, and a happy and better life. （一）中国共产党领导人民夺取革命胜利，建立新中国，开启了实现国家富强、人民富裕的崭新历程
1. The CPC Led the People to Win Victory in the Revolution, Build the People’s Republic of China (PRC), Opening a New Journey Towards Prosperity
1921年7月，中国共产党诞生。中国产生了共产党，这是开天辟地的大事变。从诞生之日起，中国共产党就把为中国人民谋幸福、 为中华民族谋复兴作为初心使命，团结带领人民为创造自己的美好生活进行了长期艰辛奋斗。以毛泽东同志为核心的第一代中央领导集 体，把农民翻身解放作为革命的基本问题，领导人民进行土地革命、实行“耕者有其田”，推翻了帝国主义、封建主义和官僚资本主义 的反动统治，取得新民主主义革命胜利，建立了新中国，结束了中国人民长期以来遭受压迫与剥削的历史，结束了国家战乱频仍、四分 五裂的局面，实现了民族独立和人民解放，为中国摆脱贫穷落后、实现繁荣富强扫清了障碍、创造了根本政治条件。
The founding of the CPC in July 1921 was an epochal event in China’s history. The CPC has taken the happiness of the people and rejuvenation of the nation as its aspiration since its founding, and united and led the people to fight for a better life over the decades. The Party’s first generation of central collective leadership under Mao Zedong regarded the liberation of peasants as the fundamental issue of the revolution, led the people to launch the Agrarian Revolution to realize the goal of “the land to the tiller”, overthrew the rule of imperialism, feudalism, and bureaucrat-capitalism, and won victory in the New Democratic Revolution and established the PRC, bringing an end to sustained oppression, exploitation of the people, frequent wars, and partitioning of the country, and realizing the goals of national independence and people’s liberation. This helped to remove the obstacles to China’s progress, and created the political conditions it needed to eradicate poverty, regain national strength, and realize prosperity for everyone.
1949年10月1日，中华人民共和国成立，中国人民从此站立起来、当家做主，真正成为新国家新社会的主人。面对一穷二白、百业 凋敝的困难局面，中国共产党团结带领人民自力更生、艰苦奋斗，发奋图强、重整山河。在全国开展轰轰烈烈的土地改革，延续2000多 年的封建土地制度被废除，消除了造成农民贫困的主要制度因素。对农业、手工业和资本主义工商业进行社会主义改造，建立起社会主 义基本制度，为从根本上解决贫困问题提供了最基本制度保证。开展大规模社会主义建设，建立独立的、比较完整的工业体系和国民经 济体系，大力发展集体经济，大兴农田水利。大办农村教育和合作医疗，探索建立以集体经济为基础、以“五保”制度和特困群体救 济为主体的农村初级社会保障体系。社会主义建设在曲折中向前推进，人民物质生活和文化水平逐步提高，占世界近四分之一人口的中 国人民特别是农民的基本生活需求得到初步满足。
The founding of the PRC on October 1, 1949, allowed the Chinese people to stand upright and become the true masters of the country. To change the backward situation starting from scratch, the CPC united and led the people to rely on themselves and strived to build their homeland with strong determination and concerted effort. Land reform was rolled out across the country, abolishing the feudal land system that had endured for over 2,000 years. This removed the major institutional obstacle to eliminating poverty. Socialist transformation was carried out in agriculture, individual craft industries, and capitalist industry and commerce. The establishment of the socialist system provided a basic institutional guarantee for addressing the root causes of poverty. Socialist development was carried out on all fronts, creating an independent and rather complete industrial system and economic system. Efforts were made to develop the collective economy, improve farmland irrigation and water conservation, and develop rural education and cooperative medical services. A preliminary social security system took shape, with the collective economy at the base, and the “five guarantees” [The National Agricultural Development Program (1956-1967) specified that agricultural cooperatives should give proper care to commune members who could not work and had no family to support them, by providing them with proper food, clothing, fuel, and education (for children and teenagers), and by paying their burial expenses.] and relief for people in extreme poverty as the core. The Chinese people – including the farmers – who made up nearly one quarter of the world’s population, saw their basic living needs met. Their living standards and educational level improved. Socialist building during this period pressed ahead amidst successes and setbacks.
2. Reform and Opening Up Accelerated Development and Poverty Alleviation in China
1978年12月，中共中央召开十一届三中全会，开启了中国改革开放和社会主义现代化建设新时期。改革开放是中国人民和中华民族 发展史上的又一次伟大革命，为中国注入了创新和发展的强大动力。中国经济社会快速发展，中国减贫进程加快推进，贫困人口大幅度 减少。
Held in December 1978, the Third Plenary Session of the 11th CPC Central Committee ushered in a new chapter of reform and opening up and socialist modernization in China. Reform and opening up has been another great revolution in the history of the Chinese people and Chinese nation, injecting momentum and innovation. The rapid socioeconomic development that ensued gave a vigorous boost to poverty alleviation, and resulted in a sharp decline in the impoverished population.
改革开放初期，面对中国农村贫困人口基数大、贫困发生率高的严峻形势，以邓小平同志为核心的第二代中央领导集体，作出“贫 穷不是社会主义，社会主义要消灭贫穷”的重要论断，提出到20世纪末人民生活达到小康水平的目标，制定“三步走”发展战略，提出“两个大局”的战略构想，实施一系列农业农村重大改革，从国家层面开展大规模、有计划、有组织的扶贫开发。在农村实施以家 庭联产承包为主的生产责任制和统分结合的双层经营体制，理顺了农村最基本的生产关系，调动了农民生产积极性，使农业生产迅速扭 转了长期徘徊不前的局面。实施农产品流通体制改革，大力发展乡镇企业，促进了农村整体收入水平提高。成立专门扶贫机构，确定了 扶贫标准、重点片区和贫困县，启动实施“三西”农业建设。通过一系列重大举措，解放了农村生产力，释放了农村活力，推动了农 村经济发展，促进了农民收入增加和观念更新，中国扶贫开发进入历史新时期。
In the initial period of reform and opening up, confronted by the grim challenge of a large rural impoverished population base and a high incidence of poverty, the second generation of the central collective leadership headed by Deng Xiaoping issued a declaration that “Poverty is not socialism; socialism means eliminating poverty”. It set the goal of ensuring the people a moderately prosperous life by the end of the 20th century, formulated a three-step strategic plan [The 13th CPC National Congress proposed that a three-step strategic plan for China’s economic development would be laid out after the Third Plenary Session of the 11th CPC Central Committee: doubling the 1980 GNP by the end of the 1980s and ensuring that the people would have adequate food and clothing as the first step; doubling the 1990 GNP by the end of the 20th century and ensuring the people a moderately prosperous life as the second step; and increasing the per capita GNP level to that of moderately developed countries, ensuring the people a relatively affluent life, and realizing basic modernization by the middle of the 21st century as the third step.], and articulated the vision of “Two Development Strategies” [In 1988, Deng Xiaoping proposed that “The coastal areas, which comprise a vast region with a population of 200 million, should accelerate their opening to the outside world, and we should help them develop rapidly first; afterwards they can promote the development of the interior. The development of the coastal areas is of overriding importance, and the interior provinces should subordinate themselves to it. When the coastal areas have developed to a certain extent, they will be required to give more help to the interior. Then, the development of the interior provinces will be of overriding importance, and the coastal areas will in turn have to subordinate themselves to it.” (Source: “The Central Leadership Must Have Authority”, Selected Works of Deng Xiaoping, Vol III.)]. A swathe of major reforms involving agriculture and rural areas were launched, providing for a massive, planned, well-organized poverty alleviation effort at the national level. The two-tier management system adopted in the rural areas, integrating cooperative management with household contract management, clarified the most basic production relations and inspired the farmers’ enthusiasm, bringing an end to a period of protracted stagnation in agricultural output. Reform of the distribution system for agricultural products was enacted. A major effort was made to develop township enterprises in order to increase overall incomes in rural areas. Special poverty alleviation agencies were set up, poverty standards were set, key impoverished areas and counties were identified, and a special plan for agricultural development in the three western regions [The three western regions were Hexi Region and Dingxi Region in Gansu Province and the mountainous region in southern Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, the most impoverished contiguous areas in the country at the beginning of reform and opening up. In December 1982, China launched poverty alleviation initiatives in these regions to boost their agricultural development. This involved 47 counties, cities and districts (which expanded to 57 in 1992). It was a groundbreaking project in China’s poverty alleviation efforts. It set a precedent in regional poverty alleviation, accumulating rich experience in moving from relief-based poverty alleviation to development-driven poverty alleviation, pooling resources for the development of impoverished areas, for poverty alleviation through relocation, and for combining development-driven poverty alleviation with developing the ecoeconomy. These successful measures have had a profound influence on massive, planned, well-organized poverty alleviation efforts across the country starting from 1986.] was launched. These measures liberated the rural productive forces, released vitality, boosted economic development, increased farmers’ incomes, and updated their mindsets. Development-driven poverty alleviation opened a new chapter in China.
上世纪90年代初，在农村贫困问题大大缓解的同时，贫困问题由普遍性分布呈现分层、分块、分化等新特征，区域间发展不均衡问 题凸显。以江泽民同志为核心的第三代中央领导集体，制定新的“三步走”发展战略，提出全面建设小康社会目标，继续推进大规模 扶贫开发国家行动。1994年，中国国务院印发《国家八七扶贫攻坚计划（1994－2000年）》，这是新中国历史上第一个有明确目标、明 确对象、明确措施和明确期限的全国扶贫开发工作纲领。“八七计划”提出，从1994年到2000年，力争用7年左右的时间，基本解决当 时全国农村8000万贫困人口的温饱问题。1996年，中共中央召开扶贫开发工作会议，进一步明确到20世纪末基本解决贫困人口温饱问题 的目标绝不动摇，确定了由救济式扶贫转向开发式扶贫的基本方针。1999年，中共中央召开扶贫开发工作会议，对夺取“八七计划”的 胜利作出部署。2001年，中共中央召开扶贫开发工作会议，中国国务院印发《中国农村扶贫开发纲要（2001－2010年）》。中国的扶贫 开发在取得重要阶段性进展基础上，继续向纵深推进。按照当时的扶贫标准，2000年底，中国农村贫困人口减少到3209万人，贫困发生 率降低到3.5%。
By the early 1990s, there had been visible progress in poverty alleviation in rural areas. In the meantime, poverty had evolved from a widespread problem into one afflicting particular regions, groups and populations, highlighting the problem of uneven regional development. The Party’s third generation of central collective leadership with Comrade Jiang Zemin at the core formulated a three-step development strategic plan [The 15th CPC National Congress held in 1997 drew up a new three-step strategic plan. The first step involved doubling the 2000 GNP, giving the people greater prosperity, and putting in place a relatively complete socialist market economy system, all by the end of 2010. The second step involved working hard for another decade to further develop the economy by the centenary of the CPC, and to improve all relevant systems. The third step involved realizing basic modernization and developing China into a modern socialist country that is prosperous, strong, democratic, and culturally advanced by the time we celebrate the centenary of the PRC in the middle of the 21st century.], put forward the goal of achieving moderate prosperity in all respects, and continued to press ahead with massive national campaigns on poverty alleviation. In 1994, the State Council launched the Priority Poverty Alleviation Program (1994-2000), China’s first ever national poverty alleviation program with definite goals, targets, measures and deadlines. It committed to ensuring that the basic needs of 80 million impoverished rural residents would be met in the seven years from 1994 to 2000. In 1996, the central authorities held the National Conference on Development-driven Poverty Alleviation, further clarifying the steadfast commitment to the goal of being able to provide adequate food and clothing for the impoverished people by the end of the 20th century and confirming the shift from relief-based poverty alleviation to development-driven poverty alleviation. In 1999, the central authorities held the National Conference on Development-driven Poverty Alleviation, making plans to ensure success of the Priority Poverty Alleviation Program. Another conference on poverty alleviation was convened in 2001, and the State Council issued the Outline of Developmentdriven Poverty Alleviation in Rural Areas (2001-2010). On the basis of initial progress of China’s poverty alleviation, the campaign continued with further measures. By the end of 2000, the impoverished population in rural areas had been reduced to 32.09 million and the incidence of poverty down to 3.5%, based on the poverty alleviation standard at the time.
进入21世纪，以胡锦涛同志为总书记的中共中央，坚持科学发展观，构建社会主义和谐社会，提出全面建成小康社会目标，推进社 会主义新农村建设，制定实施一系列扶贫开发新政策新举措。对扶贫工作重点与瞄准对象作出重大调整，把中西部地区作为扶贫工作重 点区域，在592个国家扶贫工作重点县的基础上，选定15万个贫困村作为扶贫对象，实施参与式“整村推进”扶贫。大力推进产业扶贫 和劳动力培训转移，积极开展易地搬迁扶贫和生态移民。实施西部大开发、振兴东北地区等老工业基地、中部地区崛起等国家区域发展 战略，促进区域、城乡协调发展。取消农业税，建立新型农村合作医疗等一系列农村社会保障制度，农民负担重的状况得到根本性改 变。2011年，中共中央召开扶贫开发工作会议，中共中央、国务院印发《中国农村扶贫开发纲要（2011－2020年）》。中国的扶贫开 发，从以解决温饱为主要任务的阶段转入巩固温饱成果、加快脱贫致富、改善生态环境、提高发展能力、缩小发展差距的新阶段。按照 当时的扶贫标准，2010年底，中国农村贫困人口减少到2688万人，贫困发生率降为2.8%；2011年，中国将扶贫标准提高到2300元，在新 的扶贫标准下，中国贫困人口为1.22亿。
In the 21st century, the CPC Central Committee with Comrade Hu Jintao as General Secretary embraced the Scientific Outlook on Development. Its goals were to advance the development of a harmonious society, build a moderately prosperous society in all respects, and facilitate the development of a new socialist countryside. It enacted a new series of poverty alleviation policies and measures. This resulted in major adjustments to the focus and targets of poverty alleviation work, listing the central and western regions as the priority region, and choosing as individual targets 150,000 impoverished villages besides the 592 key counties, where the full participation of villagers in poverty alleviation efforts was encouraged. A whole range of efforts were directed to business development, the training and transfer of rural labor, poverty alleviation through relocation, and relocation for the development of the eco-economy. State strategy of regional development was implemented, such as developing west China, revitalizing old industrial bases in the northeast, and stimulating the rise of the central region. These achieved coordinated development between regions and between rural and urban areas. The Agricultural Tax was abolished and a series of rural social security systems such as the new cooperative medical care system were established, greatly easing the burden on farmers. The National Conference on Development-driven Poverty Alleviation in 2011 made plans for a new phase in the battle against poverty to ensure that moderate prosperity in all respects would be achieved by 2020. After the meeting, the CPC Central Committee and the State Council issued the Outline of Development-driven Poverty Alleviation in Rural Areas (2011-2020). China’s poverty alleviation effort had evolved from its primary mission – meeting the basic needs of the poor – to a new stage of consolidating this achievement, accelerating poverty alleviation, improving the eco-environment, increasing development capacity, and bridging the development gap. By the end of 2010, according to the poverty standard, the impoverished rural population had been reduced to 26.88 million, and the incidence of poverty had fallen to 2.8%. In 2011, the standard was raised to RMB2,300, and accordingly the poor population was 122 million.
3. China in a New Era and a New Battle Against Poverty
中共十八大以来，中国发展进入新时代，全面建成小康社会、实现第一个百年奋斗目标进入关键阶段。经济社会快速发展，综合国 力明显增强，社会保障体系更加健全，国家治理体系和治理能力现代化加快推进，为减贫事业发展奠定了坚实的人力、财力、物力基 础，提供了有力制度支撑。同时，中国仍然面临严峻的贫困形势，面对的都是贫中之贫、坚中之坚，减贫进入啃硬骨头、攻坚拔寨的冲 刺阶段，采用常规思路和办法、按部就班推进难以完成任务，必须以更大的决心、更明确的思路、更精准的举措、超常规的力度，众志 成城实现脱贫攻坚目标。
China marched into a new era after the 18th CPC National Congress in 2012. The country reached a critical stage in building a moderately prosperous society in all respects and achieving the First Centenary Goal. Rapid economic and social development, a marked increase in comprehensive national strength, a better social security system, and progress in modernizing China’s system and capacity for governance provided solid manpower, material, and financial foundations and strong institutional support for its poverty alleviation efforts. But the country still faced a daunting challenge since it had to solve the most difficult problems in raising the poorest population out of poverty in the coming period. China’s battle against extreme poverty had entered the toughest stage. It was hard to complete the task with conventional approaches and ideas. To achieve the goal of poverty alleviation, the nation had to pull together with greater determination, sharper thinking, more targeted measures, and extraordinary efforts.
以习近平同志为核心的中共中央，把人民对美好生活的向往作为奋斗目标，提出实现中华民族伟大复兴的中国梦，推进决胜全面建 成小康社会，把贫困人口全部脱贫作为全面建成小康社会、实现第一个百年奋斗目标的底线任务和标志性指标，将脱贫攻坚纳入“五位 一体”总体布局和“四个全面”战略布局，明确到2020年现行标准下农村贫困人口实现脱贫、贫困县全部摘帽、解决区域性整体贫困的 目标任务，汇聚全党全国全社会之力打响脱贫攻坚战。习近平总书记时刻挂念贫困地区和困难群众，把扶贫作为治国理政的重要内容， 花的精力最多，提出一系列重要思想重要论述，作出一系列重大决策部署。2012年，中共十八大提出全面建成小康社会奋斗目标，十八大召开后不久，习近平总书记就指出“小康不小康，关键看老乡，关键在贫困的老乡能不能脱贫”，强调“决不能落下一个贫困地区、 一个贫困群众”，拉开了新时代脱贫攻坚的序幕。2013年，习近平总书记赴湖南省花垣县十八洞村考察时，首次提出“实事求是、因地 制宜、分类指导、精准扶贫”的理念。2014年，习近平总书记在参加十二届全国人大二次会议贵州代表团审议时指出，“看真贫、扶真 贫、真扶贫”。2015年，习近平总书记出席中央扶贫开发工作会议时指出，“要立下愚公移山志，咬定目标、苦干实干”，吹响了脱贫 攻坚战的冲锋号。2017年，习近平总书记在中共十九大报告中指出，“让贫困人口和贫困地区同全国一道进入全面小康社会是我们党的 庄严承诺”“坚决打赢脱贫攻坚战”，动员全党全国全社会聚力攻克深度贫困堡垒、决战决胜脱贫攻坚。2020年，面对突如其来的新冠 肺炎疫情，习近平总书记主持召开决战决胜脱贫攻坚座谈会进行再部署再动员，指出农村贫困人口全部脱贫“必须如期实现，没有任何退路和弹性。这是一场硬仗，越到最后越要紧绷这根弦，不能停顿、不能大意、不能放松”，要求全党全国以更大的决心、更强的力度，做好“加试题”、打好收官战，信心百倍向着脱贫攻坚的最后胜利进军。
The CPC Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at the core takes the desire of the people for a better life as its goal. It has committed to realizing the Chinese Dream of national rejuvenation and securing a decisive victory in building a moderately prosperous society in all respects. Poverty alleviation, a key task and index of the realization of the First Centenary Goal, has been included in the Five-sphere Integrated Plan and the Four-pronged Comprehensive Strategy. The CPC set the goals that by 2020 it would help all the rural population out of poverty as defined by the existing standard, raise all impoverished counties out of poverty, and eliminate poverty over entire regions – mobilizing the whole Party, the whole country, and all sectors of society to engage in this battle. President Xi Jinping, always concerned about impoverished regions and families in straitened circumstances, has always put poverty alleviation at the top of his work agenda and devoted much of his energy to it. He has presented a series of important ideas and proposals, and made some major policy decisions. The 18th CPC National Congress in 2012 set the goal of building a moderately prosperous society in all respects. Soon after that, Xi enunciated, “To achieve initial prosperity in the countryside, it is essential to raise rural living standards and particularly those of impoverished villagers.” Launching the campaign against poverty in the new era, he also emphasized, “No single poor area or single poor person should be left behind in achieving this goal.” In 2013, on his inspection tour to Shibadong Village, Huayuan County, Hunan Province, Xi proposed for the first time the concept of “giving differentiated guidance for targeted poverty alleviation in line with local conditions by seeking truth from facts”. In 2014, while attending the deliberation session of the Guizhou delegation at the Second Plenary Session of the 12th National People’s Congress, Xi stated, “Inspection tours must be conducted to identify the truly poor. Poverty alleviation must reach those who truly need it, and poverty must be fully eliminated.” In 2015, at the National Conference on Development-driven Poverty Alleviation, he sounded the bugle call to battle, “We should be determined, dedicate ourselves, and work hard towards the goal.” In 2017, in the report to the 19th CPC National Congress, Xi emphasized the need to mobilize the energies of the whole Party, the whole country, and the whole of society to win the battle against extreme poverty and eradicate it, “Ensuring that poor people and poor areas will enter the moderately prosperous society together with the rest of the country is a solemn promise made by our Party… We must win the battle against poverty.” In 2020, faced with the sudden attack of Covid-19, Xi mapped out new plans for mobilization at a seminar on poverty alleviation, emphasizing that lifting poor people in the rural areas out of poverty “must be achieved as scheduled”. “It is non-negotiable. This is a tough battle with no route of retreat. We must double our efforts till the last minute. We must not pause, slacken off or be negligent.” He asked the whole Party to perform well in this “difficult test”, to apply more determination and more vigor, and to be confident of bringing the battle to a successful end.
习近平总书记亲自指挥、亲自部署、亲自督战，出席中央扶贫开发工作会议，7次主持召开中央扶贫工作座谈会，50多次调研扶贫 工作，连续5年审定脱贫攻坚成效考核结果，连续7年在全国扶贫日期间出席重要活动或作出重要指示，连续7年在新年贺词中强调脱贫 攻坚，每年在全国两会期间下团组同代表委员共商脱贫攻坚大计，多次回信勉励基层干部群众投身减贫事业。习近平总书记走遍全国14 个集中连片特困地区，考察了20多个贫困村，深入贫困家庭访贫问苦，倾听贫困群众意见建议，了解扶贫脱贫需求，极大鼓舞了贫困群 众脱贫致富的信心和决心。2021年2月25日，习近平总书记在全国脱贫攻坚总结表彰大会上庄严宣告中国脱贫攻坚战取得了全面胜利， 完成了消除绝对贫困的艰巨任务，创造了又一个彪炳史册的人间奇迹。
President Xi Jinping has assumed leadership, made plans, and directed the battle in person. He has attended the National Conference on Development-driven Poverty Alleviation, and presided over seven seminars on poverty elimination. He has made over 50 fact-finding trips. In every one of the last five years, he has reviewed the evaluation reports of the poverty alleviation work. In every one of the last seven years, he has attended important events or issued directives on the National Poverty Alleviation Day. In every one of the last seven years, he has expounded on the fight against extreme poverty in his New Year address. In every one of the last eight years, he has discussed plans for the battle against poverty with delegates during the Two Sessions and written letters to encourage grassroots officials and communities to engage in the great fight. He has visited every one of the 14 contiguous poor areas across the country and over 20 poor villages, and sat in the homes of impoverished households to hear of their difficulties, suggestions, and needs, building up their confidence and determination, and their belief that they can work their way out of poverty. On February 25, 2021, at the National Poverty Alleviation Summary and Commendation Conference, he declared that China had secured a comprehensive victory in the fight against poverty, and completed the arduous task of eradicating extreme poverty – an outstanding and historic achievement.
回顾中国共产党领导人民消除绝对贫困的艰辛历程，极不平凡，极不容易。100年来，中国共产党始终坚守初心使命，担当起对人 民的责任，践行对人民的承诺，为实现民族独立、人民解放和国家富强、人民富裕接续奋斗，付出巨大牺牲，赢得了人民的拥护和信 赖。100年来，在中国共产党的领导下，中国人民自强不息、艰苦奋斗，依靠自己的双手，付出难以想象的辛劳和汗水，摆脱了绝对贫 困，走上了全面小康、共同富裕的康庄大道。100年来，在中国共产党的领导下，中国迎来了从站起来、富起来到强起来的伟大飞跃， 人民的生存权发展权充分保障，社会公平正义有力彰显，为更好实现人的全面发展奠定了坚实基础。
The strenuous process whereby the CPC has led the Chinese people in the battle against poverty has been extraordinary and difficult. Over the past 100 years, the Party has committed itself to the original aspiration of seeking happiness for the people, taken on its responsibility for the people, honored its promise to the people, and made huge sacrifices in fighting to win national independence and people’s liberation, to make China prosperous and strong, and to bring common prosperity to all. In the process it has won the support and trust of the people. Over the past 100 years the Chinese people, under the leadership of the CPC, have never faltered in pursuit of progress, have put in unimaginable efforts, and have relied on themselves to eradicate extreme poverty, and march towards shared all-round prosperity. Over the past 100 years, under the leadership of the CPC, China has stood tall, become prosperous, and grown in overall national strength. The protection of the rights to subsistence and development, and the promotion of equality and justice have laid solid foundations for well-rounded human development.
II. Final Victory in the Fight Against Extreme Poverty
China’s fight against poverty entered a critical stage after the 18th CPC National Congress in 2012. At the end of 2020, through eight years of hard work, China achieved the goal of eliminating extreme poverty – a key goal for the new era of building socialism with Chinese characteristics. The 98.99 million people in rural areas who were living below the current poverty threshold all shook off poverty (Figure 1); all the 128,000 impoverished villages and 832 designated poor counties got rid of poverty (Figure 2). China has eliminated poverty over entire regions and eradicated extreme poverty.
脱贫攻坚战对中国农村的改变是历史性的、全方位的，是中国农村的又一次伟大革命，深刻改变了贫困地区落后面貌，有力推动了 中国农村整体发展，补齐了全面建成小康社会最突出短板，为全面建设社会主义现代化国家、实现第二个百年奋斗目标奠定了坚实基 础。脱贫攻坚战全面胜利，中华民族在几千年发展历史上首次整体消除绝对贫困，实现了中国人民的千年梦想、百年夙愿。
The battle against poverty has been another great revolution in rural China, leading to historic and comprehensive changes. The campaign saw an end to the backwardness of poverty-stricken areas, boosted overall rural development, resolved the greatest threat to success in achieving moderate prosperity in all respects, and laid a solid foundation for building a modern socialist China and realizing the Second Centenary Goal. China has secured a complete victory in the battle against extreme poverty, eliminating overall and extreme poverty for the first time in its history of thousands of years, and realizing a century-long aspiration of the Chinese people.
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