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从《谈治国理政·第二卷》看汉译英四大难点怎么破?(上)

天之聪教育 2017-11-19 外文出版社 7538次

(一)如何安排排比句的语法结构;(二)如何把俗语和古语处理成英文;(三)如何给数字缩略词增加注释;(四)如何对冗长的说法进行简化——这是“政治类”汉译英的四个难点。本文分析了上周出版的《谈治国理政》第二卷英译本中(第一章到第七章)的一些例子(译文由外文出版社11月出版发布),供译员参考。

一、排比

中文中排比用得多,注意英文翻译是如何安排这些结构的。
 

他身上始终洋溢着一种革故鼎新、一往无前的勇气,一种善于创造性思维、善于打开新局面的锐气。

He exhibited the indomitable courage to forge ahead with reform and an innovative spirit to think ahead and lead the way forward.

(在纪念邓小平同志诞辰110周年座谈会上的讲话)
 

脑子要特别清醒、眼睛要特别明亮、立场要特别坚定,绝不能有任何含糊和动摇。

We should be particularly sober-minded and keen-sighted and take a firm stand, allowing no ambiguity or wavering.

(2015年12月11日在全国党校工作会议上的讲话)
 

不敢腐、不能腐、不想腐

..do not dare to be, are not able to be, and do not want to be corrupt

(2015年1月23日在主持中国十八届中央政治局第二十次集体学习时的讲话)
 

既不走封闭僵化的老路,也不走改旗易帜的邪路。

We must neither follow the old path of a rigid closed-door policy, nor an erroneous path by abandoning socialism.

(在庆祝中国共产党成立95周年大会上讲话的一部分)
 

政治意识、大局意识、核心意识、看齐意识

political integrity, a better understanding of the general picture, follow the core leadership of the Central Committee, and act consistently with CPC Central Committee policy

(在庆祝中国共产党成立95周年大会上讲话的一部分)
 

别有用心的人趁机煽风点火、蛊惑搅和,最终没有不出事的

Those with ulterior motives will fan the flames of discontent, lead the public astray, and stir up trouble.

(在中国十八届四中全会第二次全体会议上的讲话)
 

喊口号、练虚功、摆花架,叶公好龙而不真抓实干

simply shout out slogans, put on appearances and feign support instead of taking real action

心有所畏、言有所戒、行有所止

There must be a barrier to limit us in what we say and do

(在中央党校县委书记研修班学员座谈会上的讲话)
 

总揽不包揽、分工不分家、放手不撒手

assume overall leadership but not take on every detail, divide duties but not undermine concerted efforts, and delegate duties but not totally let go

(在中央党校县委书记研修班学员座谈会上的讲话)
 

搞小山头、小团伙、小圈子

form factions, cliques and corteries

(在中共第十八届中央纪律委员会第五次全体会议上的讲话)
 

卖官帽、批土地、抢项目、收红包

to sell official positions, illegally sell or lease out land, scramble for a cut of lucrative projects and use every means to collect bribes

(在中共第十八届中央纪律委员会第六次全体会议上的讲话)
 

能力不足而“不能为”,动力不足而“不想为”,担当不足而“不敢为”

incapability, lack of motivation and lack of courage and a sense of responsibility.

(在省部级主要领导干部学习贯彻党的十八届五中全会精神专题研讨班上的讲话)
 

投资有回报,产品有市场,企业有利润,员工有收入,政府有税收,环境有改善

returns on investment, markets for products, profits for enterprises, income for employees, tax revenues for goverment, and an improved environment

(在中央经济工作会议上的讲话)
 

市场的冰山、融资的高山、转型的火山

three stumbling blocks - an under-heated market, financing hurdles, and business model transformation woes

(参加全国政协十二届四次会议民建、工商联界委员联组会时的发言)
 

“亲”“清”(政商关系)

affinity and integrity

(参加全国政协十二届四次会议民建、工商联界委员联组会时的发言)
 

二、俗语 古语

这也是“空谈误国,实干兴邦”的真谛。

Therefore, we emphasize that empty talk harms the country, while hard work makes it flourish.

(在纪念邓小平同志诞辰110周年座谈会上的讲话)
 

打铁还需自身硬

a good blacksmith to forge good tools

(2015年2月2日在省部级主要领导干部研讨班上的讲话)
 

“明镜所以照形,古事所以知今”

Looking at the mirror we know about ourselves; reflecting on the past we know what to do now.

(在庆祝中国共产党成立95周年大会上讲话的一部分)
 

“功以才成,业由才广”

Feats are accomplished by capable people; work develops because of achievers.

(在庆祝中国共产党成立95周年大会上讲话的一部分)
 

“石可破也,而不可夺坚;丹可磨也,而不可夺赤。”

A rock can be smashed, but its pieces will still be hard; cinnabar can be ground, but its powder will still be red.

(纪念红军长征胜利80周年大会上的讲话)
 

“自知者英,自胜者雄”

Heroes are those who know themselves and can surpass themselves.

“靠着墙根晒太阳,等着别人送小康”

Idle men lean against the wall, enjoying the sunshine and waiting for others to bring them a moderately prosperous society.

为国也,观俗立法则治,察国事本则宜。不观时俗,不察国本,则其法立而民乱,事剧而功寡。

In governing a country, a wise ruler establishes laws through observing popular customs, thus bringing order, He understands the fundamentals of the land he rules, thus implementing appropriate policies. Where the customs of the times are ignored and the fundamentals of the land neglected, the people will fall into disorder even when laws are made. And the ruler may be kept busy but will achieve little.

(在中共十八届四中全会第二次全体会议上的讲话)
 

机关算尽,反而误了卿卿性命

be relentless in their scheming, but only end up bringing about their own distruction.

(在第十八届中央纪律委员会第五次全体会议上的讲话)
 

明者因时而变,知者随事而制。

A smart man changes his approach as circustances change; a wise person alters his means as times evolve.

(在省部级主要领导干部学习贯彻党的十八届五中全会精神专题研讨班上的讲话)
 

三、意译 转译 简译

有不少成语和四六句的翻译在英文中都得到简化,注意是如何处理的。

不能妄自菲薄,不能数典忘祖。

We must not underestimate ourselves and should cherish the best of our traditions and culture.

(在纪念邓小平同志诞辰110周年座谈会上的讲话)
 

这是党和人民在当今世界安身立命、风雨前行的资格。

This is why our Party and the people are qualified to stand tall in the international community.

(在纪念邓小平同志诞辰110周年座谈会上的讲话)
 

党政军民学,东西南北中,党是领导一切的。

The Party exercises overall leadership over all areas of endeavor in every part of the country

(2017年2月13日在省部级主要领导干部研讨班上的讲话)
 

既要注重总体谋划,又要注重牵住“牛鼻子”

We should attend to both general planning and specific, critical problems.

(2015年1月23日在主持中国十八届中央政治局第二十次集体学习时的讲话)
 

“两不愁,三保障”

to guarantee the basic needs of food and clothing for those living in poverty and ensure that they have proper access to compulsory education, medical care and safe housing

突出重点,对准焦距,找准穴位,击中要害,推出一批能叫得响、立得住、群众认可的硬招实招

We should identify the key targets and hit them, and adopt a series of sound, practical and effective measures that can withstand the test and are accepted by the people

(在中央全面深化改革领导小组第十次会议的讲话)
 

功成不必在我

be open-minded about achievement

(在中央党校县委书记研修班学员座谈会上的讲话)
 

一根绳上的蚂蚱

When one goes down, they will take all the others with them.

(在第十八届中央纪律委员会第五次全体会议上的讲话)
 

新松恨不高千尺,恶竹应须斩万竿

Young pines should grow a thousand feet high, while poisoning bamboos should be cut down one by one

提提领子、扯扯袖子、红红脸、出出汗

When someone has made a mistake, tell them straight and make him flush and sweat.

(在中共第十八届中央纪律委员会第六次全体会议上的讲话)
 

既不裹足不前、锱铢两较、该花的钱也不花,也不好高骛远、寅吃牟粮、口惠而实不至。

We should neither hesitate to move forward, nor be niggardly with necessary investments, nor aim too high, nor spend on deficit, nor issue empty promises without providing real gains.

(在省部级主要领导干部学习贯彻党的十八届五中全会精神专题研讨班上的讲话)
 

不能讲得头头是道,做起来轻轻飘飘。

Eloquence is of no value - real action must be taken to realize these concepts.

(在省部级主要领导干部学习贯彻党的十八届五中全会精神专题研讨班上的讲话)
 

不能单打独斗、顾此失彼,不能偏执一方、畸轻畸重。

avoiding uncoordinated and unbalanced development.

(在省部级主要领导干部学习贯彻党的十八届五中全会精神专题研讨班上的讲话)
 

积极主动、未雨绸缪,见微知著、防微杜渐,下好先手棋,打好主动仗。

We must be alert and cautious, and keep track of small changes that could lead to heavey losses. We should take the initiative and ...

(在省部级主要领导干部学习贯彻党的十八届五中全会精神专题研讨班上的讲话)
 

顺势而为,乘势而上

act when conditions permit

(在中央经济工作会议上的讲话)
 

不能一叶障目、不见泰山,攻其一点,不及其余

We should not reach a point where we adopt a one-sided perspective.

(参加全国政协十二届四次会议民建、工商联界委员联组会时的发言)
 

(市场准入限制仍然较多);“玻璃门”“弹簧门”“旋转门”大量存在

“glass ceiling" exists, coupled with numerous restrictive policies and unspoken rules

(注:此处的玻璃门是否可以用“glass ceiling”来译,“旋转门”简化处理为“unspoken rules”是否不够精确,供读者讨论)

吃拿卡要,为个人利益认为制造障碍,或者搞利益输送、暗箱操作

ask for bribes, seek personal gain by deliberately erecting obstacles, or engage in embezzlement of public funds and under-the-counter dealings

(参加全国政协十二届四次会议民建、工商联界委员联组会时的发言)
 

四、增加注释

四大考验

four tests refer to exercising governance, carrying out reform and opening up, developing the market economy and responding to external development.

(在庆祝中国共产党成立95周年大会上讲话的一部分)
 

四种危险

four risks refer to inertia, incompetence, being divorced from the people and corruption and other misconduct

(在庆祝中国共产党成立95周年大会上讲话的一部分)
 

三严三实

Three Guidelines for Ethical Behavoior and Three Basic Rules of Conduct; They call upon officials to be strict with themselves in self-cultivation, in the exercise of power, and in self-discipline and act in good faith when performing official duties, taking initiatives, and interacting with others.

(在庆祝中国共产党成立95周年大会上讲话的一部分)
 

三重一大

decision making on major issues, important appointments and removals, major projects and the use of large amounts of money

(在全国国有企业党的建设工作会议上的讲话)
 

三期叠加

at a stage of shifting the growth rate, restructuring the economy, and addressing the impact of previous stimulus policies

(在中央经济工作会议上的讲话)
 

四降一升

four problems, namely slowdown in the growth rate, falling prices of industrial products, falling business profits and falling fiscal revenues, and rising economic risks

(在省部级主要领导干部学习贯彻党的十八届五中全会精神专题研讨班上的讲话)
 

三去一补一降

five tasks, i.e., cutting excess capacity, reducing excess inventory, deleveraging, lowering costs, and strengthening areas of weakness

(在全国科技创新大会上的讲话)

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