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从《谈治国理政·第二卷》看汉译英三大难点怎么破?(下)

天之聪教育 2017-11-19 外文出版社 20064次

过去几年,我们经常听到“打铁还需自身硬”,听起来颇觉得“生动”,真到译起来问题就来了。打铁需要哪里“硬”?铁匠的身体“硬”?锤铁的榔头硬还是砧板硬?抑或铁矿石要硬?这是汉英翻译最常见的问题,貌似大家都懂的中国话,较起真来,就说不清楚了。类似的例子还有著名的“不折腾”。这或许也是汉英翻译的乐趣所在。

 

在某次重大活动中,“打铁还需自身硬”被口译员处理为“To be turned into iron, the metal itself must be strong”。这里显然取了“铁矿石要硬”的解释,即矿石里得有铁,你要炼得是铜矿石,必须练不出来生铁来。但这种理解引发了颇多争议,这个理解对吗?(实际上有时并无所谓正误,只有优劣。历代大儒训诂的《论语》还有不同理解,何况一句俗话。)

 

那么,究竟是铁匠“硬”(干将、莫邪复生),还是打铁的榔头或砧板硬呢?《每日电讯报》认为榔头要硬,“To forge iron, you need a strong hammer”。CNN及《纽约时报》认为铁匠要横,"To forge iron, one must be strong"。似乎都有点道理。这次《论治国理政·第二卷》来了个“活稀泥”,译为“a good blacksmith to forge good tools”,兼而有之,就好比说郭靖夫妇锻造了倚天剑和屠龙刀,优劣嗤妍供各位看官自断罢。

 

书归正传,含英咀华,我们接着学学《论治国理政·第二卷》第七章之后的翻译难点。

 

一、排比

 

管根本、管全局、管长远

plays a decisive, comprehensive, and far-reaching role...

(在庆祝全国人民代表大会成立60周年大会上的讲话)

了解民情、反映民意、集中民智、珍惜民力

how poeple are faring, reflects public opinion, pools general wisdom and values social strengths

(在庆祝全国人民代表大会成立60周年大会上的讲话)

 

不是一句口号,不是一句空话

not simply a slogan or a few hollow words

(在庆祝中国人民政治协商会议成立65周年大会上的讲话)

 

知民情、解民忧、纾民怨、暖民心

become empathetic to their actual conditions, ease their concerns, address their discontent, and enable them to feel that we do care about them

(在庆祝中国人民政治协商会议成立65周年大会上的讲话)

 

和睦相处、和衷共济、和谐发展

equality, unity, mutual assistance and harmony

(2014年9月28日在中央民族工作会议上的讲话)

 

进万家门、访万家情、结万家亲

pay frequent visits to them, have face-to-face and heart-to-heart contacts with them, and develop sincere relationships with them

(在中央党的群团工作会议上的讲话)

 

群众信得过、靠得住、离不开的知心人、贴心人。

trustworthy, reliable, intimate and inseparable friends of the people

(在中央党的群团工作会议上的讲话)

 

无根的浮萍、无病的呻吟、无魂的躯壳

rootless, senseless and soulless

(在文艺工作座谈会上的讲话)

 

人民有信仰、民族有希望、国家有力量

When the people are firm in their convictions, the country will prosper and the nation will grow stronger.

(会见第四届全国文明城市、文明村镇、文明单位和未成年人思想道德建设工作先进代表时的讲话)

 

出发点要站稳,落脚点要战好

keeping on the right track towards the right goal

(2016年12月14日在中央经济工作会议上的讲话)

 

因事而化、因时而进、因势而新

be adpated to the time, to new developments, and to particular circumstances

(在全国高校思想政治工作会议上的讲话要点)

 

在党爱党、在党言党、在党为党

Party members should remain loyal to the Party, follow the Party's guidelines, and work for the Party.

(在全国高校思想政治工作会议上的讲话要点)

 

牢记使命、艰苦创业、绿色发展的塞罕坝精神

a Saihanba spirit of bearing the mission in mind, working hard, and pursuing green development

(对河北塞罕坝林场建设者事迹做出的批示)

 

经不起折腾,经不起内耗

cannot afford to be torn apart by reckless moves or internal rifts.

(在庆祝香港回归祖国20周年大会的讲话)

 

讲信义、重情义、扬正义、树道义

act in good faith, value friendship, champion moral principles and uphold justice

(在中央外事工作会议上的讲话)

 

铭记历史、缅怀先烈、珍爱和平、开创未来

bear history in mind, honor all those who laid down their lives, cherish peace and build a new future

(在纪念中国人民抗日战争暨世界反法西斯战争胜利70周年大会上的讲话)

 

亲、诚、惠、容

amity, sincerity, mutual benefit and inclusiveness

(在“加强互联互通伙伴关系”东道主伙伴对话会上的讲话)

 

政策沟通、设施联通、贸易畅通、资金融通、民心相通

policy coordination, connectivity of infrastructure, unimpeded trade, financial integration and closer people-to-people ties

(在推进“一带一路”建设工作座谈会上的讲话要点)

 

二、俗语和古语

 

绝不能囫囵吞枣,绝不能邯郸学步

Never follow others without trying to understand them properly. In attempting to walk like a swan, the crow loses its own gait.

(在庆祝全国人民代表大会成立60周年大会上的讲话)

名非天造,必从其实

A name is not granted by heaven; it must be earned in life.

(在庆祝中国人民政治协商会议成立65周年大会上的讲话)

 

世事洞明皆学问,人情练达即文章

A grasp of mundane affairs is genuine knowledge, understanding of worldly wisdom is true learning.

(在文艺工作座谈会上的讲话)

 

知屋漏者在宇下,知政失者在草野

The person who knows a leaking roof is the one who is under that roof; the person who knows an error of the court is the one who is not in power.

(在网络安全和信息化工作座谈会上的讲话)

 

“四梁八柱”

pertinent institutional framework

(关于做好生态文明建设工作的批示)

 

秉纲而目自张,执本而末自从

Once the key link is grasped, everything elese falls into place; once the horse is before the cart, the cart will follow.

(在全军政治工作会议上的讲话)

 

如竹苞矣,如松茂矣。

with the vigor of a bamboo or a pine tree

(在庆祝香港回归祖国20周年大会的讲话)

 

甘瓜抱苦蒂,美枣生荆棘

Honey melons hang on bitter vines; sweet dates grow on thistles and thorns.

(在世界经济论坛2017年年会开幕式上的主旨演讲)

 

交得其道,千里同好,固于胶漆,坚于金石。

A partnership forged with the right approach defies geographical distance; it is thicker than glue and stronger than metal and stone.

(在金砖国家领导人会晤大范围会议上的讲话)

 

善学者尽其理,善行者究其难。

One should be good at finding the laws of things and solving problems.

(在联合国日内瓦总部的演讲)

 

三、意译与转译

制度自信不是自视清高、自我满足,更不是裹足不前、故步自封。

Having confidence in our political system does not mean being sumg or complacent, nor does it mean we know the best and we can ingore the outside world.

(在庆祝全国人民代表大会成立60周年大会上的讲话)

 

转作风改文风,俯下身、沉下心,察实情、说实话、动真情,努力退出有思想、有温度、有品质的作品

improve their style of work and writing, be concentrated, observe realities, and speak truth with sincerity, so as to produce works with thought, warmth and quality

(在党的新闻舆论工作座谈会上的讲话)

 

保基本、保底线、保民生的兜底责任

to guarantee the basic writing standards and welfare of the people

(2016年4月24日到27日在安徽调研时的讲话要点)

 

干预涉险滩、动奶酪,敢于破难题、闯难关,敢于趟路子、辟险境

have the courage to brave dangerous rapids, challenge vested interests, cross over hurdles, and blaze new trails

(在中央军民融合发展委员会第一次全体会议上的讲话要点)

 

召之即来、来之能战、战之必胜

prevail at all times and under all circumstances when the call comes

(在庆祝中国人民解放军建军90周年大会上的讲话)

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