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天之聪教育 2012-06-19 未知 535次





(原文出自NY TIMES,节选)

Stony Brook is typical of American colleges and universities these days, where national surveys show that nearly half of the students who visit counseling centers are coping with serious mental illness, more than double the rate a decade ago. More students take psychiatric medication, and there are more emergencies requiring immediate action.

“It’s so different from how people might stereotype the concept of college counseling, or back in the ’70s students coming in with existential crises: who am I?” said Dr. Hwang, whose staff of 29 includes psychiatrists, clinical psychologists and social workers. “Now they’re bringing in life stories involving extensive trauma, a history of serious mental illness, eating disorders, self-injury, alcohol and other drug use.”

Experts say the trend is partly linked to effective psychotropic drugs (Wellbutrin for depression, Adderall for attention disorder, Abilify for bipolar disorder) that have allowed students to attend college who otherwise might not have functioned in a campus setting.

There is also greater awareness of traumas scarcely recognized a generation ago and a willingness to seek help for those problems, including bulimia, self-cutting and childhood sexual abuse.

The need to help this troubled population has forced campus mental health centers — whose staffs, on average, have not grown in proportion to student enrollment in 15 years — to take extraordinary measures to make do. Some have hospital-style triage units to rank the acuity of students who cross their thresholds. Others have waiting lists for treatment — sometimes weeks long — and limit the number of therapy sessions.

Some centers have time only to “treat students for a crisis, bandaging them up and sending them out,” said Denise Hayes, the president of the Association for University and College Counseling Center Directors and the director of counseling at the Claremont Colleges in California.

“It’s very stressful for the counselors,” she said. “It doesn’t feel like why you got into college counseling.”

A recent survey by the American College Counseling Association found that a majority of students seek help for normal post-adolescent trouble like romantic heartbreak and identity crises. But 44 percent in counseling have severe psychological disorders, up from 16 percent in 2000, and 24 percent are on psychiatric medication, up from 17 percent a decade ago.

The most common disorders today: depression, anxiety, suicidal thoughts, alcohol abuse, attention disorders, self-injury and eating disorders.

Stony Brook, an academically demanding branch of the State University of New York (its admission rate is 40 percent), faces the mental health challenges typical of a big public university. It has 9,500 resident students and 15,000 who commute from off-campus. The highly diverse student body includes many who are the first in their families to attend college and carry intense pressure to succeed, often in engineering or the sciences. A Black Women and Trauma therapy group last semester included participants from Africa, suffering post-traumatic stress disorder from violence in their youth.

Stony Brook has seen a sharp increase in demand for counseling — 1,311 students began treatment during the past academic year, a rise of 21 percent from a year earlier. At the same time, budget pressures from New York State have forced a 15 percent cut in mental health services over three years.

Dr. Hwang, a clinical psychologist who became director in July 2009, has dealt with the squeeze by limiting counseling sessions to 10 per student and referring some, especially those needing long-term treatment for eating disorders or schizophrenia, to off-campus providers.

But she has resisted the pressure to offer only referrals. By managing counselors’ workloads, the center can accept as many as 60 new clients a week in peak demand between October and the winter break.

(原文出自News Week,节选)

A line formed at an Old Navy store in Raleigh, N.C., as spectators took a break from Christmas shopping to watch a pair of dancers let loose to Lady Gaga’s “Poker Face.” There was no DJ or iPod hookup in sight. The women were playing MTV Games’s Dance Central for Microsoft’s Kinect for Xbox 360 as a way to instill a little energy into the shopping monotony. Kinect does away with the controller, letting players use body motions to navigate virtual experiences—hence, the dance-party atmosphere. The tween girls waiting in line asked their moms to finish dancing so they could get a turn. Retail stores such as Macy’s and Old Navy are offering a game the whole family can enjoy, which just might keep customers shopping a little longer.

As more consumers are entering the videogame space through such new portals as Facebook and iPhone’s Game Central, console makers want a piece of this broader audience, too. So they’re turning to new interactive experiences that are simple enough for anyone to jump into and have fun with. At the same time, relapsed gamers in their 30s and 40s who grew up on Pac-Man and Pong are returning to these simplified game experiences that do away with complex controllers and focus on instant interaction, like Microsoft’s Kinect Joy Ride and Electronic Arts’ Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows: Part I. “One of the biggest challenges to expanding the size of the console gaming market has been the difficulty many new users have learning complex controls,” says Sean Levatino, designer of Sports Champions at Zindagi Games. “By creating game experiences that allow natural, intuitive movements, we open the doors of electronic gaming to anyone who has ever thrown a ball or tossed a Frisbee disc.”

The popularity of Kinect and PlayStation Move motion-controlled games are helping the game industry see black this holiday season. November game sales raked in close to $3 billion in the U.S., according to research tracking firm the NPD Group, an 8 percent increase over last November. While software sales climbed 4 percent to $1.46 billion and hardware sales were up 2 percent to $1.08 billion, accessories such as controllers and cables were the real cash cows, skyrocketing 69 percent to $413.13 million. “November sales represent the best November on record in terms of new physical retail sales,” says NPD videogame analyst Anita Frazier. “It bests November 2008 by roughly $30 million, and that time frame was at the height of the music-dance genre sales.”

While Kinect completely does away with any controllers and lets a player’s body movements control the action through an advanced camera that tracks movement, Sony’s PlayStation Move takes a page out of Nintendo’s Wii playbook and offers more accurate motion-controlled play by using wands that replicate a player’s real-world motions instantly into the on-screen action.

When you consider that Microsoft has sold 47.4 million Xbox 360s globally and that Sony has more than 43.2 million PlayStation 3s in homes around the world, there’s still a huge audience of gamers who are sitting out this first wave of optional motion-sensor games. While every game for Wii has been designed to take advantage of upper-body interaction, only select games for Sony and Microsoft support this new technology. Besides, some of the biggest games of the year, including Activision’s Call of Duty: Black Ops and Microsoft’s Halo: Reach, do not support Kinect or PlayStation Move.

(A Life In A New Language - Eva Hoffman 节选)

It is April 1959, I’m standing at the railing of the Batory’s upper deck, and I feel that my life is ending. I’m looking out at the crowd that has gathered on the shore to see the ship’s deqarture from Gdynia - a crowd that, all of a sudden, is irrevocably on the other side - and I want to break out, run back, run toward the familiar excitement, the waving hands, the exclamations. We can’t be leaving all this behind - but we are. I am thirteen years, and we are emigratig. It’s a notion of such crushing, definitive finality that to me it might as well mean the end of the world.

My sister, four years younger than I , is clutching my hand wordlessly; she hardly understands where we are, or what is happening to us. My parents are highly agitated; they had just been put through a body search by the customes police. Still, the officials weren’t clever enough, or suspicious enough, to check my sister and me - lucky for us, since we are both carrying some silverware we were not allowed to take out of Poland in large pockets sewn onto our skirts especially for this purpose, and hidden under capacious sweaters.

When the brass band on the shore strikes up the jaunty mazurka rhythms of the Polish anthem, I am pierced by a youthful sorrow so powerful that I suddenly stop crying and try to hold still against the pain. I desperately want time to stop, to hold the ship still with the force of my will. I am suffering my first, severe attack of nostalgia, or tesknota - a word that adds to nostalgia the tonalities of sadness and longing. It is a feeling whose shades and degree I’m destined to know intimately, but at this hovering moment, it comes upon me like a visitation from a whole new geography of emotions, an annunciation of how much an absence can hurt. Or a premonition of absence, because at this divide, I’m filled to the brim with what I’m about to lose - images of Cracow, which I loved as one loves a perso, of the sunbaked villages where we had taken sumer vacations, of the hours I spent poring over passages of music with my piano teacher, of conversations and escapades with friends. Looking ahead, I come across an enormous, cold blankness - a darkening, and erasure, of the imagination, as if a camera eye has snapped shut, or as if a heavy curtain has been pulled over the future. Of the place where we’re going - Canada - I know nothing. There are vague outlines of half a continent, a sense of vast spaces and little habitation. When my parents were hiding in a branch-covered forest bunker during the war, my father had a book with him called Canada Fragrant with Resin which, in this horrible confinement, spoke to him of majestic wilderness, of animals roaming without being pursued, of freedom. That is partly why we are going there, rather than to Israel, where most of our Jewish friends have gone. But to me, the word "Canada" has ominous echoes of the "Sahara". No, my mind rejects the idea of being taken there, I don’t want to be pried out of my childhood, my pleasures, my safety, my hopes for becoming a pianist. The batory pulls away, the foghorn emits its lowing, shofar sound, but my being is engaged in a stubborn refusal to move. My parents put their hands on my shoulders consolingly; for a moment, they allow themselves to acknowledge that there’s pain in this departure, much as they wanted it.

Many years later, at a stylish party in New York, I met a woman who told me that she had an enchanted childhood. Her father was a highly positioned diplomat in an Asian country, and she had lived surrounded by sumptuous elegance….No wonder, she said, that when this part of her life came to an end, at age thirteen, she felt she had been exiled from paradise, and had been searching for it ever since.

(原文出自NY TIMES,Death Of A Farm)

Farms go out of business for many reasons, but few farms do merely because the soil has failed. That is the miracle of farming. If you care for the soil, it will last — and yield — nearly forever. America is such a young country that we have barely tested that. For most of our history, there has been new land to farm, and we still farm as though there always will be.

Still, there are some very old farms out there. The oldest is the Tuttle farm, near Dover, N.H., which is also one of the oldest business enterprises in America. It made the news last week because its owner — a lineal descendant of John Tuttle, the original settler — has decided to go out of business. It was founded in 1632. I hear its sweet corn is legendary.

The year 1632 is unimaginably distant. In 1632, Galileo was still publishing, and John Locke was born. There were perhaps 10,000 colonists in all of America, only a few hundred of them in New Hampshire. The Tuttle acres, then, would have seemed almost as surrounded as they do in 2010, but by forest instead of highways and houses.

It was a precarious operation at the start — as all farming was in the new colonies—and it became precarious enough again in these past few years to peter out at last. The land is protected by a conservation easement so it can’t be developed, but no one knows whether the next owner will farm it.

In a letter on their Web site, the Tuttles cite “exhaustion of resources” as the reason to sell the farm. The exhausted resources they list include bodies, minds, hearts, imagination, equipment, machinery and finances. They do not mention soil, which has been renewed and redeemed repeatedly. It’s as though the parishioners of the First Parish Church in nearby Dover — erected nearly 200 years later, in 1829 — had rebuilt the structure on the same spot every few years.

It is too simple to say, as the Tuttles have, that the recession killed a farm that had survived for nearly 400 years. What killed it was the economic structure of food production. Each year it has become harder for family farms to compete with industrial scale agriculture — heavily subsidized by the government — underselling them at every turn. In a system committed to the health of farms and their integration with local communities, the result would have been different. In 1632, and for many years after, the Tuttle farm was a necessity. In 2010, it is suddenly superfluous, or so we like to pretend.

(原文出自IOL. org,有改动)

The global youth unemployment rate has reached its highest level on record, and is expected to increase through 2010, the International Labour Organization (ILO) says in a new report that was issued to coincide with the launch of the UN International Youth Year.

The report: ILO Global Employment Trends for Youth 2010 says that of some 620 million economically active youth aged 15 to 24 years, 81 million were unemployed at the end of 2009 -- the highest number ever. This is 7.8 million more than the global number in 2007. The youth unemployment rate increased from 11.9 percent in 2007 to 13.0 percent in 2009.

The global youth unemployment rate is expected to continue its increase through 2010, to 13.1 per cent, followed by a moderate decline to 12.7 per cent in 2011. The report also points out that the unemployment rates of youth have proven to be more sensitive to the crisis than the rates of adults and that the recovery of the job market for young men and women is likely to lag behind that of adults.

It adds that these trends will have “significant consequences for young people as upcoming cohorts of new entrants join the ranks of the already unemployed" and warns of the "risk of a crisis legacy of a ‘lost generation’ comprised of young people who have dropped out of the labour market, having lost all hope of being able to work for a decent living".

The ILO report points out that in developing economies, youth are more vulnerable to underemployment and poverty.

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