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全面加强知识产权保护工作 激发创新活力推动构建新发展格局

求是 2021-05-09 86次

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全面加强知识产权保护工作 激发创新活力推动构建新发展格局

Stepping Up Intellectual Property Rights Protection to Stimulate Innovative Vigor for Fostering a New Development Dynamic

习近平

Xi Jinping

今天,中央政治局进行第二十五次集体学习,内容是加强我国知识产权保护工作。党的十九届五中全会《建议》对加强知识产权保护工作提出明确要求。安排这次学习,目的是认清我国知识产权保护工作的形势和任务,总结成绩,查找不足,提高对知识产权保护工作重要性的认识,从加强知识产权保护工作方面,为贯彻新发展理念、构建新发展格局、推动高质量发展提供有力保障。

Today, the Political Bureau of the Central Committee is holding its 25th group study session on the topic of stepping up intellectual property (IP) protection efforts. Explicit requirements in this regard were put forward in the proposals made at the Fifth Plenary Session of the 19th CPC Central Committee. The purpose of this group study session is for us to get a sense of the status of China’s IP protection efforts and the tasks therein, to review achievements that have been made, and to feel out areas where improvements are needed. This session also aims to elevate our awareness of the importance of IP protection work, so that we can provide strong guarantees for implementing the new development philosophy, fostering a new development dynamic, and promoting high-quality development by stepping up efforts on this level.

创新是引领发展的第一动力,保护知识产权就是保护创新。全面建设社会主义现代化国家,必须更好推进知识产权保护工作。知识产权保护工作关系国家治理体系和治理能力现代化,只有严格保护知识产权,才能完善现代产权制度、深化要素市场化改革,促进市场在资源配置中起决定性作用、更好发挥政府作用。知识产权保护工作关系高质量发展,只有严格保护知识产权,依法对侵权假冒的市场主体、不法分子予以严厉打击,才能提升供给体系质量、有力推动高质量发展。知识产权保护工作关系人民生活幸福,只有严格保护知识产权,净化消费市场、维护广大消费者权益,才能实现让人民群众买得放心、吃得安心、用得舒心。知识产权保护工作关系国家对外开放大局,只有严格保护知识产权,才能优化营商环境、建设更高水平开放型经济新体制。知识产权保护工作关系国家安全,只有严格保护知识产权,才能有效保护我国自主研发的关键核心技术、防范化解重大风险。

Innovation is the primary driver of development, and protecting IP means protecting innovation. For China to become a strong and fully modern socialist country, it is imperative that we make further progress in IP protection. IP protection has a bearing upon a number of key issues. First, it bears upon the modernization of our national governance system and capacity. Only by rigorously protecting IP can we build a modern property rights system, further reforms for the market-based allocation of factors, and ensure that the market plays the decisive role in resource distribution while the government better plays its role. Second, it bears upon high-quality development. Only by rigorously protecting IP and cracking down hard on market entities and law-breakers that engage in infringement and counterfeiting can we raise the quality of the supply system and push forward high-quality development. Third, it bears upon the happiness and wellbeing of the people. Only by rigorously protecting IP, ridding the consumer market of ill practices, and safeguarding the rights and interests of consumers can we ensure that the people feel at ease about the products they buy and consume. Fourth, it bears upon the big picture of China’s opening up to the outside world. Only by rigorously protecting IP can we improve the business environment and build a new, more open economic system. Fifth, it bears upon national security. Only by rigorously protecting IP can we safeguard indigenous Chinese R&D on core technologies in key fields and forestall and defuse major risks.

党的十八大以来,我多次强调,要建立高效的知识产权综合管理体制,打通知识产权创造、运用、保护、管理、服务全链条,推动形成权界清晰、分工合理、责权一致、运转高效的体制机制;要实行严格的知识产权保护制度,提高知识产权审查质量和审查效率,坚决依法惩处侵犯合法权益特别是侵犯知识产权行为,引入惩罚性赔偿制度,显著提高侵权代价和违法成本,震慑违法侵权行为,等等。

Since our 18th National Congress in 2012, I have repeatedly stressed that we need to establish an efficient system for comprehensive management of IP protection, delve into every link in the IP chain including creation, application, protection, management, and services, and push for the formation of systems and mechanisms that operate at high efficiency and feature clearly-defined boundaries of authority, reasonable division of functions, and consistent rights and responsibilities.

I have also stressed that we need to put a strict IP protection system in place, boost the quality and efficiency of related investigations, firmly punish infringements of lawful rights and interests, especially intellectual property rights, in accordance with the law, introduce a punitive compensation system, and make the consequences for breaking the law and violating the rights of others much more severe in order to deter people from engaging in such behavior.

我国知识产权保护工作,新中国成立后不久就开始了。1950年,我国就颁布了《保障发明权与专利权暂行条例》、《商标注册暂行条例》等法规,对实施专利、商标制度作出了初步探索。党的十一届三中全会以后,我国知识产权工作逐步走上正规化轨道。

Work on IP protection in China began not long after the founding of the PRC. In 1950, laws and regulations including provisional regulations for the protection of invention and patent rights and for the registration of trademarks were promulgated, which represented the first steps in establishing corresponding systems. China’s IP protection work later moved toward greater standardization after the Third Plenary Session of the 11th CPC Central Committee in 1978.

党的十八大以来,党中央把知识产权保护工作摆在更加突出的位置,出台了《深入实施国家知识产权战略行动计划(2014—2020年)》、《国务院关于新形势下加快知识产权强国建设的若干意见》、《“十三五”国家知识产权保护和运用规划》等系列决策部署。在这次党和国家机构改革中,我们组建了国家市场监管总局,重新组建了国家知识产权局,实现了专利、商标、原产地地理标志等知识产权类别的集中统一管理。我们在北京、上海、广州成立知识产权法院,最高人民法院挂牌成立知识产权法庭,审理全国范围内专利等技术类知识产权上诉案件,建成了知识产权专业化审判体系。

Since our 18th National Congress, the Central Committee has made IP protection a more prominent priority, and put forward a series of related decisions and plans including the Action Plan for In-Depth Implementation of the National Intellectual Property Rights Strategy (2014-2020), the Decisions of the State Council on Accelerating China’s Development into a Country Strong on Intellectual Property Rights under the New Situation, and the National Plan for the Protection and Application of Intellectual Property Rights During the 13th Five-Year Plan Period. During the most recent round of reform of Party and state institutions, we set up the State Administration for Market Regulation, reformed the China National Intellectual Property Administration, and brought about centralized, unified management over different categories of IP including patents, trademarks, and geographical indications. We established IP courts in Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou, and the Supreme People’s Court set up a dedicated IP court to hear appeals on patent and other technology-related IP cases from across the country, thus forming a specialized IP trial system.

总的看,我国知识产权事业不断发展,走出了一条中国特色知识产权发展之路,知识产权保护工作取得了历史性成就,知识产权法规制度体系和保护体系不断健全、保护力度不断加强,全社会尊重和保护知识产权意识明显提升,对激励创新、打造品牌、规范市场秩序、扩大对外开放发挥了重要作用。

On the whole, China has made consistent strides in its IP-related undertakings. We have pioneered a Chinese approach to the development of IP rights, and scored historic achievements in our IP protection work. Constant improvements have been made to our IP legal, regulatory, and protection systems, and protections have consistently grown stronger. Now, there is greater respect for, and protection of, IP rights in our whole society. These developments have played an important role in encouraging innovation, forging brands, standardizing the market, and expanding opening up.

同时,我们也要清醒看到不足,主要表现为:全社会对知识产权保护的重要性认识需要进一步提高;随着新技术新业态蓬勃发展,知识产权保护法治化仍然跟不上;知识产权整体质量效益还不够高,高质量高价值知识产权偏少;行政执法机关和司法机关的协调有待加强;知识产权领域仍存在侵权易发多发和侵权易、维权难的现象,知识产权侵权违法行为呈现新型化、复杂化、高技术化等特点;有的企业利用制度漏洞,滥用知识产权保护;市场主体应对海外知识产权纠纷能力明显不足,我国企业在海外的知识产权保护不到位,等等。

At the same time, however, we must also recognize the inadequacies that exist. These are mainly manifested in the following ways: awareness of the importance of protecting IP needs to be further enhanced throughout society; while new technologies and forms of business are developing vigorously, the legal foundations for IP protection have not yet caught up; IP rights remain insufficient in terms of quality and benefit on the whole, with examples of high quality and high value relatively limited; greater coordination is needed between law enforcement and judicial institutions; infringement remains a regular and common occurrence in the field of IP since violating rights is easy while defending them is hard, and unlawful methods in this regard are developing into newer, more complex, and more sophisticated forms; some enterprises take advantage of institutional loopholes and abuse IP protection; and the abilities of market entities to respond to overseas IP disputes are clearly lacking, while IP protections for Chinese enterprises operating abroad are inadequate.

当前,我国正在从知识产权引进大国向知识产权创造大国转变,知识产权工作正在从追求数量向提高质量转变。我们必须从国家战略高度和进入新发展阶段要求出发,全面加强知识产权保护工作,促进建设现代化经济体系,激发全社会创新活力,推动构建新发展格局。

China is currently transforming from a major absorber of IP to a major producer of IP, while the focus of IP-related work is shifting from quantity to quality. Keeping in mind the big picture of our national strategy and the imperatives for entering a new stage of development, we must bolster IP protection work across the board in order to drive the development of a modern economic system, stimulate the innovative vigor of the entire nation, and spur efforts to forge a new development dynamic.

第一,加强知识产权保护工作顶层设计。要准确判断国内外形势新特点,谋划好知识产权保护工作。保护知识产权的目的是激励创新,服务和推动高质量发展,满足人民美好生活需要。要抓紧制定建设知识产权强国战略,研究制定“十四五”时期国家知识产权保护和运用规划,明确目标、任务、举措和实施蓝图。要坚持以我为主、人民利益至上、公正合理保护,既严格保护知识产权,又防范个人和企业权利过度扩张,确保公共利益和激励创新兼得。要加强关键领域自主知识产权创造和储备,部署一批重大改革举措、重要政策、重点工程。

First, we must strengthen top-level design over IP protection work.

We need to effectively plan IP protection by accurately assessing new features on the domestic and international landscapes. The objectives of IP protection are encouraging innovation, serving and promoting high-quality development, and meeting the people’s needs for a better life. We must move quickly to formulate a strategy for turning China into a country strong on IP, develop a national plan for IP protection and application during the 14th Five-Year Plan period, and set forth clear goals, tasks, measures, and blueprints. We must continue to act in our own best interests, put the interests of the people above all else, and defend fairness and equity. While rigorously protecting IP, we must also prevent the rights of individuals and businesses from becoming overextended, thereby safeguarding common interests and encouraging innovation at the same time. We must reinforce the indigenous creation and accumulation of IP in key fields, and make plans for an array of major reforms, policies, and projects.

第二,提高知识产权保护工作法治化水平。完备的知识产权法律法规体系、高效的执法司法体系,是强化知识产权保护的重要保障。要在严格执行民法典相关规定的同时,加快完善相关法律法规,统筹推进专利法、商标法、著作权法、反垄断法、科学技术进步法等修订工作,增强法律之间的一致性。要加强地理标志、商业秘密等领域立法。要强化民事司法保护,研究制定符合知识产权案件规律的诉讼规范。要提高知识产权审判质量和效率,提升公信力。要促进知识产权行政执法标准和司法裁判标准统一,完善行政执法和司法衔接机制。要完善刑事法律和司法解释,加大刑事打击力度。要加大行政执法力度,对群众反映强烈、社会舆论关注、侵权假冒多发的重点领域和区域,要重拳出击、整治到底、震慑到位。

Second, we must reinforce the legal footing of IP protection work.

A complete system of laws and regulations and efficient law enforcement and judicial systems are crucial guarantees for strengthening IP protection. While strictly enforcing related stipulations of the Civil Code, we must work more quickly to refine relevant laws and regulations and push forward revisions of the Patent Law, the Trademark Law, the Copyright Law, the Anti-Monopoly Law, and the Law on Progress of Science and Technology in a coordinated manner in order to boost consistency between different laws. We must enhance legislation in areas including geographical indications and trade secrets. We must strengthen judicial protections concerning civil matters, and develop standards of litigation suited to the underlying patterns of IP cases. We must raise the quality and efficiency of judgments on IP in order to boost their credibility. We must promote the integration of law enforcement standards and judicial standards, and refine mechanisms linking the two sides together. We must improve criminal law and judicial interpretation so as to crack down on criminal behavior with greater intensity. We must step up administrative enforcement, striking hard to root out malignancies and generate effective deterrence in key sectors and regions where public dissatisfaction is strong, the degree of public interest is high, and cases of infringement and counterfeiting are frequent.

第三,强化知识产权全链条保护。知识产权保护是一个系统工程,覆盖领域广、涉及方面多,要综合运用法律、行政、经济、技术、社会治理等多种手段,从审查授权、行政执法、司法保护、仲裁调解、行业自律、公民诚信等环节完善保护体系,加强协同配合,构建大保护工作格局。要打通知识产权创造、运用、保护、管理、服务全链条,健全知识产权综合管理体制,增强系统保护能力。要统筹做好知识产权保护、反垄断、公平竞争审查等工作,促进创新要素自主有序流动、高效配置。要形成便民利民的知识产权公共服务体系,构建国家知识产权大数据中心和公共服务平台,及时传播知识产权信息,让创新成果更好惠及人民。要加强知识产权信息化、智能化基础设施建设,强化人工智能、大数据等信息技术在知识产权审查和保护领域的应用,推动知识产权保护线上线下融合发展。要鼓励建立知识产权保护自律机制,推动诚信体系建设。要加强知识产权保护宣传教育,增强全社会尊重和保护知识产权的意识。

Third, we must bolster IP protection at every link in the chain.

IP protection is a systematic project that covers a wide range of fields and involves many different aspects. It is therefore important that we make comprehensive use of legal, administrative, economic, technical, and social measures to refine the system of protection at different links, including review and authorization, administrative enforcement, judicial safeguards, arbitration and mediation, industry self-regulation, and individual credibility, while simultaneously boosting coordination to establish a strong setup for protection work. We must connect IP creation, application, protection, management, and services together and put in place a comprehensive management structure in order to enhance our capacity for systematic protection. We must coordinate our IP protection, anti-monopoly, and fair play review efforts to ensure that factors for innovation flow in an autonomous and orderly manner and are allocated efficiently. We must form a public IP services system that benefits the people, and set up a national big data center and public service platform for IP to convey related information in a timely manner and ensure that the fruits of innovation reach the people more effectively. We must develop smarter and more IT-based IP infrastructure, increase the application of technologies like artificial intelligence and big data in IP review and protection, and promote integrated development of online and offline IP protection. We must encourage the establishment of self-regulation mechanisms for IP protection, and push forward the development of a credibility system. We must make greater efforts to educate people about IP protection in order to raise awareness of the need to respect and protect these rights throughout society.

第四,深化知识产权保护工作体制机制改革。党的十八大以来,我们在知识产权领域部署推动了一系列改革,要继续抓好落实,做到系统集成、协同推进。要研究实行差别化的产业和区域知识产权政策,完善知识产权审查制度。要健全大数据、人工智能、基因技术等新领域新业态知识产权保护制度,及时研究制定传统文化、传统知识等领域保护办法。要深化知识产权审判领域改革创新,健全知识产权诉讼制度,完善技术类知识产权审判,抓紧落实知识产权侵权惩罚性赔偿制度。要健全知识产权评估体系,改进知识产权归属制度,研究制定防止知识产权滥用相关制度。

Fourth, we must deepen reform of systems and mechanisms related to IP protection work.

Since our 18th National Congress, we have planned and promoted a series of reforms in the realm of IP. We need to keep focused on implementing these reforms, and achieve integration and coordinated progress. We must design and implement differentiated IP policies for discrete industries and regions, and refine the IP review system. We must improve the IP protection system for emerging fields and forms of business such as big data, artificial intelligence, and gene technology, while also developing methods of protection for areas such as traditional culture and knowledge in a timely manner. We must continue the reform and innovation in the realm of IP trials, develop the IP litigation system, improve the adjudication of technology-related IP cases, and move quickly to put a punitive compensation system for IP infringement in place. We must consolidate the IP assessment system, improve rules on ownership of IP, and develop relevant systems for preventing the abuse of IP rights.

第五,统筹推进知识产权领域国际合作和竞争。知识产权是国际竞争力的核心要素,也是国际争端的焦点。我们要敢于斗争、善于斗争,决不放弃正当权益,决不牺牲国家核心利益。要秉持人类命运共同体理念,坚持开放包容、平衡普惠的原则,深度参与世界知识产权组织框架下的全球知识产权治理,推动完善知识产权及相关国际贸易、国际投资等国际规则和标准,推动全球知识产权治理体制向着更加公正合理方向发展。要拓展影响知识产权国际舆论的渠道和方式,讲好中国知识产权故事,展示文明大国、负责任大国形象。要深化同共建“一带一路”沿线国家和地区知识产权合作,倡导知识共享。

Fifth, we must promote international cooperation and competition in the IP domain.

Intellectual property is a core factor for competitiveness on the international stage, as well a focal point of international dispute. We need to have the courage and the capacity to stand up for ourselves in this regard, and refuse to yield our legitimate rights and interests or jeopardize our core national interests. We must uphold the vision of a global community with a shared future, remain committed to the principles of openness, inclusiveness, balance, and universal benefit, play a deeper role in global IP governance under the framework of the World Intellectual Property Organization, push for the improvement of international rules and standards on IP as well as related trade and investment, and drive development of the global IP governance system in a more just and equitable direction. We must broaden channels and adopt more methods for international communication on IP, effectively convey China’s efforts in this regard to the world, and build our image as a great civilization and a responsible major country. We must deepen IP-related cooperation with countries and territories along the Belt and Road, and advocate the sharing of knowledge.

第六,维护知识产权领域国家安全。我讲过,知识产权对外转让要坚持总体国家安全观。要加强事关国家安全的关键核心技术的自主研发和保护,依法管理涉及国家安全的知识产权对外转让行为。要完善知识产权反垄断、公平竞争相关法律法规和政策措施,形成正当有力的制约手段。要推进我国知识产权有关法律规定域外适用,完善跨境司法协作安排。要形成高效的国际知识产权风险预警和应急机制,建设知识产权涉外风险防控体系,加大对我国企业海外知识产权维权援助。

Sixth, we must defend our national security in the IP domain.

As I have said before, the overall security of our nation must be taken into consideration in international transfers of our IP. We must enhance indigenous R&D and protection of core technologies in key fields that have a bearing on national security, and control international transfers of IP that touch upon national security in accordance with the law. We must refine laws, regulations, and policy measures that counter monopolies and ensure fair competition in IP, and develop forceful and appropriate methods of constraint. We must promote the application of Chinese laws and regulations on IP abroad, and make better arrangements for cross-border judicial cooperation. We must form highly efficient early warning and response mechanisms for international risks and emergencies related to IP, set up systems for preventing and controlling IP risks involving foreign parties, and provide greater support to Chinese enterprises in protecting their IP overseas.

各级党委和政府要落实责任,强化知识产权工作相关协调机制,重视知识产权人才队伍建设,形成工作合力,坚决打击假冒侵权行为,坚决克服地方保护主义。各级领导干部要增强知识产权意识,加强学习,熟悉业务,增强新形势下做好知识产权保护工作的本领,既学会运用知识产权保护制度推动经济社会高质量发展,又学会利用知识产权保护制度开展国际合作和竞争,推动我国知识产权保护工作不断迈上新的台阶。

Party committees and governments at all levels must fulfill their responsibilities, strengthen coordinating mechanisms related to IP efforts, place emphasis on the development of IP talent, and form synergy to crack down on counterfeiting and infringement and to overcome regional protectionism. Meanwhile, leading officials at all levels must study more diligently and familiarize themselves with relevant business activities to become more conscious of IP rights and more capable of protecting them under the new situation. By learning how to apply IP protection systems to promote high-quality economic and social development, and how to leverage these systems in international cooperation and competition, we will push IP protection in China to new heights.

这是习近平总书记2020年11月30日在十九届中央政治局第二十五次集体学习时讲话的主要部分。

(This was the main part of a speech made by General Secretary Xi Jinping at the 25th group study session of the Political Bureau of the 19th CPC Central Committee on November 30, 2020.)

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