国新办 2021-06-07 66次
Ladies and gentlemen, good morning. On the occasion of the 70th anniversary of Tibet's peaceful liberation, we have invited Mr. Wu Yingjie, secretary of the Tibet Autonomous Regional Committee of the Communist Party of China (CPC), and Mr. Qizhala, deputy secretary of the CPC Tibet Autonomous Regional Committee and chairman of the Tibet autonomous region to today's press conference. They will brief you about the economic and social development of the autonomous region and answer your questions.
Next, I will give the floor to Mr. Wu.
Thank you, Mr. Chen. Friends from the media, ladies and gentlemen, good morning. It's a great pleasure to meet you. Thank you for your long-term interest in and support for Tibet. Also, thank you for attending this press conference on the weekend.
The CPC Central Committee has always attached great importance to the development of Tibet and shown great care for the people of all ethnic groups in the region. In the past 70 years, the CPC peacefully liberated Tibet, carried out democratic reform, established the socialist system, pressed ahead with reform and opening-up, and implemented the Party's policies on ethnic and religious affairs. The CPC Central Committee has held seven central symposiums on Tibet work, formulating and adopting a series of major principles, policies and measures. The central government has set aside a total of 1.63 trillion yuan, and partner provinces and municipalities have provided 69.3 billion yuan to Tibet in recent years to support the region's development. Among this, more than 590 billion yuan was channeled into the construction of major projects including the Sichuan-Tibet Highway, the Qinghai-Tibet Railway, Gongkar Airport in Lhasa, and the Zam Hydropower Station. These efforts have propelled Tibet's economic and social development, created miracles of progress, and profoundly transformed the region. Since the 18th CPC National Congress, General Secretary Xi Jinping has set the direction and made overall plans for the development of Tibet. He delivered related speeches and gave important instructions on various occasions, presided over two central symposiums on Tibet work, proposed guidelines for governing Tibet in the new era, made dedicated action plans and drew up an overall strategic blueprint. With General Secretary Xi's support, Tibet has resolved many long-standing hard problems, achieved many notable successes that were unimaginable in the past, and made all-round progress in all endeavors.
The past 70 years has witnessed solid progress in enhancing socialist democracy. The people of Tibet broke free from the fetters of invading imperialism for good, abolished Tibet's feudal theocratic serfdom, and liberated millions of serfs, bringing historic changes to Tibetan society. In the new era, we have been actively developing socialist democracy, promoting comprehensive law-based governance of Tibet, and consolidating and developing the patriotic united front. Among deputies to the National People's Congress and members of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference from Tibet, more than 75% and 90%, respectively, are from Tibetan and other ethnic minority groups. We have formulated 44 local regulations in recent five years. People of all ethnic groups in Tibet enjoy extensive democratic rights, participate in the management of state and social affairs in accordance with the law, and love and support General Secretary Xi Jinping and the CPC Central Committee from the bottom of their heart.
The past 70 years has witnessed an increasingly stable social environment. We have firmly adhered to the central authorities' policies on the fight against the 14th Dalai Lama and his supporters, intensified the anti-separatism battle, and continued to expose the "reactionary nature" of the 14th Dalai group, vigorously safeguarding national security and social stability. In the new era, we have adopted a holistic approach to national security and increased our awareness of potential dangers. With focus on safeguarding national unity and promoting ethnic solidarity, we have taken preventive measures, cracked down on all kinds of separatist, infiltration and sabotage activities, and comprehensively enhanced our ability and the quality of law-based governance. The people of all ethnic groups in Tibet have become more active in maintaining stability. The social environment has maintained long-term stability on every front, with people's satisfaction regarding security above 99%.
The past 70 years has witnessed new approaches being adopted for work related to ethnic and religious affairs. We have fully implemented the Party's policies on ethnic and religious affairs, heightened public awareness of ethnic unity and progress, and overseen religious affairs in accordance with the law. Socialist ethnic relations featuring equality, unity, mutual assistance and harmony have been continuously enhanced. Freedom of religious belief and normal religious activities have been protected in accordance with the law. In the new era, we have taken "forging a strong sense of community for the Chinese nation" as our main task. We have formulated regulations and plans on building model areas for ethnic unity and progress, carried out a publicity and education campaign on the history of the relationship between Tibet and the rest of the motherland, and vigorously promoted communication and exchanges between different ethnic groups. The "five identities" (meaning that the people of all ethnic groups recognize the great motherland, the Chinese nation, Chinese culture, the CPC, and socialism with Chinese characteristics) have been strengthened among people of all ethnic groups and the notion that all ethnic groups in China, including the Han and minority groups, are interdependent has been fully adopted. We have been developing religions in the Chinese context and putting more emphasis on guidance. No tolerance is shown in eliminating the negative influence of the 14th Dalai Lama's use of religion. We have been guiding believers to take a rational attitude towards religions and diminish their negative influence. Policies and regulations on the management of the reincarnation of living Buddhas have become deeply rooted in people's hearts. Governance in the field of religion has gained understanding and support from believers. More and more believers are changing from "pursuing rebirth" to "living this life well." Religions are increasingly adapting themselves to the socialist society.
The past 70 years has witnessed rapid and sound economic and social development. Tibet's GDP surged from 129 million yuan in 1951 to 190.27 billion yuan in 2020, a 322.5-fold increase in comparable terms. In the new era, we have been focusing on improving people's lives and strengthening unity in socioeconomic development. Based on the new development stage, we have been following the new development philosophy, integrating into the new development paradigm, and properly handling the "13 relationships." The regional economy is transiting from high-speed growth to high-quality development. Efforts to construct major projects such as the Sichuan-Tibet Railway are picking up pace. All the counties, townships and villages have been connected to the road network, with the length totaling 118,800 km. Tibet now has 140 domestic and international air routes in operation, reaching 66 cities. The Qinghai-Tibet, Sichuan-Tibet and Ngari prefecture-central Tibet power grid interconnection projects have been completed, with the main power grid covering all counties and major townships, and the total installed power capacity reaching 4.23 million kilowatts. A total of 99% of administrative villages have access to 4G network and optical cable broadband. The construction of all well-off border villages has been completed. We are vigorously developing businesses that leverage local strengths. Our annual grain yield has exceeded 1 million metric tons. In the past, livestock was available for slaughter during a certain season, but now is available year-round. The tourism industry is booming.
The past 70 years have witnessed an overall improvement in living standards of the people. We have always stood in the position of the people and made great efforts to improve their lives. The disposable income per capita of rural residents reached 14,598 yuan last year, an increase of more than 416 times than in 1959 when it was 35 yuan. In the new era, we have insisted on people-centered development, focusing our efforts on people's livelihoods. In the past, the question was if the people were living well, and now the question is if the people are living a better life. All ethnic groups have felt the growing sense of gain, happiness and security. All the 628,000 impoverished people and all the 74 poverty-stricken counties and districts have been lifted out of poverty. We have deepened the implementation of the 15-year publicly-funded compulsory education. Last year, the completion rate for compulsory education has reached 95.03%, and new entrants to the region's workforce have an average of 13.1 years of education. The employment rate of higher-education graduates reached 99%. We have built a social security system that covers both urban and rural residents. The coverage rate of old age insurance surpassed 95%. Groups of medical professionals made a lot of effort to aid Tibet. There are health centers in every township and clinics in every village. Endemic diseases, such as echinococcosis, Kashin-Beck disease, congenital heart disease, and cataracts, have been eradicated or brought under effective prevention and control. Major results have been gained in the prevention and control of the Covid-19 pandemic. The average life expectancy has risen to 71.1 years. Public cultural undertakings have seen continued development, villages/communities have organized art groups to offer performances and towns/townships have built comprehensive cultural centers. The coverage rates of radio and television have both surpassed 99%.
Over the past 70 years, we have seen remarkable results in eco-environmental protection. When planning economic and social development, we have always planned for the protection and improvement of the ecology and environment at the same time. We proactively advanced projects regarding the protection of natural forests, reclaiming forests from farmlands, and reclaiming grasslands from grazing lands. The undertaking of environment protection continued to make progress and the ecology and environment kept on improving. In the new era, we cemented the belief that lucid waters and lush mountains are invaluable assets, as are the scenic sights of ice and snow. We formulated the Regulations on Developing Ecological Highlands in the Tibet Autonomous Region and we expedited the implementation of plans to protect and improve the environmental safety barriers in Tibet. We coordinated the systematic treatment of mountains, rivers, forests, farmlands, lakes, grasslands and sand lands. We pushed for the construction of various nature reserves and gave no access to enterprises and projects with high pollution, high energy consumption and high water consumption. We stopped approving new prospecting rights and mining rights. Great efforts were made to plant new trees. In terms of eco-environment improvement, we used to focus on protection, but now our practices have become more proactive. The environment has been improved. The sky is bluer, mountains are greener, and waters are clearer. A total of 1,079 villages and 105,000 households have ended their history of being deforested. The forestation rate reached 12.31%. The water quality of key rivers and lakes reached Class III or above, and the rate of good air quality days in cities at prefecture level and above reached 99.4%. Tibet has become one of the places with the best ecological environments in the world.
Over the past 70 years, the Party has continued to reinforce itself. We continued to advance new great projects to strengthen the Party. The number of primary-level Party organizations increased from 57 in 1952 to 21,900. The number of Party members grew from 877 to more than 410,000, with ethnic minorities taking up 81.36% of the total. Meanwhile, the number of cadres rose from 1,791 to 204,700. In the new era, we implemented the general requirements and the organizing principles of reinforcing the Party. We have firmly established the socialist ideals and beliefs with Chinese characteristics and the ideas of life-long learning, and have continue to research further reforms and innovations. We thoroughly comprehended and implemented Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era. The great thought has been engraved in the hearts of all ethnic groups. We strictly implemented the requirements for a good cadre in the new era and requirements for cadres working in regions inhabited by ethnic groups to be particularly sober-minded when dealing with major issues of principle, to safeguard ethnic solidarity with particularly firm actions, and to cherish cordial love for all ethnic groups. We comprehensively enhanced the leadership and cadres at all levels. We vigorously promoted the time-tested "Old Tibetan spirit," the "two roads" spirit that has been shaped in the construction and maintenance of the Sichuan-Tibet Road and Qinghai-Tibet Road, and the spirit of Kong Fansen, a model of the leading cadres who died on duty when working in Tibet. Party organizations and Party members and cadres at all levels have become a powerful political force that has led all ethnic groups to manage risks, conquered difficulties and challenges, and served the people with all their hearts. We have done more regarding the CPC history learning and education, and have done more than 100,000 practical things for the public. We made great efforts to consolidate the primary-level Party organizations which were weak and lax, prioritizing the improvement of organizations and emphasizing their political functions. The Party branch committees and the villagers' committees are now completely comprised of Party members. In agricultural and pastoral areas, the primary-level Party organizations have been acting as anti-separatism strongholds, striving to maintain ethnic unity, and leading the people to achieve prosperity. These primary-level Party organizations follow the Party's guidance and know how to maintain solidarity whiling boosting growth. They have gained the capability to bring prosperity while maintaining stability, and can function effectively and sensibly when facing critical events. The Party's governing status in Tibet has been further cemented. We have deepened the efforts to strengthen the working style of the Party, build a clean and honest administration, and fight against corruption. We have created a sound and healthy political ecosystem.
Over the past 70 years, we have gotten through difficulties and gained fruitful results. Since the peaceful liberation of Tibet, we have attained many successes and glorious achievements, which fully display the brilliance and greatness of the CPC, and shows the unparalleled advantage of the socialism with Chinese characteristics, the strong vitality of the system of regional ethnic autonomy, and the huge strength of the Party's guidelines for governing Tibet when practiced. The cadres and masses of all ethnic groups in Tibet have felt for themselves the care and love of the CPC Central Committee, the warmth of the motherland as a big family, and the profound feelings of friendship among the Chinese people. Previous practices have fully demonstrated that without the CPC, there would not be the People's Republic of China, let alone the new socialist Tibet. Tibet's prosperous present and even brighter future requires unswerving insistence on the leadership of the CPC, the socialist system with Chinese characteristics, and the system of regional ethnic autonomy.
The glory of the Party shines across the border region. People who live there look up to the Party. We must unite more closely around the CPC Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core; insist on the Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era as the guidance; and fully implement the Party's guidelines for governing Tibet in the new era. We must better maintain political integrity, think in big-picture terms, follow the leadership core, and stay in alignment with them. We must cement the confidence in the path, theory, system, and culture of socialism with Chinese characteristics; and uphold General Secretary Xi Jinping's core position on the Party Central Committee and in the Party as a whole, and uphold the Party Central Committee's authority and its centralized, unified leadership. We must stay unified and work hard to press ahead. We must resolutely push forward with the four major tasks: comprehensive rural revitalization; seizing the initiative on food security; enhancing the top design and advancing the rural revitalization strategy with more powerful measures and greater strength; and cementing the overall leadership of the Party towards efforts concerning agriculture, rural areas, and farmers. We must make all efforts to ensure national security and long-term peace and stability, the continued improvement of people's living standards, a sound eco-environment, and solidified border defense and border security. We will devote more efforts to building a modern socialist country and realizing the Chinese Dream for the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, in accordance with the arrangements of the seventh Central Symposium on Tibet Work.
This is all for now. Mr. Qizhala and I will answer your questions.
Thank you, Mr. Wu. The floor is now open for questions. Please identify your news outlets before asking questions.
Could you elaborate a bit more on the poverty alleviation projects implemented in Tibet? How many Tibetan people have shaken off poverty over the past ten years? What is the per capita income in Tibet? Also, what infrastructure projects will soon be launched in the region? What are the region's strengths in attracting investment, including foreign investment? Thank you.
Thank you. As we know, due to objective conditions, Tibet has a relatively large poor population and a higher poverty headcount ratio. Thus, poverty alleviation is of great importance in the region. General Secretary Xi Jinping and the CPC Central Committee have paid great attention to this issue in Tibet, identifying the region, in the first place, as the only provincial-level contiguous area of dire poverty amongst all areas of extreme poverty in China. Thanks to the care of General Secretary Xi Jinping and the support from the CPC Central Committee, Tibet has seen uniquely preferential policies, including financial support and projects.
Second, in accordance with the requirements of the CPC Central Committee, we have carried out both similar and different poverty reduction work compared with other regions. Similar to other regions, our Party secretaries of five levels (provincial, municipal, county, township and village) have taken poverty reduction as the top priority. What's different is that based on such a five-level scheme, we also set up poverty reduction command centers at each level, where commanders lead their staff members to implement relevant work with the full support of various departments.
In addition, based on the central government's requirements of assuring adequate food and clothing for those living in poverty and guaranteeing their access to compulsory education, medical care, and safe housing, we have provided more financial resources and projects to the poor as a matter of priority. In terms of other efforts, we also make full use of assistance projects in Tibet, applying 80 to 90% of their financial resources to reducing poverty.
We have been making efforts in the following aspects. First, we have strengthened the support of industries, introduced incentive policies, prioritized employment, provided support via assistance projects, and strengthened social security to better meet people's basic needs. Of course, there are many other efforts in this regard, and frontline officials and CPC members have all been dedicated to the course.
Second, all the 628,000 poor people in the Tibet autonomous region have been lifted out of poverty. Of this total, 266,000 people have been relocated from inhospitable areas, which is due to the special favorable policies introduced by the central government. All 74 impoverished counties have shaken off poverty. We also want to share with you that Tibet has achieved excellent performance in the central government's rigorous evaluation for poverty alleviation. We have been one of the regions to receive excellent evaluation remarks over the past five years. In terms of per capita income, the per capita disposable income of rural residents in Tibet amounted to 14,598 yuan in 2020, up by 12.7% year-on-year, achieving a two-digit growth for 18 consecutive years. The growth rate has been basically kept above 13% for the past five years, ranking among the top in China.
Third, during the 14th Five-Year Plan period, with the assistance of the CPC Central Committee and all Chinese people, Tibet will work in accordance with the requirements of the central government to carry out projects concerning new infrastructure. As we know, the world-renowned Sichuan-Tibet Railway project has started construction in a bid to promote the development of Tibet. In addition, the region's utilization of water resources has become a national focus and is in the process of analysis. We are also working on new infrastructure projects to boost industries that leverage local strengths in terms of rural revitalization.
Fourth, in terms of foreign investment, Tibet has been provided with uniquely preferential policies since its peaceful liberation. This includes many policies that apply to both domestic and foreign businesses. We welcome foreign investment to start businesses in Tibet. Of course, due to the special objective conditions in Tibet, although it is our great hope to attract foreign investment, the reality of our utilization of foreign capital is not good enough currently compared with other regions. We need to improve our conditions accordingly to better make use of foreign capital. Currently, utilization of foreign investment has reached about $400 million. Thank you.
My question is about the 14th Five-Year Plan of the Tibet autonomous region. What will the total investment be during this period? How many investments will be added compared to the 13th Five-Year Plan period? What are the key areas of investment? Thank you.
I'm glad to answer your question. As Mr. Wu mentioned just now, the CPC Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core has attached great importance to the work concerning Tibet and care for people of all ethnic groups in Tibet. General Secretary Xi Jinping also personally planned and deployed the seventh Central Symposium on Tibet Work. The symposium drew up the blueprints for building a new modern socialist Tibet, providing the fundamental basis for us to formulate the 14th Five-Year Plan and set the long-range objectives through the year 2035.
Tibet's main targets for economic and social development in the 14th Five-Year Plan period are as follows. We will work continuously to maintain overall social stability. We will firmly take the initiative in the overall battle against secession. We will work to further forge a strong sense of community among the Chinese people in Tibet. We will pursue new progress in the development of Tibetan Buddhism in the Chinese context. We will also work to maintain a sound momentum for economic growth. By the end of the 14th Five-Year Plan period, the per capita disposable income of urban and rural residents in Tibet will reach or stay close to the national average; the main indicators of basic public services will stay close to the national average; the institutional framework for ecological conservation will be further improved; the strategic support capacity for border defense will be comprehensively improved; and the foundation of the Party's governance in Tibet will be further strengthened. As such, Tibet will work to ensure a good start for the new journey toward socialist modernization and basically achieve socialist modernization with the rest of China by the year 2035.
During the 13th Five-Year Plan period, central authorities planned to allocate an investment of 380.7 billion yuan in Tibet. The actual investment reached 393.7 billion yuan, accounting for 103.4% of the planned investment during the 13th Five-Year Plan period, which actually outstripped the overall projected target made by the central authorities. The achievements we made by carrying out the plans are just like what General Secretary Xi Jinping stressed at the seventh Central Symposium on Tibet Work. Many farmers and herdsmen in the region now enjoy much better lives thanks to easier access to water, electricity, and transportation. The investment in infrastructure construction has a direct bearing on improving people's wellbeing. On May 16, the second passageway opened to traffic in Medog county, which was previously the last Chinese county to not have access to highways. In the past, it was quite hard to enter Medog county in winter. Then we built a highway in the county. However, there still remain traffic restrictions based on even- and odd-numbered license plates. By opening the second highway, it takes less than four hours from surrounding areas with altitudes of 1,200 meters to Linzhi, which has an altitude of 3,000 meters, making life for people of all ethnic groups more convenient.
During the 14th Five-Year Plan period, we will see a significant investment increase compared to what we saw during the 13th Five-Year Plan period. Investment during the 14tht Five-Year Plan period will mainly focus on four aspects. First, ecological conservation. Many major rivers originate in Tibet. Investment in ecological conservation should focus on fully implementing the philosophy for green development made by General Secretary Xi Jinping, which is "lucid waters and lush mountains are invaluable assets and so are ice and snow." This is a big investment. Second, we will also focus on people's well-being. We will work to strengthen weak links and narrow the gaps in people's livelihoods. Third, we will take stock of social governance. Tibet is a large region with a small population. We should increase investment in this regard. Fourth, we will work on the construction of the border areas. We will keep investing in this aspect and work effectively. Based on actual investment during the 13th Five-Year Plan period, we will maintain a relatively rapid growth of investment in infrastructure construction during the 14th Five-Year Plan period, which is a fundamental investment. We firmly believe that, with the support from all ministries and people across the country, the investment in infrastructure construction during the 14th Five-year Plan period will play a pivotal role in advancing the economic and social development of Tibet. Tibet will also enjoy greater progress in terms of improving the environment and people's livelihoods, consolidating poverty alleviation achievements, and rural vitalization. Thanks.
The fine traditional culture of Tibet is the treasure in the garden of Chinese culture. How will the innovation-driven development of the fine traditional culture of Tibet be carried forward? Thanks.
Thanks. Mr. Wu just mentioned this. Tibetan culture is a major part of Chinese culture. The fine culture of Tibet has long been developed and carried forward as a major part of Chinese culture. Chinese culture has always provided a mental bond connecting all ethnic groups in Tibet and a sense of belonging for them. Tibetan Buddhism is also a major part of Chinese culture. The idea that Tibetan culture is a major part of Chinese culture is also increasingly and deeply rooted in the hearts of the people in Tibet. The relationship between the two cultures is like the mother-child relationship. The sense of identity has grown stronger. Especially since the 18th CPC National Congress in 2012, the CPC Central Committee designated Tibet as the place of unique folk cultures, offering great support in terms of finance, policy, technologies, and talent resources, which significantly pushed forward the outstanding traditional culture to keep pace with the times and helped the region pursue innovation and integrated development while discarding unwanted elements and selecting other essential parts at the same time.
First, efforts have been made to protect places of unique folk culture in all respects. The Tibet autonomous region has formulated the Regulation of Tibet Autonomous Region on the Protection of Cultural Relics, Regulations on the Protection of Old Town of Lhasa, Measures of the Tibet Autonomous Region for the Protection and Management of the Potala Palace, and other laws and regulations. They have provided an institutional guarantee for protecting and carrying forward the fine traditional culture in Tibet. Traditional ethnic culture has been carried forward effectively. The state and the autonomous region have invested more than five billion yuan, excluding the investment in infrastructure, in the protection and renovation of 55 sites under state protection and over 610 sites under regional protection. For example, the Party and the state attach great importance to the protection of the Potala Palace's cultural relics. As world cultural heritage sites, the Potala Palace and the Barkhor Street are the major areas that attract global attention. We have strengthened the protection of this area and we are now advancing the launch of the protection of ancient books in the Potala Palace, especially the Pattra-leaf Scripture. There are special funds allocated for that purpose in the central government spending. We are uploading ancient books to an online platform every year and carrying out experiments and research on the equipment for extracting the Pattra-leaf Scripture without causing damage to the original, as well as managing cultural relics archives. Great progress has been made in this regard.
Second, we have built over 70 cultural relics protection units at the state level. Norbulingka has been registered on the UNESCO World Heritage List. Tibetan opera, Gesar, and Lum medicinal bathing of Sowa Rigpa have been included in the UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage List. We have inheritors that have been put on the State and Regional List of Intangible Heritage. And there are special funds to support them. These intangible cultural heritages, combined with the cultural and tourism industry, poverty alleviation work, and rural vitalization, further leverage the role of the inheritors' skills in the new era. For example, the investment in the protection and renovation of Barkhor Street, with Jokhang Temple at its center, cost 1.3 billion yuan. On paired-up assistance for the protection of cultural relics, we have worked on strengthening the security of cultural relics, which raised people's awareness for protecting them. As China promotes a standardized system for the spoken and written Chinese language, Tibetan spoken and written language learning is protected by a set of laws and rules. Tibetan spoken and written language has become the first ethnic minority language in China to meet international standards. We have given new vigor to traditional festivals such as Tibetan New Year, the Shoton Festival, and the Nagqu Horse Racing Festival, and have combined them with public cultural activities based on protection.
Third, the modern cultural services are flourishing in every respect. We have built libraries, people's art halls and museums at all levels, and established comprehensive cultural centers at the county/district level, comprehensive cultural stations at the town/township level and cultural rooms at all administrative villages. The coverage rates of bilingual radio and TV programs have both reached 99%. We are fully promoting the "Beautiful Tibet, Lovely Hometown" project designed to supply high-level cultural products to rural residents, which has greatly enriched people's cultural lives.
Forth, the cultural industry is developing rapidly. A batch of cultural products, including the movie "My Himalaya" and the opera "Princess Wencheng," have been released. People have actively participated in the eight Tibetan operas and various kinds of cultural activities, which are held at Norbulingka in celebration of the traditional Shoton Festival every year. A number of fine traditional cultural and art products have entered regional and national markets and even gone global, boosting the influence and reputation of the traditional Tibetan culture.
As we all know, as the mainstay of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, Tibet has a vulnerable and fragile ecological environment with an average altitude of 4,000 meters above sea level. What measures have been taken to protect the ecological environment of Tibet? What achievements have been made? Thank you.
The ecological environment of Tibet is of great concern to everyone. The CPC Central Committee attaches great importance to ecological and environmental protection in Tibet. The eco-environmental issue in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is an indispensable part in General Secretary Xi Jinping's remarks on eco-environmental protection. As General Secretary Xi said at the Seventh Central Symposium on Tibet Work, conserving the ecology of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is the greatest contribution to the survival and development of the Chinese nation. It requires us to take a responsible attitude toward the history, the people and the world, placing the ecological progress in a more prominent position.
As we all know, the protection of wildlife, rivers and mountains in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is highly relevant to all countries in Asia, rather than being solely an issue for China. Many major rivers originate in Tibet, including the Yarlung Zangbo River, Nujiang River, Jinsha River, Lancang River and many others. Guided by Xi Jinping's Thought on Ecological Progress, we have always regarded ecological and environmental protection as being of the utmost importance. As I mentioned before, first, we are improving all kinds of institutional systems. Over 60 rules and regulations represented by the Regulations on Protecting Environment in Tibet Autonomous Region have been released. These also include opinions on constructing national ecological security shields and promoting ecological conservation. On Jan. 24, lawmakers in the Tibet autonomous region passed the region's first comprehensive regulations on ecological conservation, Regulations on Developing Ecological Highlands in Tibet Autonomous Region, which came into effect on May 1.
Second, we are taking concrete actions to protect the ecological environment in Tibet. The concept of harmonious coexistence between humans and nature has been deeply rooted in the minds of the over 3 million Tibetan compatriots. Therefore, environmental protection has become a tradition in Tibet. The implementation of laws and regulations has further encouraged locals to play their part in protecting the ecological environment. Local governments have also played a role in regulating. The central government has allocated funds to Tibet as well. For example, a total of 4,464 million yuan was invested to establish the river chief and lake chief systems to improve the ecological functions. As a result of the concerted efforts, 11 national nature reserves, four national scenic spots, three national geological parks, nine national forest parks and 22 national wetland parks have been established in the region, with its nature reserves accounting for 38.75% of the region's total land area of 1.2 million square kilometers. So far, Tibet has designated a total of 608,000 square kilometers for ecological conservation, accounting for half of the region's land area. Moreover, we are working hard to meet the newly emerged needs. As modern society is developing so rapidly, much more household waste and sewage is being produced. This requires us to invest more funds in the household waste management and sewage disposal. Pilot programs have been carried out in the areas along rivers. As most of the seven prefectures and cities in Tibet lie along the upstream of rivers, household waste management and sewage disposal are of huge significance for protecting the ecological environment. We will continue to invest in this area every year.
Third, we need to balance environmental protection with economic development. The economy should be developed and the ecology must also be well protected. We have unswervingly followed the path of developing production, making people better-off and maintaining a sound ecological environment. On one hand, we should maintain a proper balance between protecting the ecology and enriching the people. We have improved the transfer payment mechanism for key ecological function zones, the compensation mechanism for forest ecological benefits and the subsidizing mechanism for grassland ecological protection, and also established ecological compensation measures. Furthermore, we have returned a number of areas where wild animals used to live in the past to them. People who lived in sparsely populated areas and regions at very high altitudes have moved to areas with better conditions, richer production materials and better infrastructure. This allowed us to return grasslands and livestock fields to wild animals. Perhaps some of you have been to Tibet. There, we call it "removing livestock to restore the grasslands," and in some places it's called "removing livestock and restoring wild donkeys." Wild animals, especially Tibetan donkeys, are reproducing very quickly now, as are Tibetan antelopes. According to the latest statistics, the population of Tibetan antelopes is now around 300,000. Various wild animals have been brought under protection in Tibet, and their habitats have also been returned to them.
In addition, we have created environment-related employment to help sustain people's lives. Since 2016, we have provided a total of 700,000 jobs in the ecological sector for locals. Many people who used to work cutting down trees are now the ones planting the forests. In places where conditions permit, with the use of science and technology, we have carried out revegetation and afforestation. Trees have been planted in more than 100,000 households in over 1,000 villages, and the results have been relatively good. There is also hope for planting trees at an altitude of over 4,000 meters. We have mainly been planting trees at high altitudes and in areas where many people congregate, such as schools, military bases, government offices and enterprises. Thanks to science and technology, people can enjoy the benefits of vegetation.
After years of efforts, according to the monitoring and evaluation work carried out by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and relevant departments, the overall structure of the various ecosystems in the Tibetan Plateau has been stable, while the ecological quality has also stabilized and improved. Last year, the air quality on over 99.4% of days in prefecture-level cities was classed as "good," and 100% of surface water met the quality standards across the entire region, while the soil was in its natural state. Due to years of protection, the climate in Tibet has also improved. The rainy season in Lhasa came earlier this year, and plants turned green earlier. This has provided local people with a more comfortable living environment. Certainly, we still face great challenges. Global warming has impacted the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, especially bringing challenges to Tibet's glaciers and lakes. We need to attach high attention to them, monitor the changing situation using science and technology, and make timely and effective responses. Thank you.
During the 13th Five-Year Plan period, Tibet proposed that its overall educational development level would be close to the national average by 2020, and basic public education services would be gradually equalized. What measures has Tibet taken to develop its education? What have been the outcomes? Thank you.
Thanks for your attention on education. Like the rest of China, education in Tibet has been comprehensively developed during the 13th Five-Year Plan period. At the sixth and the seventh symposiums on Tibet-related work, General Secretary Xi Jinping stressed that education should be taken as the top priority in promoting the development of various undertakings of the Party and the state. Under the care and guidance of General Secretary Xi, and with support from the whole country, we have continuously prioritized the development of education. A modern education system, covering preschool education, basic education, vocational education, higher education, continuing education and special education, has been basically established in Tibet. The educational rights and interests of the people of all ethnic groups in Tibet have been fully guaranteed.
Especially since the 18th CPC National Congress in 2012, a funding system which covers from preschool education to higher education has been established and improved. Public education has been made available in Tibet. The state has implemented the "three guarantee policy" for Tibetan farmers and herdsmen, and education funds and subsidies have reached over 18 billion yuan. The number of students receiving financial support has reached 11.02 million, and there have been 40 different kinds of support policies. It could be said that in terms of education, the people of all ethnic groups in Tibet have had the best education policies. Therefore, the people's sense of educational benefits has been constantly rising. At present, wherever you go in Tibet, the best buildings are on school campuses, the best sports venues are on school campuses, and the people with the highest education in the region have also been employed by the schools.
In particular, Tibet has implemented special national plans in recent years, carried out special enrollment plans for key universities and special rural areas, and further promoted "sunshine enrollment." First of all, education is fair for students during enrollment, and everyone has been satisfied. This includes the "inland Tibet classes," which have been organized in 17 provinces and cities across the country, including Beijing, Shanghai and Jiangsu province. This has been formed over the years by the Party and the state. The policy of including food, housing and study expenses has been implemented, and the annual amount provided for each student has reached 4,200 yuan. The "sunshine enrollment" has also ensured that every child of farmers and herdsmen enjoys fairness in education.
Seventeen provinces and municipalities, as well as the central government and relevant central government departments, have accelerated their efforts to source and organize groups of educational professionals to aid Tibet. Some schools have even installed these educational professionals as their principals, deans, and key subject teachers. By doing so, the level and quality of education in Tibet have been rapidly promoted. At the same time, we have comprehensively implemented the fundamental task of fostering virtue through education and vigorously carried out education activities with the theme of "what kind of people to cultivate, how to cultivate them, and for whom they are cultivated?" among teachers and students. The education level of Mandarin has been strengthened in an all-round way. Once the nationwide unified textbooks were available, they have been used in the remotest schools in Ali prefecture, and schools in Naqu prefecture with an altitude of 4,800 to 4,900 meters. Balanced development for compulsory education at the county level has been basically achieved, with the gap between county-run primary schools and township-run primary schools within the region constantly narrowing. All primary and secondary schools now offer bilingual education; all primary schools offer math courses; all secondary schools have completed teaching plans for math, physics, chemistry, and biology courses; all secondary schools are offering physical, chemical, and biological experimental courses; and all vocational and technical schools are offering courses prescribed in the national catalog of courses for these schools. As a result, scores for physics and chemistry in the college entrance examination greatly increased both last year and this year, indicating that the overall physics and chemistry education in Tibet has obtained qualitative improvement and upgrading. The task to universalize senior secondary education has been fulfilled on schedule. A total of 1,340 new schools (kindergartens included) have been built. The "Internet Plus Education" model covers all primary and secondary schools and priority has been given to promoting smart education throughout the region. At present, Tibet has 3,195 schools of various types and at various levels, hosting more than 880,000 students. The gross enrollment rate for preschool education has reached 87%, while the enrollment rate in primary schools stands at 99.9%, and the retention rate of compulsory education is 95%.
Education has been improved in line with the progress made for poverty alleviation. In the past, some students were reluctant to return to school after the holidays because they were herding, or because they had missed too many lessons to go picking caterpillar fungus. However, with the fight against poverty, the cadres in villages, townships, and towns kept an eye on all the children in every village. After the holidays, none of the students dropped out of school except for those who were ill. Currently, our education, including preschool education and basic education, is progressing towards a higher level. During the 13th Five-Year Plan period (2016-2020), the University of Tibetan Medicine built a new campus with the support of the central government, which will be home to an incredible research base and platform as well as the training site for doctor degree candidates in China. The Tibetan Technician College's new campus is also under construction and will be fully launched in September this year. More than 1 billion yuan, excluding land acquisition fees, has been invested in each school at a time. Tibet University has made solid progress in building itself into a world-class university and developing world-class disciplines, with the advancement of many national key disciplines now in full swing. All these will provide basic education and talent support for the achievement of targets in Tibet's 14th five-year plan and its long-range goals for 2035. Thank you.
Given the COVID-19 pandemic, the healthcare situation in Tibet is of particular concern. Could you please brief us on the measures Tibet has taken to develop its healthcare services in recent years? What are the achievements? Considering the still grim and complex situation of pandemic prevention and control, what measures has Tibet taken in this regard? Thank you.
Thank you for your care for Tibet's healthcare services. The Party and the government have always attached great importance to the development of medical and health services in Tibet. The past 70 years have witnessed many touching stories about the medical workers in Tibet, known as "menba" in Tibetan. Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China (CPC) in particular, with the care of the CPC Central Committee, Tibet's healthcare sector has been comprehensively improved and basically realized, synchronizing growth with the rest of the country, and the public health level has been significantly upgraded.
First, we have accelerated the establishment of the healthcare service system. A five-level medical and health service network covering districts, cities, counties, townships, and villages has been preliminarily built and a multi-level medical security system has been formed based on the medical system in agricultural and pastoral areas, supplemented by serious illness insurance and supported by medical assistance. The number of healthcare institutions has grown from three before 1951 to 1,642 now, while the number of beds and medical personnel has increased from less than 100 then to 17,000 now and from less than 100 at that time to more than 20,000 now, respectively.
Second, we have continuously increased the level of medical service. By upgrading the training system, organizing groups of medical professionals to aid Tibet, and pairing Grade-A hospitals to provide assistance, we have made it a reality that serious diseases can be treated within the autonomous region, moderate diseases can be handled within the prefectures and cities, and minor illnesses can be addressed within the counties. Screening for tuberculosis, hepatitis, and other diseases has been fully completed. In particular, some endemic diseases which have plagued the people of all ethnic groups in Tibet for thousands of years, such as Kashin-Beck disease, hydatid disease, and high-altitude rheumatism, have had a great impact. In recent years, with the care of the central government, we have stepped up efforts and realized comprehensive diagnosis and treatment of these endemic diseases. For example, the serious endemic Kashin-Beck disease has been largely eliminated through a combination of measures, particularly through the relocation of people from extremely high altitudes. All the people have been relocated from very high altitudes now and the disease has been treated by changing their living environments. Another example is hydatid disease. During the 13th Five-Year Plan period, we set out to eradicate hydatid disease in Tibet by 2020. The goal wouldn't have been realized in three years without the socialist system and the leadership of the CPC. Hydatid disease is transmitted through stray dogs, and shelter centers for stray dogs have been established. All the people in Tibet have been screened for this disease and the central government fully pays for the relevant treatment. The national authorities have confirmed that hydatid disease has been historically eradicated.
Regarding the health of women and children, in the past, due to traditional backward customs, Tibetan women did not go to hospitals for childbirth, their health and hygiene were not good, and the infant and child mortality rate was very high. But now the infant mortality rate has dropped from 430‰ to 7.6‰ and the life expectancy in Tibet averages 71.1 years, the highest when compared to our neighboring regions. It is a human miracle.
Third, we have innovated and developed Tibetan medicine. There are currently three national-level Tibetan medicine regional diagnosis and treatment centers, one Tibetan medicine university, and 17 Tibetan medicine companies. The Tibetan medicinal bathing method was inscribed onto the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity by UNESCO, and the classics of Tibetan medicine such as the Four Medical Classics are included in the Second National List of Intangible Cultural Heritage of China. It can be said that Tibet's medical undertakings have been improved in all respects.
Since the outbreak of COVID-19 last year, General Secretary Xi Jinping, the Party Central Committee and the State Council have provided care and support to the people of all ethnic groups in Tibet. The Party committee and government of the autonomous region have resolutely implemented the guidelines outlined in a series of important speeches and instructions by General Secretary Xi Jinping on epidemic prevention and control. We put the people and their lives above everything else, adopted a science-based approach, and took targeted measures. With all-out effort, the only imported case was treated and discharged, and the Tibet autonomous region was the first to be declared free of COVID-19 in China. Since then, we have continued to strictly prevent the epidemic from resurgence or spread. Since April this year, the epidemic situation in China's neighboring countries has worsened, and we are facing a severe situation of preventing inbound cases. With a 4,000-km long external borderline, Tibet is faced with great pressure from the epidemic situation of surrounding countries. In accordance with the requirements of the Party Central Committee, under the unified deployment of the Party committee of the autonomous region, we analyzed the situation and made full preparations for the worst-case scenario to prevent the epidemic.
We know that the "old Tibetan spirit" and the "two roads spirit" are valuable spiritual assets of the people of all ethnic groups in the new era. During the peaceful liberation of Tibet, the "old Tibetan spirit" and the "two roads spirit" served as important rallying cries. Do the spirits have more profound connotations in the new era? How should Party members and cadres carry forward these spirits? Thank you.
The "old Tibetan spirit" was actually created under harsh circumstances by generations of Party members and cadres, including local ethnic minority cadres. Later, the essence of the spirit was summed up as being tough, brave, devoted, united and resilient. The "two roads spirit" is characterized by facing both hardship and death with great courage, and remaining tenacious and dedicated. General Secretary Xi Jinping has emphasized on many occasions that when working on the plateau, the scarcest thing is oxygen, and the most precious thing is spirit. He requires the Party members and cadres, especially Tibetan cadres, to carry forward the "old Tibetan spirit" and the "two roads spirit", stay committed, spirited, and hardworking when working in the harsh high-altitude region, continuously increase their sense of responsibility and mission, and work to improve their ability and work style.
The "old Tibetan spirit" now has more new profound connotations. I think it mainly refers to putting the people at the center and doing our work well under the guidance of Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era. In the past, we stressed the importance of being able to endure hardship, showing perseverance, and staying united. The current conditions are no longer the same as those in the past. Now transportation is very convenient, and various medical, health care, and infrastructure facilities have undergone great changes. The key tasks now are to implement Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era and the people-centered development philosophy under the new situation; improve people's livelihood and unite people; and maintain steady economic development and preserve the ecological environment. In this regard, we will continue to carry forward the sense of dedication, mission, and responsibility in accordance with the requirements of the Party Central Committee. We will remain true to our original aspiration and keep our mission firmly in mind in Party history learning and education. We will hold firm to our ideals and convictions, fully implement the Party's mass line, address misconduct and refrain from formalism and bureaucracy. The Party members and comrades in Tibet should work together to strengthen our consciousness of the need to maintain political integrity, think in big-picture terms, follow the leadership core, and keep in alignment with the central Party leadership and stay confident in the path, theory, system, and culture of socialism with Chinese characteristics. Despite the special geographical features in Tibet, we will continue to study and implement Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era and the Party Central Committee's decisions and deployments. We will exercise full and rigorous governance over the party and fight against corruption, stand firm to ideals and convictions, and fully implement Party discipline. We will uphold political integrity, carry forward the style of working hard and plain living, fulfill the Party's requirements, strengthen the enforcement of organizational discipline, ensure the principal status of the people, and adhere to the Party's commitment to serving the public good and exercising power in the interests of the people. Taking into account both domestic and international dynamics, we will bear in mind national priorities and make contributions without considering personal gains and losses. In fact, since the 18th CPC National Congress, in accordance with the requirements of General Secretary Xi Jinping, our cadres stationed in villages and temples, and Party members of the post-80s and 90s have all worked on the front line of fighting against COVID-19 and have embodied the new connotation of the "old Tibetan spirit".
China News Service:
The peaceful liberation of Tibet opened up a new path to prosperity and development. How to exercise sound governance over Tibet has become one of the key topics among some scholars. What experience could the Tibet autonomous region share in this regard? Thank you.
This is a good question. During the successful practice of governing, stabilizing, and making Tibet prosperous, we are keenly aware that, to achieve prosperity and development in Tibet, we must first uphold the strong leadership of the CPC. Historically, patriots and righteous people explored suitable paths of development in Tibet. Since the peaceful liberation in 1951, people have realized that only the CPC can lead Tibet to achieve development and prosperity.
Second, we must adhere to socialism with Chinese characteristics, implement the system of regional ethnic autonomy, and pool resources to complete major missions. As I said previously, the achievements in Tibet depend on the efforts of all the ethnic peoples united and led by the CPC Tibet Autonomous Regional Committee and the local government. More importantly, they also rely on the strong leadership of the CPC Central Committee and support from the rest of China. This demonstrates the strengths of China's socialist system. Therefore, the path must be chosen correctly.
Third, we must take a holistic view of national security and safeguard national unity and territorial integrity to ensure Tibet's fundamental interests.
Fourth, we must remain committed to the people-centered philosophy of development. We must keep the aspiration of the people to live a better life as the focus of our efforts and make steady progress towards enhancing people's sense of gain, happiness, and security. Just as Mr. Qizhala and I said previously, since the peaceful liberation in 1951, the Party and the country have never taken even a single cent from Tibet; on the contrary, they have made all efforts to support us. All the ethnic peoples of Tibet have enjoyed special preferential policies that are not enjoyed by people in other parts of China. This demonstrates the implementation of the people-centered philosophy of development in Tibet.
Fifth, we must foster a strong sense of community for the Chinese nation. Tibet has been an integral part of China since ancient times. We must keep in mind a strong sense of community for the Chinese nation and pursue common prosperity and development through uniting and working hand in hand. With support from the CPC Central Committee and the rest of China, people of all ethnic groups in Tibet should also maintain the spirit of self-reliance and diligence.
Sixth, we must uphold the principle that religions in China must be Chinese in orientation. We should clarify that Tibetan Buddhism is part of Chinese culture. On religious affairs, we should adopt policies on the freedom of religious belief, manage religious affairs in accordance with the law, adhere to the principle of independence and self-management, and focus on guiding religions to adapt to the socialist society. A special situation in Tibet is that we always take a clear stand to eliminate the negative influence generated by the 14th Dalai Lama through religious affairs. In the new era, it is important that we guide the public to downplay the negative influence of religion, treat religion rationally and live a happy life in this life.
Seventh, we must strengthen Party building, especially in its political foundations. Over the years, the building of primary-level Party organizations has achieved remarkable progress and the cohesion of people in Tibet has been strengthened. This is mainly attributed to the efforts made by a large number of primary-level Party organizations and officials who are loyal to the Party, engage with the people, and dedicate themselves at grassroots levels. They have done a great deal of work.
Thank you, Mr. Wu, Mr. Qizhala, and friends from the media. This is the end of today's press conference. Goodbye.
2021年6月CATTI二级口译考题，第一篇：国际贸易问题，内容要点：人口老龄化 (aging population)；贸易保护主义 (protectionism)；政策制定者(policymaker)；贸易顺差/逆差 (trade surplus/deficit)。第二篇：亚太森林保护（滥伐问题）
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