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CATTI备考:金砖国家关于加强和改革多边体系的联合声明

外交部 2021-06-08 14次

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BRICS Joint Statement on Strengthening and Reforming the Multilateral System

金砖国家关于加强和改革多边体系的联合声明

1. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs/International Relations of the Federative Republic of Brazil, the Russian Federation, the Republic of India, the People’s Republic of China and the Republic of South Africa met on 1 June 2021 in via Video Conferencing. On the landmark occasion of the 15th anniversary of BRICS, the Ministers espoused their shared values of peace, freedom and rule of law, respect for human rights and democracy as well as a more fair, just, inclusive, equitable and representative multipolar international system, based on international law and the UN Charter, in particular sovereign equality of all States, respect for their territorial integrity and mutual respect for interests and concerns of all.

一、巴西联邦共和国、俄罗斯联邦、印度共和国、中华人民共和国和南非共和国外长于2021年6月1日以视频方式举行会晤。在纪念金砖国家合作15周年之际,外长们表达了支持和平、自由和法治、尊重人权和民主等共同价值观,以及在国际法和《联合国宪章》,特别是坚持主权平等、尊重各国领土完整、相互尊重彼此利益和关切基础上,构建更加公平、公正、包容、平等、更具代表性的多极国际体系。

2. The Ministers noted that the COVID-19 pandemic has, over the past year and a half, manifested itself as one of the most serious global challenges in recent history, wreaking immeasurable political, economic and social damage, and thereby reminding us that in an intertwined world, truly effective and representative multilateralism is no longer an abstract ideal to be evoked in matters of war and peace alone, but an essential tool for ensuring successful governance of matters of everyday life and promoting well-being of people and a sustainable future for the planet. The Ministers reaffirmed that only together could the international community build resilience against future pandemics and other global challenges.

二、外长们注意到,过去一年半时间,新冠肺炎疫情已成为当代历史上最严峻的全球性挑战,对政治、经济和社会造成不可估量的损失。这提醒我们,在一个紧密交织的世界,真正富有效力和代表性的多边主义不再仅仅是战争与和平领域的抽象概念,而是确保成功治理日常事务、增进人民福祉、实现这个星球的可持续未来的关键工具。外长们重申国际社会只有团结一致,才能增强应对未来大流行及其他全球挑战的韧性。

3. The Ministers agreed that the 15th anniversary of BRICS, following soon after the 75th anniversary of the creation of the United Nations and the end of the Second World War in 2020, and the unprecedented fury of the pandemic provide important context for joint efforts aimed at strengthening and reforming the multilateral system to make it more resilient, efficient, effective, transparent and representative.

三、外长们同意,在2020年纪念联合国成立和第二次世界大战结束75周年之后不久,金砖国家合作迎来15周年,加之新冠肺炎疫情空前肆虐,要求我们共同努力加强和改革多边体系,并使其更加有韧性、有效率、有效力、透明并具代表性。

4. The Ministers reiterated their commitment to multilateralism through upholding international law, including the purposes and principles enshrined in the Charter of the United Nations as its indispensable cornerstone, and to the central role of the United Nations in an international system in which sovereign States cooperate to maintain peace and security, advance sustainable development, ensure the promotion and protection of democracy, human rights and fundamental freedoms for all with the aim to build a brighter shared future for the international community based on mutually beneficial cooperation. They reaffirmed the principles of non-intervention in the internal affairs of States and the resolution of international disputes by peaceful means and in conformity with the principles of justice and international law as well as the inadmissibility of the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any State, or in any other manner inconsistent with the purposes and principles of the United Nations. They stressed further the imperative of refraining from any coercive measures not based on international law and the UN Charter.

四、外长们重申对多边主义承诺,维护国际法,包括作为其不可或缺基石的《联合国宪章》宗旨和原则,维护联合国在国际体系中的中心作用,在此体系中各主权国家合作维护和平与安全、推动可持续发展、促进和保护民主、所有人的人权和基本自由,在互利合作基础上构建人类命运共同体。外长们重申不干涉他国内政原则,坚持根据正义和国际法原则和平解决国际争端,不接受以使用或威胁使用武力,抑或其他任何有违《联合国宪章》宗旨和原则的方式,侵犯别国领土完整或政治独立。外长们进一步强调不应采取任何没有国际法和《联合国宪章》依据的强制性措施。

5. The Ministers reaffirmed the sole authority of the UN Security Council for imposing sanctions and called for further consolidation and strengthening of the working methods of UN Security Council Sanctions Committees to ensure their effectiveness, responsiveness and transparency.

五、外长们重申联合国安理会在实施制裁方面具有独一无二的权威性,呼吁进一步整合和加强联合国安理会各制裁委员会工作方法,以确保其有效性、反应迅速和透明度。

6. The Ministers reaffirmed that multilateralism should promote international law, democracy, equity and justice, mutual respect, right to development and non-interference in internal affairs of any country without double standards.

六、外长们重申,坚持多边主义应促进国际法、民主、公平正义、相互尊重、发展权以及不干涉别国内政,摒弃双重标准。

7. The Ministers acknowledged the many achievements of the UN and its associated architecture. They noted, however, that its continued success and relevance would be determined by its ability to adapt to the realities of today’s world, which is starkly different from what it was at the time of its creation more than 75 years ago. They stressed their commitment to the important role of international organizations and to improve their efficacy and working methods, as well as to improving the system of global governance, and agreed to promote a more agile, effective, representative and accountable system that can deliver better in the field, address global challenges and better serve the interests of Member States.

七、外长们认为,尽管联合国及其相关机构取得了许多成就,但其能否继续保持成功和影响,取决于其适应当今世界现实的能力,这同联合国75年前初创时的情况截然不同。外长们强调其致力于支持国际组织发挥重要作用,改进工作效率和工作方法以及完善全球治理体系,并同意推动建立一个更加灵活、有效、有代表性和负责任的体系,以更好地在广泛领域取得成绩,应对全球性挑战,并更好地服务会员国利益。

8. The Ministers acknowledged that the current interconnected international challenges should be addressed through reinvigorated and reformed multilateral system, especially of the UN and its principal organs, and other multilateral institutions such as International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Bank (WB), World Trade Organization (WTO), World Health Organization (WHO), with a view to enhancing its capacity to effectively address the diverse challenges of our time and to adapt them to twenty-first century realities.

八、外长们认为,当前国际挑战相互关联,应通过振兴和改革多边体系加以应对,特别是联合国及其主要机构,以及国际货币基金组织、世界银行、世界贸易组织、世界卫生组织等其他多边机构,以期加强其有效应对当下不同挑战并适应二十一世纪现实的能力。

9. The Ministers agreed that the task of Strengthening and Reforming the Multilateral System encompasses, inter alia, the following:

九、外长们同意,加强和改革多边体系应包括以下方面:

i. It should make instruments of global governance more inclusive, representative and participatory to facilitate greater and more meaningful participation of developing and least developed countries, especially Africa, in global decision-making processes and structures and make it better attuned to contemporary realities.

(一)应使全球治理更具包容性、代表性和参与性,以促进发展中国家和最不发达国家,特别是非洲国家,更深入和更有意义地参与全球决策进程和架构,并使全球治理更符合当代现实。

ii. It should be based on inclusive consultation and collaboration for the benefit of all, while respecting sovereign independence, equality, mutual legitimate interests and concerns to make the multilateral organizations more responsive, effective, transparent and credible.

(二)应以包容的协商与合作为基础,符合所有人利益,尊重主权独立、平等、彼此正当利益和关切,使多边组织反应更迅速,更加有效、透明、可信。

iii. It should make multilateral organizations more responsive, effective, transparent, democratic, objective, action-oriented, solution-oriented and credible, so as to promote cooperation in building international relations based on the norms and principles of international law, and the spirit of mutual respect, justice, equality, mutual beneficial cooperation and realities of the contemporary world.

(三)应使多边组织反应更加迅速,更加有效、透明、民主、客观,坚持聚焦行动和聚焦问题,更加可信,并基于国际法准则、相互尊重、公平正义、合作共赢精神以及当代世界现实加强构建国际关系的合作。

iv. It should use innovative and inclusive solutions, including digital and technological tools to promote sustainable development and facilitate affordable and equitable access to global public goods for all.

(四)应利用数字和技术工具等创新包容的解决方案,促进可持续发展,并帮助所有人可负担和公平地获取全球公共产品。

v. It should strengthen capacities of individual States and international organizations to better respond to new and emerging, traditional and non-traditional challenges, including those emanating from terrorism, money laundering, cyber-realm, infodemics and fake news.

(五)应加强各国及国际组织的能力,使其能够更好地应对新的、突发的、传统和非传统挑战,包括来自恐怖主义、洗钱、网络领域、信息流行病和虚假新闻的挑战。

vi. It should promote international and regional peace and security, social and economic development, and preserve nature’s balance with people-centered international cooperation at its core.

(六)应将以人民为中心的国际合作作为核心,促进国际和地区的和平与安全,促进社会经济发展,保护大自然平衡。

10. The Ministers recalled the UNGA Resolution 75/1 and reiterated the call for reforms of the principal organs of the United Nations. They recommitted to instill new life in the discussions on reform of the UN Security Council and continue the work to revitalize the General Assembly and strengthen the Economic and Social Council. They took note with satisfaction of the 2020 Review of the Peacebuilding architecture and agreed to reinforce their coordination in the Peacebuilding Commission.

十、外长们回顾了联合国大会第75/1号决议,再次呼吁改革联合国主要机构。他们致力于为联合国安理会改革相关讨论注入新活力,继续努力振兴联合国大会,并加强联合国经社理事会。他们对2020年联合国建设和平架构评审表示满意,同意加强在建设和平委员会的合作。

11. The Ministers recalled the 2005 World Summit Outcome document and reaffirmed the need for a comprehensive reform of the UN, including its Security Council, with a view to making it more representative, effective and efficient, and to increase the representation of the developing countries so that it can adequately respond to global challenges. China and Russia reiterated the importance they attach to the status and role of Brazil, India and South Africa in international affairs and supported their aspiration to play a greater role in the UN.

十一、外长们回顾2005年世界首脑会议成果文件,重申需要对联合国包括其安理会进行全面改革,使之更具代表性、效力和效率,增强发展中国家代表性,以应对全球挑战。中国和俄罗斯重申重视巴西、印度和南非在国际事务中的地位和作用,支持其希望在联合国发挥更大作用的愿望。

12. The Ministers also commended India and South Africa for their respective present and recent terms served in the UN Security Council. They also recognized the candidacy of Brazil as a UN Security Council member for the 2022-2023 biennium.

十二、外长们赞赏印度和南非当前和近期担任联合国安理会非常任理事国期间所做贡献。他们也注意到巴西提出竞选2022-2023年安理会非常任理事国。

13. The Ministers emphasized the urgency of revitalization of the UN General Assembly so as to enhance its role and authority in accordance with the UN Charter, and in this regard called for identification of best practices and working methods across its various Committees for implementation of its Resolutions.

十三、外长们强调,迫切需要振兴联合国大会,以根据《联合国宪章》增强其作用和权威,并为此呼吁确定各委员会的最佳实践和工作方法,以执行大会决议。

14. The Ministers reaffirmed their commitment to strengthen ECOSOC’s role in policy guidance, oversight and coordination. They called for the Council to continue addressing the three dimensions of sustainable development – economic, social and environmental - in a balanced and integrated manner, recognizing the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda as a comprehensive, indivisible, far-reaching and people-centered set of universal and transformative targets adopted to deal with the challenges of the decade ahead, including through regional development initiatives. The Ministers agreed that the United Nations needs to make development central to the global macro policy framework.

十四、外长们重申致力于加强经社理事会在政策指导、监督和协调方面的作用。他们呼吁理事会继续平衡、全面地从经济、社会、环境三大领域推进可持续发展。他们认为联合国2030年可持续发展议程包含全面完整、影响深远、以人民为中心的、具有普遍性和变革性的目标,应通过地区发展倡议等加以落实,以应对未来十年的挑战。外长们同意,联合国需要将发展置于全球宏观政策框架的中心位置。

15. The Ministers stressed the importance of preserving a balanced approach and a rational division of labor between the different principal organs, missions, agencies and funds, based on the UN Charter and on specific mandates.

十五、外长们强调,根据《联合国宪章》和各自授权,在不同的主要机构、特派团、专门机构及基金间,保持平衡重视度以及合理分工具有重要意义。

16. The Ministers recognized that in order to effectively comply with the principles and objectives of the Charter, there was a need for an efficient and accountable UN Secretariat, and in this regard called for the establishment of effective mechanisms to strengthen the Secretariat’s accountability and oversight, improve its management performance and transparency, representation and reinforce ethical conduct. The Ministers called for the implementation of equitable geographical representation across the UN system. The Ministers noted the progress made in increasing gender equity in the UN.

十六、外长们认识到,为了有效遵守《联合国宪章》的原则和目标,需要一个高效和负责的联合国秘书处,并为此呼吁建立有效机制,加强对秘书处的问责和监督,提高管理绩效、透明度和代表性,加强道德操守。外长们呼吁在联合国系统实现公平的地域代表性,注意到联合国性别平等状况有所改进。

17. The Ministers called for continued efforts to strengthen the system of arms control, disarmament and non-proliferation treaties and agreements and to preserve its integrity for maintaining global stability and international peace and security, and stressed further the need to maintain the effectiveness and efficiency as well as the consensus-based nature of the relevant multilateral instruments in the field of disarmament, non-proliferation and arms control.

十七、外长们呼吁持续努力加强军控、裁军、防扩散条约和协议体系,保持其完整性,以维护全球稳定及国际和平与安全。外长们进一步强调,需维护裁军、防扩散及军控领域有关多边机制的有效性、高效性和协商一致性质。

18. The Ministers reaffirmed their commitment to broadening and strengthening the participation of emerging markets and developing countries (EMDCs) in the international economic decision-making and norm-setting processes, especially in the aftermath of the COVID-19 pandemic. To that end, they stressed the importance of continuing efforts to reform the international financial architecture, noting that enhancing the voice and participation of EMDCs, including the least developed countries, in the Bretton Woods institutions remains a continuous concern.

十八、外长们重申致力于扩大和加强新兴市场和发展中国家参与国际经济决策和规则制定进程,在新冠肺炎疫情后更加迫切。为此,外长们注意到提升新兴市场国家和发展中国家,以及最不发达国家,在布雷顿森林体系机构中的发言权和参与度仍持续引发关切,并强调继续努力改革国际金融体系的重要性。

19. The Ministers reaffirmed their commitment to a strong Global Financial Safety Net with a quota-based and adequately resourced IMF at its center and expressed their deep disappointment at the failure in addressing the quota and governance reforms under the 15th General Review of Quotas (GRQ). They called for the timely and successful completion of the 16th GRQ by December 15, 2023, to reduce the IMF’s reliance on temporary resources and to address under-representation of EMDCs for their meaningful engagement in the governance of IMF and to protect the voice and quota shares of its poorest and smallest members and have a new quota formula that better reflects the economic weight of members.

十九、外长们重申致力于支持一个以份额为基础、资源充足的强劲国际货币基金组织,在全球金融安全网发挥中心作用。他们对第15轮份额总检查未能完成份额和治理改革深感失望,并呼吁于2023年12月15日前如期圆满完成第16次份额总检查,以减轻国际货币基金组织对临时资源的依赖并解决新兴市场国家和发展中国家代表性不足的问题,使其实质性参与国际货币基金组织治理,并保护最贫穷和最弱小成员国的发言权和份额。为此,新配额划分要更好反映成员国经济体量。

20. The Ministers called for governance reform in the recruitment processes of the World Bank and the IMF by ensuring selection through an open and merit-based process, noting that the true potential of the Bank and Fund would be realized only by building more democratic governance structures and strengthening their financial capacity.

二十、外长们注意到世界银行和国际货币基金组织只有通过建立更民主的治理结构并增强融资能力,才能实现其真正潜力。他们呼吁通过公开择优遴选,改革世界银行和国际货币基金组织的招聘程序。

21. The Ministers reaffirmed their support for a transparent, rules-based, open, inclusive and non-discriminatory multilateral trading system, with the World Trade Organization at its core, and in this regard reiterated their support for the necessary and urgent reform which would inter alia, preserve the centrality, core values and fundamental principles of the WTO and consider the interests of all members, including developing countries and LDCs, recognizing that the majority of the WTO members are developing countries. It is critical that all WTO members avoid unilateral and protectionist measures that run counter to the spirit and rules of the WTO.

二十一、外长们重申支持以世界贸易组织为核心、透明、以规则为基础、开放、包容和非歧视的多边贸易体系,并为此重申支持必要和迫切的改革,维护世界贸易组织核心地位、核心价值和基本原则。世界贸易组织大部分成员均为发展中国家,要兼顾包括发展中国家和最不发达国家在内的所有成员的利益。至关重要的是,所有成员均应避免采取同世贸组织精神和规则相违背的单边和保护主义措施。

22. The Ministers stressed the need to restore the normal functioning of all WTO’s functions as highlighted in the Joint Statement by BRICS Trade Ministers on Multilateral Trading System and the WTO Reform of 2020. They emphasized the primary importance of ensuring the restoration and preservation of the normal functioning of a two-stage WTO Dispute Settlement system, including the expeditious appointment of all Appellate Body members.

二十二、外长们强调,应根据2020年金砖国家经贸部长关于多边贸易体制和世贸组织改革的联合声明,恢复世界贸易组织正常功能。外长们强调,确保恢复和维护两阶段的世界贸易组织争端解决机制的正常运转至关重要,包括尽快遴选上诉机构成员。

23. The Ministers acknowledged that global economic governance in an increasingly interconnected world is of critical importance for the success of national efforts for achieving sustainable development in all countries, and that, while efforts have been made over the years, there remains a need to continue improving global economic governance and to strengthen the role of the United Nations in this regard with extensive consultations and joint contributions for the shared benefits.

二十三、外长们认识到,在愈发紧密相连的世界,全球经济治理对各国实现可持续发展至关重要。尽管过去几年已作出努力,但仍需通过共商共建共享加强全球经济治理和联合国的作用。

24. The Ministers reiterated the important role of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development in the integrated treatment of trade and development, finance, technology, investment and sustainable development and reaffirmed support for its vital mandate and promotion of an open and inclusive global economy and provision of development-oriented policy analysis.

二十四、外长们重申联合国贸易与发展会议在统筹处理贸易发展、金融、技术、投资和可持续发展方面具有重要作用,并重申支持其关键职能,以推动构建开放包容的全球经济,并提供发展导向的政策分析。

25. The Ministers recognized that the current global challenges, particularly the COVID-19 pandemic, are a powerful reminder of the imperative to strengthen cooperation amongst States. While acknowledging the measures taken by the WHO, governments, non-profit organisations, academia, business and industry in combating the pandemic, they also expect the international community to reform and strengthen policy responses of WHO to fight the COVID-19 pandemic and other current and future health challenges.

二十五、外长们认识到,当前的全球性挑战,尤其是新冠肺炎疫情,有力提醒我们迫切需要加强国家间合作。外长们注意到世界卫生组织、政府、非营利组织、学术和工商界为应对疫情采取的措施,期待国际社会改革和加强世界卫生组织的政策应对,以抗击新冠肺炎疫情和其他当下或未来的健康挑战。

26. The Ministers recognized the role of extensive immunization against COVID-19 as a global public good for health in preventing, containing, and stopping transmission to bring the pandemic to an end and foster a rapid, inclusive, sustainable, and resilient recovery, and in this context underlined the urgency for expeditious development and deployment of COVID-19 vaccines, especially in developing countries, and called for further close cooperation between various stakeholders for a diversified vaccine portfolio.

二十六、外长们认识到大规模免疫接种是预防、遏制和阻断新冠肺炎疫情的全球公共卫生产品,可结束疫情并推动实现快速、包容、强韧、可持续的疫后复苏。他们强调尽快研发和分发疫苗的紧迫性,特别是针对发展中国家,并呼吁利益攸关方进一步就疫苗组合多样化密切合作。

27. The Ministers stressed the need to promote initiatives aimed at ensuring timely, affordable, and equitable access to, as well as the distribution of diagnostics, therapeutics, medicines and vaccines, and essential health products and technologies, and their components, as well as equipment to combat COVID-19 pandemic and to support the achievement of universal health coverage including preventive measures and actions. The Ministers reaffirmed the need to use all relevant measures during the pandemic, including supporting ongoing consideration in WTO on a COVID-19 vaccine Intellectual Property Rights waiver and the use of flexibilities of the TRIPS Agreement and the Doha Declaration on TRIPS Agreement and Public Health. They also reiterated the need for sharing of vaccine doses, transfer of technology, development of local production capacities and supply chains for medical products, promotion of price transparency and called for exercise of due restraint in the implementation of measures that could hinder the flow of vaccines, health products and essential inputs.

二十七、外长们强调,需要推进旨在确保新冠肺炎疫情诊疗手段、药物及疫苗、关键卫生产品和技术及其配件、设备等实现及时、可负担的公平可及和分配的相关倡议,支持全面健康覆盖取得的成就,包括采取预防措施和行动。外长们重申,大疫当前,需要采取全部相关措施,包括支持世界贸易组织正在进行的有关新冠肺炎疫苗知识产权豁免的讨论,以及运用《与贸易有关的知识产权协定》以及《关于〈与贸易有关的知识产权协定〉和公共卫生的多哈宣言》规定的灵活性。外长们还重申,需要分享疫苗试剂、技术转让、发展医疗产品的本地产能和供应链、提升价格透明度,并呼吁在采取阻碍疫苗、卫生产品和关键要素流通的措施时尽可能保持克制。

28. The Ministers recommitted to strengthening and reforming the multilateral system through enhanced cooperation and close coordination in all relevant multilateral fora and international organizations including, the UN and G20.

二十八、外长们承诺在联合国、二十国集团等各相关多边论坛和国际组织保持密切合作与协调,加强和改革多边体系。

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