中国翻译研究院 2021-08-17 210次
第十六篇 加快国防和军队现代化 实现富国和强军相统一
Part XVI Modernization of National Defense and the Armed Forces as We Build National Prosperity
Our efforts to strengthen national defense and the armed forces are guided by Xi Jinping’s instructions and the military strategy for the new era. The Party’s absolute leadership over the armed forces is of paramount importance. It is also important to raise political awareness among service members, implement necessary reforms, expand the use of new technologies, cultivate and harness talent, and create a rules-based culture. The modernization process involves mechanization, digitization, and the use of smart technologies, in addition to more rigorous and systematic military training to boost combat readiness. The process aims to enhance the ability of the armed forces to safeguard China’s sovereignty, security, and national interests, and ensure that the centenary goal of strengthening the armed forces is achieved by 2027.
Chapter 56 Modernization of National Defense and the Military
More will be done to accelerate the modernization of military theories and introduce new warfare and strategic guidance to keep abreast with the times, improve the military’s strategic system in the new era, and develop advanced combat theory. Efforts will be made to modernize our military’s organizational structure, deepen the reform of national defense and the armed forces, promote the revolution of military management, accelerate the transformation of military branches and armed police forces, expand the strategic forces and combat forces in new domains with new types of military personnel, build a high-standard strategic deterrence and joint operation system, and strengthen the joint training, joint support, and joint application of military forces. Steps will be taken to accelerate the modernization of military personnel, implement a military education policy that is suitable for the new era, improve the three-pronged training system for new military personnel, and forge a new array of high-quality and professional military personnel. We will also gather pace in the modernization of weaponry by focusing on independent and original innovation in defense-related science and technology, as well as the development of strategic, innovative and disruptive technologies, and accelerate the upgrade of weaponry and equipment as well as the development of smart weaponry and equipment.
Chapter 57 Strengthening National Defense in Tandem with Economic Growth
In coordination with the modernization drive of the country, we will build an integrated national strategic system and capacity by stepping up strategic planning efforts, promoting the sharing of resources and factors, coordinating policies and institutions, and improving organizational management, task fulfillment, policies and institutions, personnel training, and the risk control system. We will do better in balancing the development of key regions, key sectors, and emerging sectors, and focus on the implementation of major projects in the field of national defense. The planning of military development and that of regional economic development will be well coordinated to better serve the strategic needs for national security and development. We will boost military-civilian collaborative innovation in science and technology; advance both military and civilian development in the fields of ocean, aerospace, cyberspace, biology, new energy, artificial intelligence, and quantum science and technology; promote the resource sharing of military and civilian scientific research facilities; and facilitate the two-way application of military and civilian scientific research achievements and the development of key industries. We will boost the co-development and sharing of infrastructure, intensify efforts to plan for and develop new types of infrastructure, and do better in meeting national defense needs in economic development projects. Efforts will be made to speed up the development of a modern military logistics system and asset management system, intensify the joint training of people competent in both military and civilian services, and improve the systems for their exchange, employment, and qualification certification. We will improve the structure of defense-related science, technology, and industry, and accelerate the process of standardization and generalization. We will promote the reforms of market access for weaponry and equipment and air traffic management; improve the national defense mobilization system; coordinate efforts to respond to emergencies and meet challenges in wartime; improve the mechanism for strengthening the border defense; promote national defense education for all people; and consolidate the unity of the military, the government, and the people. We will safeguard the legitimate rights and interests of service members and their families and make serviceman a profession respected by the whole society.
第十七篇 加强社会主义民主法治建设 健全党和国家监督制度
Part XVII Socialist Democracy, the Rule of Law, and Party and State Oversight Mechanisms
We will uphold the unity of the leadership of the Communist Party of China (CPC), the running of the country by the people, and the rule of law, and push the socialist political system with Chinese characteristics to improve and develop.
Chapter 58 Socialist Democracy
Continued efforts will be made to improve the system where the CPC exercises overall leadership and coordinates the efforts of all involved, and ensure the CPC’s leadership in all fields and aspects of the country’s development. We will also uphold and improve the system of people’s congresses, strengthen the system for the people’s congresses to oversee the governments, the supervisory commissions, the people’s courts, and the people’s procuratorates, and ensure that the people engage in the management of state , economic, cultural, and social affairs through various channels and in various forms in accordance with the law. We will uphold and improve the system of multiparty cooperation and political consultation under the leadership of the CPC, promote the development of other political parties participating in state governance under Chinese socialism, further build the CPPCC as a special consultative body, leverage the unique advantages of socialist consultative democracy, and give better play to its role in offering advice to the government and building consensus. We will fully implement the the CPC’s policies concerning ethnic groups, uphold and improve the system of regional ethnic autonomy, create a strong sense of community for the Chinese nation, and encourage all ethnic groups to unite closely and work in concert for common prosperity and development. We will fully implement the CPC’s basic policy on religious affairs, uphold the principle of developing religions in the Chinese context, and actively guide religions to adapt themselves to the socialist society. We will improve the system of community-level self-governance, and increase the people’s capacity to manage their own affairs, serve and educate themselves, and exercise public scrutiny. We will give full play to the role of trade unions, Communist Youth League organizations, women’s federations, and other people’s organizations as bridges linking the CPC with the people. We will improve the united front with extensive participation of all political parties, promote harmony between political parties, between ethnic groups, between religions, between social strata, and between Chinese at home and overseas, and consolidate and develop greater unity and solidarity. We will fully implement the CPC’s policy on overseas Chinese affairs and pool the support of overseas Chinese to serve the big-picture interests.
Chapter 59 Promotion of the Rule of Law
We are fully committed to promoting socialist rule of law with Chinese characteristics. Efforts will be made to pursue parallel progress in the rule of law for national governance, exercise of state power, and government administration, promote the efforts to build a country, government, and society based on the rule of law, and implement the plan for promoting the rule of law in the country. Institutions and mechanisms will be improved to fully implement the Constitution, boost the implementation of the Constitution and oversight of constitutional compliance, put in place a mechanism for constitutional interpretation, and promote constitutionality review. We will improve the legislative institutions and mechanisms, advance legislation in key areas, emerging areas, and areas related to foreign affairs, lay equal emphasis on legislation, amendment, abolishment, interpretation, and compilation, and improve the socialist legal system with Chinese characteristics with the Constitution as the core. We will implement the outline for building a government based on the rule of law, uphold and improve the system of procedures for major administrative decision-making, deepen the reform of the administrative law enforcement system, see that law is enforced in a strict, standardized, fair, and civil way, regulate the use of discretionary powers in law enforcement, and promote reform of the administrative review system. We will deepen integrated, complete reform for the judicial system to improve the systems of judicial trials, of procuratorates, of punishment enforcement, and of lawyers, fully implement the judicial responsibility system, enhance the supervision over judicial activities, deepen reform of the enforcement system, and promote judicial justice. We will implement the outline for building a society based on the rule of law, foster a culture of socialist rule of law, promote publicity and education on the rule of law, implement the eighth five-year plan for increasing public knowledge of the law, and improve the public legal service system, legal aid, and national judicial assistance system. We will strengthen the judicial protection of human rights across the board and promote the all-round development of the cause of human rights. We will intensify efforts to build the legal system concerning foreign affairs and better train legal personnel on foreign affairs.
Chapter 60 Party and State Oversight Mechanisms
We will seek to improve the oversight system that features the CPC’s overall leadership, full coverage, and authoritative and efficient oversight and create a mechanism for exercising power that ensures sound decision-making, resolute enforcement, and effective oversight. We will ensure that leadership and oversight responsibilities for strict self-governance are properly assumed, enhance political oversight, advance political inspections, and intensify rectification efforts. More will be done to promote the coordination of oversight via disciplinary action, supervisory mechanism, dispatched resident teams, and inspections, and form a long-standing supervision synergy by leveraging the leading role of the intra-Party supervision and driving the coordination of all types of supervision, to better integrate the oversight systems into the national governance system. We will deepen the reform of the discipline inspection and supervision system, strengthen the leadership of the discipline inspection and supervision commissions at higher levels over those at lower levels, promote well-regulated and law-based discipline inspection and supervision activities, and give full play to the role of oversight in ensuring implementation and promoting improvement and development. We will improve the power allocation and operation restriction mechanisms, as well as the systems for exercising power by matter, setting power by post, delegating power in a graded manner and regular job rotation. We will improve the system of disclosures on Party affairs, government affairs, judicial affairs, and other fields; improve the mechanisms for finding problems, correcting deviations, and ensuring accurate accountability; and build full-coverage accountability and oversight systems. We will continue to ensure that there are no no-oversight zones, no ground is left unturned, and no tolerance is shown for corruption. We will strengthen deterrence so that officials do not dare to be corrupt, strengthen the oversight of institutions so they are unable to be corrupt, and strengthen their vigilance so they have no desire to be corrupt. We will put in every effort to ensure that our political atmosphere and development environment are clean and free of corruption. We will deepen international cooperation against corruption. We will make steady efforts to implement the central Party leadership’s eight-point decision on improving Party and government conduct, create a better long-term mechanism for improving conduct, continue to rectify the practice of formalities for formalities’ sake and bureaucratism, effectively prevent the resurgence of hedonism and extravagance, and resolutely combat corruption and unhealthy tendencies among people.
第十八篇 坚持“一国两制” 推进祖国统一
Part XVIII The Principle of "One Country, Two Systems" and National Reunification
We stay committed to lasting prosperity and stability in Hong Kong and Macao, and peaceful development of cross-Straits relations and national reunification, on our journey towards the great renewal of the Chinese nation.
Chapter 61 Lasting Prosperity and Stability in Hong Kong and Macao
We will stay true to the letter and spirit of the principle of “One Country, Two Systems”, which allows the people of Hong Kong and Macao to administer their own affairs with a high degree of autonomy. Rule of law must be maintained in Hong Kong and Macao, the two Special Administrative Regions (SARs), in accordance with the Constitution and the basic laws. The central authorities’ overall jurisdiction over the SARs cannot be challenged. The legal system and enforcement mechanisms for the SARs to safeguard national security must be implemented effectively to protect national sovereignty, security, national interests, and overall social stability in the SARs. Resolute actions will be taken to guard against and deter external interference in the affairs of Hong Kong and Macao. Support will be provided to the SARs in their efforts to enhance their competitive advantages and better integrate into the overall process of national development.
I. Support for the SARs’ endeavor to enhance their competitive advantages
We will support Hong Kong in enhancing its status as an international financial, shipping, and trade center and an international aviation hub, and strengthen its functions as a global offshore RMB business hub and an international center for asset management and risk management. We will support Hong Kong in building itself into an international center for innovation and technology, a center in the Asia-Pacific region for international legal and dispute resolution services, and a regional center for intellectual property trade. We will support Hong Kong’s endeavor to make its service sector more competitive in high-end markets and creating greater value, and its effort to develop itself into a center for cultural and art exchanges with other countries. We will support Macao in enriching its significance as a world tourism and leisure center, support Guangdong-Macao cooperation on developing the Hengqin region, and help Macao expand its functions as a service platform for business cooperation between China and Portuguese-speaking countries, and build itself into a center for exchanges and cooperation where Chinese culture is the mainstream and diverse cultures coexist. We will support Macao in boosting the research, development and manufacturing of traditional Chinese medicine and developing characteristic finance, high technology, convention and exhibition, commerce and trade, and other industries, and help Macao appropriately diversify its economy.
II. Support for the SARs’ endeavor to better integrate into the overall process of national development
We will improve the mechanism for integrating the SARs into the overall development of the country and coordinating the development of the two regions and the mainland based on their complementary advantages. We will support the SARs in participating in and facilitating China’s endeavor to open up fully and develop a modern economic system and build a functional platform for joint pursuit of the Belt and Road Initiative. We will deepen the economic, trade, and technological cooperation between the mainland and the SARs, and expand the connectivity of their financial markets. We will build a high-quality Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area, further the cooperation between Guangdong, Hong Kong, and Macao as well as the Pan-Pearl River Delta regional cooperation, and promote the development of major cooperation platforms between Guangdong, Hong Kong, and Macao, such as Qianhai in Shenzhen, Hengqin in Zhuhai, Nansha in Guangzhou, and Shenzhen-Hong Kong Science and Technology Innovation Cooperation Zone. We will boost exchanges and cooperation between the mainland and the SARs in all fields, improve the policies and measures for helping residents of the SARs live and work better in the mainland, and promote education on the Constitution, the basic laws, and national conditions, to enhance the national awareness and patriotism of residents of the SARs. We will support the SARs in carrying out exchanges and cooperation with foreign countries and regions.
Chapter 62 Peaceful Development of Cross-Straits Relations and National Reunification
We will stay committed to the one-China principle and the 1992 Consensus, and peaceful and integrated development of cross-Straits relations with the wellbeing of the people on both sides of the Straits top of mind. We will remain vigilant against and resolutely confront any separatist activity seeking “Taiwan independence”.
I. Integrated cross-Straits development
Efforts will be made to improve systems and policies for safeguarding the wellbeing of our Taiwan compatriots and ensuring they enjoy the same treatment in the mainland as local residents. We will continue to introduce and implement policies and measures that benefit Taiwan and the people, so that our Taiwan compatriots can share development opportunities and participate in the mainland’s economic and social development. Taiwan’s business people and enterprises will be encouraged to participate in the BRI and the implementation of the country’s coordinated regional development strategy. We will promote cross-Straits financial cooperation and support qualified Taiwan-invested enterprises in going public in the mainland. We will promote the development of platforms for cross-Straits cooperation, such as the Cross-Straits Industrial Cooperation Zone, the Pingtan Comprehensive Experimental Zone, and the Kunshan Experimental Zone for Deepening Cross-Straits Industrial Cooperation. We will support Fujian in exploring a new path for integrated development across the Straits, and accelerate the development of demonstration zones for such integrated development. We will strengthen cross-Straits industrial cooperation and build a cross-Straits common market to grow a stronger Chinese economy.
II. People-to-people exchanges across the Straits
We will actively promote exchanges, cooperation, and people-to-people interactions across the Straits, to boost their mutual understanding, trust, and recognition. More will be done to advance cross-Straits exchanges and cooperation in culture, education, healthcare, and other areas, promote the sharing of social security and public resources, and support equal access to inclusive and convenient basic public services in areas adjacent to each other or with comparable conditions across the Straits. People on both sides of the Straits will be encouraged to carry forward and develop the fine traditional Chinese culture through innovation. We will strengthen cross-Straits exchanges between community-level organizations and young people and encourage young people from Taiwan to pursue and fulfill their dreams in the mainland. We will unite all the Taiwan compatriots to oppose separatist activities seeking “Taiwan independence”, safeguard the peaceful development of relations across the Straits and strive for the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.
Part XIX Implementation of This Plan
This Plan will be implemented under the CPC’s overall leadership. Implementation mechanisms will be strengthened to ensure that the government fulfils its responsibilities, and to spur dynamism and creativity across society in our join effort to build a socialist modern country.
Chapter 63 The Overall Leadership Role of the CPC Central Committee
We will see that the CPC charts the direction, exercises overall governance, formulates policies and facilitates reform, and thoroughly study and implement Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era. We will be keenly aware of the need to maintain political integrity, think in big-picture terms, follow the leadership core, remain aligned with the central Party leadership, stay confident in the path, theory, system, and culture of socialism with Chinese characteristics, uphold General Secretary Xi Jinping’s core position on the Party Central Committee and in the Party as a whole, and uphold the Party Central Committee’s authority and its centralized, unified leadership. We will keep improving our capacity for political judgement, thinking, and implementation, and ensure the Party’s leadership over all fields and processes of plan implementation. With these efforts we will ensure the implementation of major decisions and plans of the Party Central Committee. We will give full play to the guiding role of full and strict governance over the Party and integrate the improvement of Party and state oversight systems into plan implementation. We will improve the organizational system that links governments at all levels with effective execution and build the political competence and professionalism of leadership bodies and officials at all levels in carrying out reform, promoting development, and maintaining stability, in line with the new demands of the new era.
We will arouse the enthusiasm of all sectors to participate in plan implementation, encourage trade unions, Communist Youth League organizations, and women’s federations to function well, give full play to the role of other political parties, industry and commerce federations and public figures without party affiliation, and galvanize consensus and strength of the whole society to the greatest extent. We will build a mechanism for internal driving forces to meet the requirements of high-quality development, improve the incentive-oriented performance evaluation mechanism and the mechanism to ensure that those who have fulfilled their duties are not held accountable, and mobilize the enthusiasm, initiative, and creativity of officials, especially those at the community level.
Chapter 64 Unified Planning
A national planning system will be established, comprising national development planning, spatial planning, and special and regional planning. Planning is done at the national, provincial, municipal, and county levels. It sets clear goals, defines tasks to achieve those goals and the scope within which the tasks are to be implemented, and determines the way in which the tasks are mutually reinforcing and aligned with objectives outlined in national plans.
I. The central role of national development planning
We will make better use of the strategic guiding role of national development plans, and strengthen the support of spatial, special, and regional plans for the implementation of this Plan. In accordance with the requirements and key tasks for territorial space development and protection set out in this Plan, we will formulate and implement a national territorial space plan to provide territorial space support for the implementation of major strategic tasks. Focusing on the strategic priorities and main tasks specified in this Plan, we will formulate and implement several national key special plans in the fields of scientific and technological innovation, digital economy, ecology, and people’s wellbeing, and draw up and refine the timetable and roadmap for the fulfillment of the development tasks. According to the strategic tasks for regional development, as specified in this Plan, we will formulate and implement a number of plans for the implementation of national-level regional development plans, and ensure that the development strategy, main objectives, key tasks, and major projects proposed in this Plan are well embodied in local plans.
II. Better planning coordination
We will improve the planning management systems for lists and catalogs, and record compilation and coordination. We will formulate the lists and catalogs of national special plans during the 14th Five-Year Plan period, promote the filing of plans by relying on the National Comprehensive Planning Management Information Platform, and bring all kinds of plans under unified management. We will establish a sound plan coordination mechanism. The plans to be submitted to the CPC Central Committee and the State Council and provincial development plans must be coordinated with this Plan before being submitted for approval, to ensure that the national spatial plans, special plans, regional plans, and other plans at all levels are consistent with this Plan in terms of main objectives, course of development, overall agenda, major policies, key projects, risk control, etc.
Chapter 65 Mechanisms for Implementing This Plan
Implementation of this Plan requires organization, coordination, and oversight. Effective mechanisms are called for to monitor, evaluate, and oversee the implementation of the Plan, in addition to providing policy support.
I. Responsibilities for implementing this Plan
All regions and departments will, according to the division of functions and duties, formulate implementation plans for the main objectives and tasks involving their respective regions or departments in this Plan. For binding targets, major projects, and tasks in the fields of public services, environmental protection and security as specified in this Plan, we will clearly define the primary responsibility entities and schedule requirements, properly allocate public resources, and channel private sector resources, to ensure the tasks are completed as scheduled. The anticipatory targets and tasks in the fields of industrial development and structural adjustment as proposed in this Plan will be fulfilled primarily by giving play to the role of market entities, while governments at all levels should create an enabling policy environment with proper institutions and the rule of law in place. The annual plans should incorporate the development objectives and key tasks proposed in this Plan by breaking down the key targets set out in this Plan, and include well-balanced annual objectives as well as annual priorities.
II. Monitoring and evaluation of the implementation of the Plan
We will carry out dynamic monitoring, mid-stage evaluation, and final evaluation of plan implementation. The results of mid-stage and final evaluation will be submitted to the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee for deliberation in accordance with the procedures, and the plan’s implementation will be reported to the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress (NPC) in accordance with the law, as part of the NPC’s supervisory job. The central supervisory and audit authorities will play their supervisory role to promote the implementation of this Plan. The performance in plan implementation will be considered in the assessment of relevant departments, local leadership bodies, and officials, and will serve as an important measure of improvement in the work of the government. If it is necessary to adjust the plan, the State Council should prepare an adjustment plan and submit it to the Standing Committee of the NPC for approval.
III. Policy coordination and support
We will work to build a mechanism for coordination between this Plan and macro policies by following the directions set in this Plan, with the support of fiscal financial and other policies. The orientation of macro policies will be reasonably determined in accordance with the objectives and tasks specified in this Plan and in light of economic development. Public finance will be subordinate to and serve public policies, to strengthen the funding support for major national strategic tasks. The medium-term financial plans, annual budgets, and government investment plans will be better coordinated with the implementation of this Plan. The central government’s funding will be preferentially channeled into the major tasks and projects proposed in this Plan. The projects should be carried out according to the plan, and the funds and factors of production should be provided for the projects. Based on the list of major projects provided in this Plan, the approval procedures for the projects in the list should be streamlined, and site selection, land supply, and funding support for these projects should be prioritized. The land demand of each major project will be addressed by the central government.
IV. Legislation for development planning
The provisions, requirements and proven experience and practices of the CPC Central Committee and the State Council on developing unified planning systems and national development planning will be crystalized in the form of law by following the principle of formulating and implementing plans according to law. We will adopt the development planning law at a faster pace to strengthen the legal support for plan formulation and implementation.
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