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双语对照:中国共产党的历史使命与行动价值

国新办 2021-08-27 68次

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中国共产党的历史使命与行动价值

The CPC:Its Mission and Contributions

中共中央宣传部

The Publicity Department of the CPC Central Committee

目录

Contents

前言

Preamble

一、全心全意为人民服务

I. Serving the People Wholeheartedly

(一)把人民放在心中最高位置

1. Putting the People First

(二)依靠人民不断取得胜利

2. From Victory to Victory with the People

(三)实现人民当家作主

3. The People as Masters of the Country

(四)让人民过上好日子

4. A Good Life for the People

二、为实现理想不懈奋斗

II. Realizing the Ideals of the Party

(一)坚持科学理论指导

1. Upholding Marxism

(二)坚守理想信念

2. Firm Ideals and Convictions

(三)在不断探索中前进

3. Breaking New Ground

(四)勇于战胜风险挑战

4. Defusing Risks and Overcoming Challenges

三、具有强大领导力执政力

III. Robust Leadership and Strong Governance

(一)党中央坚强有力

1. A Strong Central Committee

(二)制定正确路线和战略策略

2. Sound Guidelines and Strategies

(三)决策部署有效贯彻

3. Effective Implementation of Decisions and Plans

(四)团结和凝聚各方力量

4. Pooling the Efforts of All Sectors

(五)建设高素质干部队伍

5. Fostering High-Caliber Party Officials

四、始终保持旺盛生机和活力

IV. Maintaining Vigor and Vitality

(一)坚持党内民主

1. Upholding Intra-Party Democracy

(二)勇于修正错误

2. Correcting Mistakes

(三)保持肌体健康

3. Protecting the Party's Health

(四)注重学习总结

4. Promoting Study and Review

五、为人类和平与发展贡献力量

V. Contributing to World Peace and Development

(一)维护世界和平

1. Safeguarding World Peace

(二)促进共同发展

2. Pursuing Common Development

(三)走和平发展道路

3. Following the Path of Peaceful Development

(四)推动构建人类命运共同体

4. Building a Global Community of Shared Future

结束语

Conclusion

前言

Preamble

中国共产党自诞生以来,已经走过了100年奋斗历程。

The Communist Party of China (CPC), founded in 1921, has just celebrated its centenary.

这100年,是人类社会充满动荡和剧变的100年,既有生产力极大发展、社会空前变革、人类文明巨大进步,也有战乱频仍、生灵涂炭、人类文明遭受极大破坏。

These hundred years have been a period of dramatic change – enormous productive forces unleashed, social transformation unprecedented in scale, and huge advances in human civilization. On the other hand, humanity has been afflicted by devastating wars and suffering.

这100年,中国发生沧桑巨变,换了人间。产生这一巨变的根本原因,在于有了中国共产党。

These hundred years have also witnessed profound and transformative change in China. And it is the CPC that has made this change possible.

中华民族是世界上伟大的民族,有着5000多年源远流长的文明历史,为人类文明进步作出了不可磨灭的贡献。1840年鸦片战争以后,中国逐步成为半殖民地半封建社会,国家蒙辱、人民蒙难、文明蒙尘,中华民族遭受了前所未有的劫难。中国人民始终不屈不挠、奋力抗争,在救亡图存的道路上一次次失败、一次次求索。

The Chinese nation is a great nation. With a history dating back more than 5,000 years, China has made an indelible contribution to human civilization. After the Opium War of 1840, however, China found itself plunged into a semi-feudal and semi-colonial society. It endured intense humiliation, its people were pushed into darkness, and the ancient Chinese civilization lost its way.

The Chinese people fought with indomitable spirit against repeated setbacks to save the nation from subjugation.

十月革命一声炮响,给中国送来了马克思列宁主义。马克思列宁主义在中国的传播,促进了中国人民的伟大觉醒,催生了中国共产党,点亮了中华民族的复兴之光。

The salvoes of Russia's October Revolution in 1917 sent Marxism-Leninism to China, and the CPC came into being. The Chinese people were awakened, and a torch was lit for the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.

1921年,中国共产党成立。这是开天辟地的大事变,深刻改变了近代以后中华民族发展的方向和进程,深刻改变了中国人民和中华民族的前途和命运,深刻改变了世界发展的趋势和格局。在伟大建党实践和百年奋斗实践中,党形成并弘扬坚持真理、坚守理想,践行初心、担当使命,不怕牺牲、英勇斗争,对党忠诚、不负人民的伟大建党精神,鼓舞和激励中国共产党人拼搏奋斗、砥砺前行。

The founding of the CPC was an epoch-making event which profoundly changed the course of China's history, delivered a new future for the Chinese people and nation, and had an enormous impact on the rest of the world.

During its endeavors over the past century, the CPC has developed a great spirit and carried it forward – upholding truth and ideals, staying true to its founding mission, fighting without fear of danger, and meeting the people's expectations.

This spirit has continuously inspired the CPC to forge ahead.

作为马克思主义政党,中国共产党摆脱了以往一切政治力量追求自身特殊利益的局限,一经诞生就把为中国人民谋幸福、为中华民族谋复兴确立为自己的初心使命。它像光芒四射的灯塔,指明了中国人民前进的道路和方向。

As a Marxist party, the CPC, unlike previous political forces, has no special interests of its own to pursue. From the outset, the CPC has made happiness for the Chinese people and the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation its abiding goals. Like a beacon, it has illuminated the way forward for the Chinese people.

100年来,中国共产党从成立之初的50余名党员,发展成为拥有9500多万名党员、领导着14亿多人口大国、具有重大全球影响力的世界第一大执政党,在最大的社会主义国家执政70多年,领导人民开辟了实现民族复兴和国家现代化的正确道路,得到了中国人民最广泛的支持和拥护。

Over the past hundred years, the CPC has grown from a small party with just over 50 members into the largest governing party in the world, with more than 95 million members in a country of more than 1.4 billion people. It is a party of major international standing.

It has governed the world's largest socialist country for more than seven decades. It has led the Chinese people onto the path towards national rejuvenation and modernization, and it enjoys extensive support from the Chinese people.

100年来,中国共产党团结带领人民进行的一切奋斗、一切牺牲、一切创造,归结起来就是一个主题:实现中华民族伟大复兴。以毛泽东、邓小平、江泽民、胡锦涛、习近平同志为主要代表的中国共产党人,把马克思主义基本原理同中国具体实际相结合、同中华优秀传统文化相结合,在实现中华民族伟大复兴的道路上不断取得胜利。

Over the past hundred years, all the struggles, sacrifices and efforts made by the CPC and by the Chinese people under its leadership have been directed to one goal – the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.

China's Communists, with Mao Zedong, Deng Xiaoping, Jiang Zemin, Hu Jintao and Xi Jinping as their chief representatives, have adapted the basic tenets of Marxism to China's realities and its traditional culture, and they have gone from victory to victory on their journey towards national rejuvenation.

为了实现中华民族伟大复兴,中国共产党团结带领中国人民,浴血奋战、百折不挠,创造了新民主主义革命的伟大成就。党团结带领人民,经过北伐战争、土地革命战争、抗日战争、解放战争,以武装的革命反对武装的反革命,推翻帝国主义、封建主义、官僚资本主义三座大山,建立了人民当家作主的中华人民共和国,实现了民族独立、人民解放。新民主主义革命的胜利,彻底结束了旧中国半殖民地半封建社会的历史,彻底结束了旧中国一盘散沙的局面,彻底废除了列强强加给中国的不平等条约和帝国主义在中国的一切特权,为实现中华民族伟大复兴创造了根本社会条件。中国共产党和中国人民以英勇顽强的奋斗向世界庄严宣告,中国人民站起来了,中华民族任人宰割、饱受欺凌的时代一去不复返了。

To realize national rejuvenation, the CPC led the Chinese people in fighting with unyielding determination, achieving great success in the New Democratic Revolution (1919-1949).

Fighting as armed revolutionaries through the Northern Expedition, the Agrarian Revolutionary War, the War of Resistance Against Japanese Aggression, and the War of Liberation, they defeated the counterrevolutionaries, shattered the three mountains of imperialism, feudalism, and bureaucrat-capitalism, and founded the People's Republic of China (PRC) in 1949. They secured the independence of the nation, liberated the Chinese people, and put their future in their own hands.

Victory in the New Democratic Revolution brought an end to China's semi-feudal and semi-colonial status and the disunity that plagued the country. All the unequal treaties imposed on China by imperialist powers and all the privileges they had accorded themselves were abolished. This created the fundamental conditions for realizing national rejuvenation.

By engaging in this tenacious struggle, the CPC and the Chinese people sent a powerful message to the world: The Chinese people had stood upright. The time of oppression and humiliation was over, and it would never return.

为了实现中华民族伟大复兴,中国共产党团结带领中国人民,自力更生、发愤图强,创造了社会主义革命和建设的伟大成就。党团结带领人民,进行社会主义革命,消灭在中国延续几千年的封建剥削压迫制度,确立社会主义基本制度,推进社会主义建设,战胜帝国主义、霸权主义的颠覆破坏和武装挑衅,实现了中华民族有史以来最为广泛而深刻的社会变革,实现了一穷二白、人口众多的东方大国大步迈进社会主义社会的伟大飞跃,为实现中华民族伟大复兴奠定了根本政治前提和制度基础。中国共产党和中国人民以英勇顽强的奋斗向世界庄严宣告,中国人民不但善于破坏一个旧世界、也善于建设一个新世界,只有社会主义才能救中国,只有社会主义才能发展中国。

To realize national rejuvenation, the CPC led the Chinese people in a dedicated effort to build a strong China, and they achieved great success.

By carrying out the socialist revolution in China, they brought to an end several thousand years of feudalism – a system exploitative and repressive by its very nature – and established socialism as China's fundamental political system. In the course of building socialism, they overcame subversion, sabotage, and armed provocation by imperialist and hegemonic powers, and brought about the most extensive and profound social changes in the history of the Chinese nation. This great transformation of a poor, backward and populous country in the East into a modern socialist China created the fundamental political conditions and laid down the institutional foundations necessary for realizing national rejuvenation.

By succeeding in their tenacious struggle, the CPC and the Chinese people showed the world that they were equally capable of changing the old China and building a new one. They showed the world that only socialism could save China, and that socialism could deliver development to China.

为了实现中华民族伟大复兴,中国共产党团结带领中国人民,解放思想、锐意进取,创造了改革开放和社会主义现代化建设的伟大成就。党团结带领人民,实现新中国成立以来党的历史上具有深远意义的伟大转折,确立党在社会主义初级阶段的基本路线,坚定不移推进改革开放,战胜来自各方面的风险挑战,开创、坚持、捍卫、发展中国特色社会主义,实现了从高度集中的计划经济体制到充满活力的社会主义市场经济体制、从封闭半封闭到全方位开放的历史性转变,实现了从生产力相对落后的状况到经济总量跃居世界第二的历史性突破,实现了人民生活从温饱不足到总体小康、奔向全面小康的历史性跨越,为实现中华民族伟大复兴提供了充满新的活力的体制保证和快速发展的物质条件。中国共产党和中国人民以英勇顽强的奋斗向世界庄严宣告,改革开放是决定当代中国前途命运的关键一招,中国大踏步赶上了时代。

To realize national rejuvenation, the CPC led the Chinese people in freeing their minds and forging ahead, achieving great success in reform, opening up, and socialist modernization.

The CPC led the people in making a great transition after the founding of the People's Republic by laying down its general guidelines for the primary stage of socialism. It advanced reform and opening up with resolve, overcame risks and challenges from every direction, and founded, upheld, and developed socialism with Chinese characteristics.

This enabled China to transform itself from a highly centralized planned economy into a socialist market economy full of vitality, and from a largely closed country to one that is open to the world on all fronts. It also enabled China to achieve a historic leap – from a country constrained by backward productive forces to the world's second largest economy – and to make a historic transformation by raising the living standards of its people from bare subsistence to general prosperity.

These achievements fueled the push towards national rejuvenation by providing robust institutional conditions and the material base for rapid development.

By succeeding in their tenacious struggle, the CPC and the Chinese people showed the world that reform and opening up has been critical in making China what it is today. China has made great strides and caught up with the times.

为了实现中华民族伟大复兴,中国共产党团结带领中国人民,自信自强、守正创新,统揽伟大斗争、伟大工程、伟大事业、伟大梦想,创造了新时代中国特色社会主义的伟大成就。党的十八大以来,中国特色社会主义进入新时代,党团结带领人民,坚持和加强党的全面领导,统筹推进“五位一体”总体布局、协调推进“四个全面”战略布局,坚持和完善中国特色社会主义制度、推进国家治理体系和治理能力现代化,坚持依规治党、形成比较完善的党内法规体系,战胜一系列重大风险挑战,实现第一个百年奋斗目标,明确实现第二个百年奋斗目标的战略安排,党和国家事业取得历史性成就、发生历史性变革,为实现中华民族伟大复兴提供了更为完善的制度保证、更为坚实的物质基础、更为主动的精神力量。中国共产党和中国人民以英勇顽强的奋斗向世界庄严宣告,中华民族迎来了从站起来、富起来到强起来的伟大飞跃,实现中华民族伟大复兴进入了不可逆转的历史进程。

To realize national rejuvenation, the CPC has led the Chinese people in carrying out their great struggle, launching a great initiative, advancing their great cause, fulfilling their great dream, and achieving great success for socialism with Chinese characteristics in the new era.

The 18th National Congress of the CPC in 2012 marked a new era for socialism with Chinese characteristics. In this new era, the Party has strengthened its overall leadership, coordinated the implementation of the Five-sphere Integrated Plan [ This is China's overall plan for building socialism with Chinese characteristics, that is, to promote coordinated progress in the economic, political, cultural, social and eco-environmental fields. ] and the Four-pronged Comprehensive Strategy [ This is China's strategic plan for building socialism with Chinese characteristics, that is, to make comprehensive moves to complete a moderately prosperous society in all respects, to further reform, to advance the rule of law, and to strengthen Party self-governance. After the Fifth Plenary Session of the 19th CPC Central Committee, "finishing the building of a moderately prosperous society in all respects" was turned into "building a modern socialist country in an all-round way" in accordance with the actual conditions.], upheld and improved the system of socialism with Chinese characteristics, and modernized China's system and capacity for governance.

It has adopted a full range of intra-Party regulations and exercised rule-based internal management. It has overcome significant risks and challenges, achieved the First Centenary Goal [ This is the goal set by the CPC at its 18th National Congress, to finish building a moderately prosperous society in all respects by the centenary of the CPC in 2021. – Tr.], and adopted a strategic plan to fulfill the Second Centenary Goal [ This is the goal set by the CPC at its 18th National Congress to build China into a modern socialist country that is prosperous, strong, democratic, culturally advanced, and harmonious by the centenary of the PRC in 2049. This goal was further defined by the CPC at its 19th National Congress in October 2017 as to develop China into a great modern socialist country that is prosperous, strong, democratic, culturally advanced, harmonious, and beautiful by the middle of the 21st century. – Tr.]. All these efforts have provided robust institutional conditions, strong material foundations, and a source of inspiration for advancing the cause of national rejuvenation.

By succeeding in their tenacious struggle, the CPC and the Chinese people have shown the world that the Chinese nation has achieved the tremendous transformation from standing upright to becoming prosperous and growing in strength, and that China's rejuvenation is an unstoppable historical force.

2021年7月1日,习近平总书记在庆祝中国共产党成立100周年大会上庄严宣告:“经过全党全国各族人民持续奋斗,我们实现了第一个百年奋斗目标,在中华大地上全面建成了小康社会,历史性地解决了绝对贫困问题,正在意气风发向着全面建成社会主义现代化强国的第二个百年奋斗目标迈进。这是中华民族的伟大光荣!这是中国人民的伟大光荣!这是中国共产党的伟大光荣!”全面建成小康社会,实现了中华民族的千年梦想、百年夙愿,兑现了中国共产党向人民、向历史作出的庄严承诺,显著缩小了世界贫困版图,为人类发展进步作出重要贡献。

At the ceremony marking the centenary of the CPC held on July 1, 2021, General Secretary Xi Jinping declared that thanks to the continued efforts of the whole Party and the entire nation, China has realized the First Centenary Goal of building a moderately prosperous society in all respects. This means that it has put an end to absolute poverty in China, and is now marching in confident strides towards the Second Centenary Goal of building China into a great modern socialist country. This is a glorious achievement for the Chinese nation, for the Chinese people, and for the Communist Party of China.

Finishing the building of a moderately prosperous society in all respects means realizing a millennia-old dream and a century-old hope of the Chinese nation and fulfilling the solemn promise the CPC made to the people and history. In substantially reducing the world's poverty-stricken population, China has made an outstanding contribution to human progress.

100年来,中国共产党领导人民改写了近代以后中华民族的屈辱历史,改变了近代以后中国人民的悲惨命运。没有共产党,就没有新中国,就没有中华民族伟大复兴,这是中国人民依据中国革命、建设、改革的历史经验得出的最基本、最重要的结论,是中国人民基于切身体会所确认的深刻认识。中国共产党领导,是历史的选择、人民的选择,是党和国家的根本所在、命脉所在,是全国各族人民的利益所系、命运所系。

Over the past hundred years, the CPC has led the Chinese people in ending the humiliation and misery inflicted on them in the modern era. Without the CPC, there would be no new China and no national rejuvenation. This is a fact that is clear to the Chinese people based on China's achievements in revolution, reconstruction, and reform.

The leadership of the CPC is the choice of history and the people. This leadership is vital for the future of the country, the nation, and the Party itself.

100年来,中国共产党团结带领中国人民,以“为有牺牲多壮志,敢教日月换新天”的大无畏气概,书写了中华民族几千年历史上最恢宏的史诗。这100年来开辟的伟大道路、创造的伟大事业、取得的伟大成就,必将载入中华民族发展史册、人类文明发展史册!

Over the past hundred years, through its dauntless efforts to create a new China, the CPC has led the Chinese people in writing the most magnificent chapter in the millennia-long history of the Chinese nation. The great path they have embarked upon, the great cause they have undertaken, and the great achievements they have made over the past century will go down in the annals of the Chinese nation and humanity.

一、全心全意为人民服务

I. Serving the People Wholeheartedly

中国共产党是中国工人阶级的先锋队,同时是中国人民和中华民族的先锋队,全心全意为人民服务是党的根本宗旨。江山就是人民、人民就是江山,党打江山、守江山,守的是人民的心。来自人民、依靠人民、为了人民,是100年来中国共产党的发展逻辑和胜利密码。

The Communist Party of China is the vanguard of China's working class, the Chinese people, and the Chinese nation. Serving the people wholeheartedly is its abiding mission. The country is the people and the people are the country. The Party's struggle to found a new China and develop it is for the people. Of the people, by the people, for the people – this is what has guided the CPC from victory to victory over the past century.

(一)把人民放在心中最高位置

1. Putting the People First

中国共产党是为人民奋斗的政党,始终把人民放在第一位,坚持尊重社会发展规律和尊重人民历史主体地位的一致性,坚持为崇高理想奋斗和为最广大人民谋利益的一致性,坚持完成党的各项工作和实现人民利益的一致性,不断把为人民造福事业推向前进。

The CPC is dedicated to the people and forever puts their interests first. It follows the underlying trends of social development and respects the people's principal role in making history. It pursues the lofty goal of working for the wellbeing of the Chinese people; and does everything in the interests of the people.

来自人民,植根人民。中国共产党是在中国人民反抗封建统治和外来侵略的激烈斗争中,在马克思列宁主义同中国工人运动的结合中诞生的。党从诞生之日起就有着广泛的代表性,不仅代表中国工人阶级,同时代表中国人民和中华民族。党没有任何自己特殊的利益,从来不代表任何利益集团、任何权势团体、任何特权阶层的利益,而是为人民谋幸福、为民族谋复兴。党的奋斗目标和人民的希望诉求相一致,党与人民一体同心、休戚与共、生死相依。党得到人民广泛支持,从人民中获得力量,历经挫折却不断发展壮大。中国共产党党员是劳动人民的普通一员,他们热爱生活,勤奋工作,真诚朴实,重情重义,在日常生产、工作、学习和社会生活中发挥先锋模范作用,面对困难和危险能够为保护国家和人民利益挺身而出、英勇斗争、不怕牺牲。既来自人民又有先进性,既保持先进又不失人民本色,共产党员就是这样一群既普通又不普通的中国人。

The CPC is rooted in the people. It was born in 1921 in the great struggle against feudal rule and foreign aggression, at a time when Marxism-Leninism became integrated with China's workers movement. From the very day of its creation, the CPC has represented China's working class, the Chinese people, and the Chinese nation. It has no special interests of its own, nor does it represent any interest group, establishment group, or privileged social group. Its only goals are to deliver happiness for the people and achieve national rejuvenation.

The CPC shares the same goals as the people, and it shares a common stake with the people. Drawing support and strength from the people, the Party has grown in strength in the fight to overcome every challenge.

Members of the CPC are ordinary people. They love life and are hard working. They are sincere, open and compassionate. But they are also vanguards and role models in daily life, work, and public activities. They are the first to step forward in case of challenges and dangers, fearless and ready to give their all for the country and the people. They emerge from the people and lead them to go forward. They are Communists – citizens of China both ordinary and extraordinary at the same time.

把人民装在心里,镌刻在自己的旗帜上。从“为人民服务”,到“把人民拥护不拥护、赞成不赞成、高兴不高兴、答应不答应作为制定方针政策和作出决断的出发点和归宿”“代表最广大人民的根本利益”“实现好、维护好、发展好最广大人民的根本利益”,再到“人民对美好生活的向往,就是我们的奋斗目标”,党全心全意为人民服务的根本宗旨一以贯之、坚定不移。党的所有工作,不论是开展革命斗争、建立武装力量、构建政治制度、进行经济建设,还是推进改革开放、推动文化发展、创新社会治理等,都以人民利益为根本考量。在中国,党领导人民建立的国家称为“中华人民共和国”,各级政府称为“人民政府”,党缔造的军队称为“人民解放军”,党的干部称为“人民公仆”,党中央的机关报称为“人民日报”,中央银行称为“人民银行”,等等。“人民”二字深深融入党的血脉,成为中国共产党人薪火相传、永不磨灭的精神基因。

From its very beginning, the CPC has striven to serve the people and won their support and endorsement. It represents the fundamental interests of all the Chinese, and everything it does is to realize, safeguard and advance their interests. Meeting the people's expectation for a better life is its goal.

The people's interests are behind everything the Party does – leading revolution, building the armed forces, developing political institutions, boosting the economy, carrying out reform and opening up, developing culture, and exploring better ways of running society.

In China, the state founded by the people under CPC leadership is called the People's Republic of China; its government is called the people's government, the armed forces are called the People's Liberation Army; and Party officials are people's servants. The Party Central Committee's newspaper is the People's Daily, and China's central bank is called the People's Bank. The people are the lifeblood of the Party; indeed, they are the inexhaustible source of inspiration giving the Party all the strength it needs to fulfill its mission.

把最广大人民根本利益作为作决策、定政策的最高标准。在革命、建设、改革的不同历史时期,在事关党和国家前途命运的重大历史关头,党都是从人民利益出发,对人民有利的就坚持去做,对人民不利的就坚决反对。党把发展作为执政兴国的第一要务,坚持发展是硬道理,不断解放和发展社会生产力,不断提高发展质量和水平,不断满足人民过上美好生活的新期待。党的十八大以来,党坚持以人民为中心的发展思想,在促进共同富裕、实现公平正义上推出一系列开创性举措,从全面建成小康社会一个都不能少到抗击新冠肺炎疫情救治病患不惜一切代价,从打赢脱贫攻坚战、实施乡村振兴战略到推进以人为核心的新型城镇化,从“绿水青山就是金山银山”到“房子是用来住的、不是用来炒的”,从防止资本无序扩张到让人民群众在每一宗司法案件中感受到公平正义,人民享有更多实实在在的发展成果。100年来,不论国内国际形势如何变化,不管顺境还是逆境,党把人民放在心中最高位置,从来没有改变过、动摇过、迟疑过。

The CPC makes decisions and adopts policies in the fundamental interests of the people. At different stages of China's revolution, reconstruction and reform, and at historical junctures critical to the future of the Party and the country, the Party has always acted to advance the people's interests and oppose any action that harms them.

The Party has taken sound development as its top priority in governance. It has unleashed and developed the productive forces to meet the people's expectation for a better life.

Since its 18th National Congress, the CPC has followed a people-centered philosophy; it has launched a full range of initiatives to achieve common prosperity and uphold fairness and justice.

It has delivered initial prosperity for all. It has fought Covid-19 and saved lives no matter the cost. It has eradicated absolute poverty in the country, implemented the rural revitalization strategy, and promoted a new people-focused urbanization strategy. The vision that lucid waters and lush mountains are invaluable assets inspires the drive to protect the environment.

Determined that housing is for living in, not for speculation, the CPC has taken clear steps to keep the housing market under control. It sees that the capital market is properly regulated. It also sees that justice is served in every judicial case. All of this has enabled the people to fully share the country's development gains.

Over the past century, through all the changes in the domestic and international environment, whether in good times or bad, the CPC has always put the people first. It has never wavered in fulfilling this commitment.

为人民付出巨大牺牲。从1921年到1949年,党领导的革命队伍中,有名可查的烈士就达370多万人。和平建设时期,在抗震救灾、抗洪抢险、应对突发事件等急难险重任务中,哪里有困难和危险,哪里就有共产党员。新冠肺炎疫情发生以来,近400名党员、干部为抗击疫情献出了宝贵生命。脱贫攻坚战中,1800多名党员、干部将生命定格在脱贫攻坚征程上。为人民牺牲的共产党员中,既有普通党员,也有党的高级领导干部,还有党的领袖的家人和亲属。毛泽东同志有六位亲人为革命而牺牲,其中五位是共产党员。

The CPC has made great sacrifices for the people. From the founding of the CPC in 1921 to the founding of the People's Republic in 1949, more than 3.7 million identified members of organizations under Party leadership gave their lives to liberate the country. Of the six family members of Mao Zedong who died for the revolution, five were Party members.

In peaceful times, too, during disaster relief efforts after earthquakes, floods and other emergencies, Party members have rushed to the scene and risked their own lives to save the lives of others. Since the Covid-19 outbreak, close to 400 Party members and officials have lost their lives in the line of duty. More than 1,800 Party members and officials also gave their lives in the battle against absolute poverty.

Among all those who have died were rank and file Party members, senior officials, and family members of top Party leaders.

(二)依靠人民不断取得胜利

2. From Victory to Victory with the People

中国共产党是为人民服务的政党,始终相信和依靠人民,最广泛地发动和组织人民为着自己的利益而奋斗。党创立和坚持一切为了群众,一切依靠群众,从群众中来,到群众中去的群众路线,与人民有福同享、有难同当,有盐同咸、无盐同淡,紧紧依靠人民战胜一个又一个困难、取得一个又一个胜利。

The CPC works in the service of the people. It trusts and relies on the people and mobilizes them to fight for their interests. It follows the mass line, a principle of "from the people, to the people". It has shared good times and hard times with the people, and it has led them in surmounting all obstacles and making great strides forward.

中国共产党依靠人民,从小到大、从弱到强,打败了强大的内外敌人,取得了新民主主义革命胜利。土地革命战争时期,党发动群众参加革命、支持革命,粉碎了国民党军队的一次次“围剿”。抗日战争时期,党凝聚起人民伟力,使日本侵略者陷入人民战争的汪洋大海。解放战争时期,人民群众通过肩挑背负、小车推送运送大量物资,为人民解放军取得三大战役①决定性胜利提供了巨大支持。在进步与反动、正义与非正义的较量中,国民党反动派依靠的是碉堡,中国共产党依靠的是人民;日本侵略者依靠的是强大军力,中国共产党依靠的是中国人民。

By relying on the people, the CPC rose and grew strong. It gained the strength it needed to beat powerful enemies, both inside and outside China, and to win victory in the New Democratic Revolution.

During this revolution, in the Agrarian Revolutionary War, the CPC galvanized extensive public support and defeated the first four Kuomintang (KMT) encirclement and suppression campaigns. During the War of Resistance Against Japanese Aggression, the Party mobilized the people and overwhelmed the enemy with a vast people's war. During the War of Liberation, with supplies transported in wheelbarrows and on people's shoulders, the People's Liberation Army (PLA) secured decisive victories against the KMT troops in the three major campaigns. [ This refers to the three major campaigns fought between PLA forces under CPC leadership and KMT forces in the Liaoxi-Shenyang, Huai-Hai and Beiping-Tianjin areas between September 1948 and January 1949. In this decisive period for securing overall victory, the CPC defeated the main forces of the KMT.]

In these contests between progressives and reactionaries and between justice and injustice, the KMT forces shielded themselves in ironclad fortresses, and the Japanese invaders put their faith in their military superiority. However by relying on the people, the CPC defeated them all.

中国共产党依靠人民,建立新中国,进行轰轰烈烈的社会主义革命和建设,在满目疮痍、一穷二白的烂摊子上干出了一片新天地。新中国的成立,结束了中国人民受奴役受压迫的历史。站立起来的中国人民,以新国家新社会主人的崭新姿态,以巨大的革命热情,为国家、为民族拼搏奋斗。新中国在较短时间内建立起独立的、比较完整的工业体系和国民经济体系,在核技术、人造卫星、运载火箭等尖端科学技术领域实现零的突破,国家建设取得巨大成就。

By relying on the people, the CPC founded the People's Republic, carried out socialist revolution, and engaged in rebuilding the country from scratch. The founding of the People's Republic marked the ultimate moment of freedom for the Chinese people from the yoke of slavery and oppression. Now masters of their own country, the people threw themselves into reconstruction to create a bright future for the country and the nation.

In just a few years, an independent and substantial industrial and economic system took shape in China. Groundbreaking successes were achieved in nuclear technology, satellites, carrier rockets and other cutting-edge technologies, and major advances were made in China's overall development.

中国共产党依靠人民,推进改革开放和社会主义现代化建设,走出一条中国特色社会主义道路。改革开放极大解放了中国人民的思想,激发了人们的创新创造热情。从家庭联产承包责任制到乡镇企业异军突起,从农村改革到城市改革,从建设经济特区到“引进来”“走出去”,中国人民敢闯敢试、勇于创新,在中国大地上掀起前所未有的改革热潮,为中国注入创新和发展的强大动力。中国人民用自己的辛劳和汗水,一砖一瓦建造起中国现代化的高楼大厦,实现了当代人类社会最伟大的经济和社会转型。

By relying on the people, the CPC carried out reform, opening up and socialist modernization, pioneering a path of socialism that is distinctively Chinese.

The reform and opening-up initiative launched by the CPC in 1978 freed people's minds, inspiring them to boldly explore new frontiers. The household contract system was introduced in rural areas, and village and township businesses flourished. The setting up of special economic zones connected China to the world, enabling it to introduce foreign technology and capital and export Chinese products. Waves of reform swept across the country, powering China's development. With dedication and resolve, the Chinese people achieved great success in modernization, completing the greatest social and economic transformation the world has ever seen.

中国共产党依靠人民,推动党和国家事业发生历史性变革、取得历史性成就,推动中国特色社会主义进入新时代。党的十八大以来,党以中国梦凝聚力量,以抓改革激发活力,以改作风振奋人心,极大提振了人民的精气神。中国人民高扬中华民族伟大创造精神、伟大奋斗精神、伟大团结精神、伟大梦想精神,建小康、战贫困、促改革、抗疫情、治污染、化风险,撸起袖子加油干,一张蓝图绘到底,形成奋进新时代的强大力量,创造了让世界刮目相看的奇迹,在中国特色社会主义道路上昂首迈进、阔步向前。

By relying on the people, the CPC has ushered Chinese socialism into a new era. Since its 18th National Congress, the Party has galvanized the whole nation to realize the Chinese Dream of national rejuvenation and boosted economic vitality with further reform. Its successful internal initiatives to improve Party conduct have boosted public morale.

The Chinese people have given of their best and fully released their power of creation in pursuit of their shared dreams. They have carried out further reform and achieved all-round initial prosperity. They have eradicated absolute poverty. They have fought side by side in the battle against Covid-19. They have reined in environmental pollution. And they have succeeded in keeping systemic risks at bay. Their hard work has made it possible for China to turn its blueprint for development into reality. Together, the Chinese people are creating miracles that stun the world. Proud and confident, they are pressing ahead on the path of Chinese socialism.

100年来,亿万中华儿女把热血、汗水洒在中国大地上,为实现中华民族伟大复兴顽强斗争、奋力拼搏,创造了彪炳史册的丰功伟绩,书写了光耀千秋的英雄史诗。人民是历史的创造者,人民是党的力量源泉,中国人民是伟大、光荣、英雄的人民,中国共产党的百年发展史深刻说明了这个颠扑不破的真理。

Over the past century, hundreds of millions of Chinese have dedicated themselves to realizing the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. Their contribution will go down in the annals of history; their epic deeds will be remembered by posterity. The people have created history, and they are the source of the Party's strength. The Chinese are a great, glorious, and heroic people – this is a fact fully borne out by the 100-year history of the CPC.

(三)实现人民当家作主

3. The People as Masters of the Country

人民当家作主是中国共产党矢志不渝的奋斗目标。100年来,党高举人民民主旗帜,领导人民在一个有几千年封建社会历史、近代成为半殖民地半封建社会的国家实现了人民民主。民主从价值理念成为扎根中国大地的制度形态和治理机制,贯穿党领导人民进行革命、建设、改革的全过程,覆盖国家治理的各环节,体现在经济社会发展的各方面,中国人民真正成为国家、社会和自己命运的主人。

The people should run their own country – this is an abiding commitment of the CPC. Over the past hundred years, it has led the people in realizing people's democracy in China, a country with a feudal history dating back several thousand years that descended into a semi-feudal and semi-colonial society after the Opium War.

Under the CPC's leadership, democracy has been practiced in the whole process of the country's revolution, reconstruction and reform, in all aspects of governance, and in every field of economic and social life. Democracy, a shared value, has taken root in China as a political institution and mechanism of governance, and the Chinese people now truly hold in their own hands the future of the country, society and themselves.

为实现人民民主不断探索。新民主主义革命时期,党提出工农民主、人民民主等政治主张,创立工农兵代表苏维埃、参议会、各界人民代表会议等民主形式。新中国成立后,确立了人民民主专政的国体和人民代表大会制度的政体,人民当家做了主人。改革开放新时期,党把坚持党的领导、人民当家作主、依法治国有机统一,确立为中国特色社会主义民主政治的基本原则。党的十八大以来,党明确提出评价一个国家的政治制度是不是民主、有效的八条标准②,进一步丰富了中国特色社会主义政治发展道路的核心内涵;把民主政治建设作为国家政治生活中管根本、管全局、管长远的重大问题,以保证人民当家作主为根本,以增强党和国家活力、调动人民积极性为目标,进一步扩大社会主义民主,推进选举民主,发展协商民主。

The CPC has made unremitting efforts to explore new ways of realizing people's democracy.

During the New Democratic Revolution, the Party committed to developing workers' and peasants' democracy and people's democracy, and set up Soviet congresses of workers, peasants and soldiers, assemblies of representatives, and representative conferences of people from all sectors.

When the People's Republic of China was founded, the people's democratic dictatorship was adopted as the governing system, and the system of people's congresses was instituted as the governing structure, thus enabling the people to run their own country.

Since the launch of reform and opening up, the CPC has worked to ensure the Party's leadership, the people's position as the masters of the country, and law-based governance, which have become fundamental principles of democratic socialism with distinctive Chinese features.

Since its 18th National Congress, the CPC has set Eight Criteria [ At the meeting marking the 60th anniversary of the National People's Congress in 2014, President Xi Jinping said the following: The best way to judge whether a country's political system is democratic and works is to see whether the succession of its leaders is conducted in an orderly way in accordance with the law, whether government affairs and social, economic and cultural affairs are managed by all the people in accordance with the law, whether the public freely voice demands to advance their interests, whether all stakeholders in society are fully involved in the country's political process, whether government decisions are made in a sound and democratic way, whether outstanding individuals in all sectors can enter government leadership teams and the governance system through fair competition, whether the governing party exercises leadership over government affairs in accordance with the Constitution and the law, and whether the exercise of power is kept under effective checks and supervision. ] to ensure that China's political system is a democratic one that delivers, and these criteria underpin the path of socialism with Chinese characteristics. The Party takes the development of democracy as a matter of comprehensive and far-reaching significance. To ensure the people's principal position, improve the performance of the Party and the state, and arouse the people's enthusiasm, the Party has expanded socialist democracy, advanced electoral democracy, and developed consultative democracy.

人民代表大会制度是中国的根本政治制度,是中国共产党保障人民当家作主的伟大创造。党倾听人民呼声,了解人民意愿,汇聚人民智慧,并形成党的政策主张。通过党领导立法工作、全国人民代表大会及其常务委员会主导立法工作的制度安排,党的主张经法定程序成为国家的宪法法律,并成为全国各族人民、一切国家机关和武装力量、各政党和各社会团体、各企事业组织应当遵循的行为规则。人民代表大会制度确保了党的领导、人民当家作主、依法治国有机统一,实现了党的主张、人民意愿与国家意志相一致。党的十八大以来,人民代表大会制度不断巩固和发展,人大代表与群众全面联系的机制进一步加强,人大代表行使代表职权得到更好保证,人大及其常委会职能作用得到充分发挥。

Instituted by the CPC, the system of people's congresses is China's fundamental political system. The Party fully solicits the views of the people and heeds their voices, and formulates its policies accordingly.

In a framework under which the Party exercises leadership over the law-making process, and the National People's Congress (NPC) and its Standing Committee exercise the power of legislation, the Party's core beliefs have, through proper legal procedures, been written into the Constitution, the law, and codes of conduct for all the people, state institutions, the armed forces, political parties, social organizations, enterprises and public institutions. The system of people's congresses ensures the CPC's leadership, the people's position as masters of the country, and law-based governance, and it gives full expression to the guidelines of the CPC, the will of the state, and the expectations of the people. This system has been further consolidated and developed since the 18th National Congress of the CPC. The mechanism to ensure that deputies to people's congresses engage with the people has been strengthened, enabling them to better perform their duties, and enabling the people's congresses and their standing committees to better play their roles.

在坚持和完善人民代表大会制度的同时,党领导人民创立和发展中国共产党领导的多党合作和政治协商制度、民族区域自治制度、基层群众自治制度等基本政治制度,形成了人民当家作主制度体系。协商民主是中国特色社会主义民主政治中独特的、独有的、独到的民主形式,包括政党协商、人大协商、政府协商、政协协商、人民团体协商、基层协商、社会组织协商等七种协商渠道,极大丰富了民主形式、拓宽了民主渠道、加深了民主内涵。民族区域自治制度是中国特色解决民族问题正确道路的重要内容和制度保障,既保证了国家团结统一,又实现了各民族共同当家作主,推动了民族地区发展,促进了民族团结,56个民族像石榴籽一样紧紧抱在一起,极大增强了中华民族凝聚力、向心力。基层群众自治制度有力保障了居民群众对城乡社区公共事务以及公益事业直接行使民主权利,基层治理和谐有序、充满活力。以职工代表大会为基本形式的企事业单位民主管理制度,对于保障职工的合法权益和主人翁地位,调动职工积极性,推动企事业单位发展,发挥了积极作用。

In addition to practicing and improving the system of people's congresses, the CPC has led the people in establishing and developing a number of other political systems, including the system of multiparty cooperation and political consultation under the leadership of the CPC, the system of regional ethnic autonomy, and the system of community-level self-governance. These systems ensure that the people run their country.

Consultative democracy is a distinctive feature of China's socialist democracy. It means consultation among political parties, people's congresses, government departments, committees of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC), people's organizations, communities, and social organizations. It has enriched democracy by expanding its forms and channels.

The system of regional ethnic autonomy provides an institutional base for all ethnic groups to run the country together. It fully protects the equal rights of all 56 ethnic groups and the power of self-governance in ethnic autonomous areas, underpins development in ethnic minority areas, and reinforces ethnic unity.

Under the system of community-level self-governance, urban and rural residents directly exercise their democratic right to manage community affairs and programs for public benefit. Community-level governance in China is a dynamic, harmonious and orderly process.

The system of democratic management by employees congresses in enterprises and public institutions plays an active role in protecting the lawful rights and interests of the employees. It ensures they run their own affairs, enhances vitality of these organizations, and helps them to flourish and prosper.

发展全过程人民民主。人民民主的真谛是有事好商量、众人的事情由众人商量,找到全社会意愿和要求的最大公约数。在长期探索实践中,党领导人民发展全过程人民民主,人民依法享有广泛权利和自由,通过多种渠道和途径行使民主权利,不只体现在几年一次的投票选举上,还体现在关系国计民生的重大公共事务决策上;不只体现在民主选举环节,还体现在民主协商、民主决策、民主管理、民主监督等国家治理其他环节;不只体现在政治领域,还广泛深入到经济、文化、社会等领域,成为人们日常工作和生产生活的组成部分。在中国,人民享有广泛充分、真实具体、有效管用的民主,人民的民主生活丰富多彩。如今的中国,早已远离了禁锢和封闭,民主蔚然成风,人们心情舒畅,社会充满活力。

The CPC conducts whole-process democracy. This practice is supported by public consultation, under which public issues are discussed by all those involved to reach extensive consensus.

Under whole-process democracy, the people exercise their democratic rights through a variety of channels – in regular elections, and through involvement in decision-making on major public affairs that are important to the economy and people's lives. This democracy is conducted not only by means of elections, but also through democratic consultation, decision-making, management, scrutiny, and other mechanisms of governance. It is not only a political activity; it also relates to economic, cultural, social and other fields. Indeed, it has become an integral part of daily life and work.

The Chinese people enjoy extensive democratic rights. The days of isolation are gone in China, and democracy is the order of the day. The Chinese people now live in contentment, and Chinese society is full of vitality.

中国的民主植根中国历史文化,符合中国国情,得到人民拥护。民主实现形式是多样的,适合的就是最好的。民主是全人类共同价值,不是某个国家的“专利”。世界上没有定于一尊的民主形式。评判一种民主形式,关键要看它是否适应本国历史文化,是否符合本国现实国情,能否带来政治稳定、社会进步、民生改善,能否得到人民的支持和拥护,能否为人类进步事业作出贡献。中国共产党坚定不移走中国特色社会主义政治发展道路,不断丰富和发展中国式民主,让民主之树枝繁叶茂、永远常青。

Democracy is a shared value; it is not something to be claimed by any one country. There is no fixed model of democracy; it comes in many forms. In judging whether a particular form of democracy works, one needs to see whether it is adapted to a country's history and culture, whether it conforms to its conditions, whether it can deliver political stability and social progress, whether it can improve people's lives, whether it can win public support, and whether it can contribute to advancing the progressive cause of humanity. Democracy as practiced in China is rooted in China's history and culture. It fits the country's conditions and enjoys popular support. The CPC is committed to developing socialist democracy with distinctive Chinese features. It will continue to enrich China's model of democracy and ensure its sound development.

(四)让人民过上好日子

4. A Good Life for the People

中国共产党干革命、搞建设、谋发展,都是为了让人民过上幸福生活。经过百年奋斗,中国从山河破碎、衰败凋零到蓬勃发展、欣欣向荣,发生了翻天覆地的巨大变化。今天的中国,已经成为世界第二大经济体,综合实力和国际影响力显著提升。今天的中国,城市繁华时尚,乡村和谐美丽,基础设施先进,交通安全便利,市场充满活力,社会安定有序。今天的中国,人民过上了几千年来梦寐以求的好日子,向着共同富裕的目标不断迈进。

Everything the CPC has done in revolution, reconstruction and reform is designed to ensure a good life for the people. Over the past century, China has undergone tremendous changes turning itself from a poor and war-torn country into a dynamic and prosperous one. It is now the world's second largest economy, growing in composite strength and international standing. It has thriving cosmopolitan cities, beautiful and harmonious countryside, advanced infrastructure, a safe and convenient transport network, a dynamic market, and a stable and orderly society. Its people are leading a comfortable life to which they have aspired for several thousand years, and they are working towards common prosperity.

人民生活极大改善。中国人民摆脱绝对贫困,从总体小康到全面小康,过上了日益富足的生活,获得感幸福感安全感不断增强,生存权发展权有效保障。人均国民总收入超过1万美元,处于中等偏上收入经济体行列,正在向高收入国家迈进。城乡居民生活水平差距大幅缩小,形成了超过4亿人的世界上规模最大的中等收入群体。就业局势保持总体稳定,截至2020年底,全国就业人数为75064万人。中国建成世界上规模最大的社会保障体系,截至2021年6月底,全国基本养老、失业、工伤保险参保人数分别达到10.14亿人、2.22亿人、2.74亿人,基本医疗保险覆盖超过13亿人。健全完善社会救助制度,困难群众基本生活有效保障。幼有所育、学有所教、劳有所得、病有所医、老有所养、住有所居、弱有所扶更好实现。文化事业和文化产业繁荣发展,人民的精神生活更加丰富、更加活跃。生态文明建设取得丰硕成果,人民生活的家园天更蓝、山更绿、水更清。中国长期保持社会和谐稳定、人民安居乐业,是世界上公认的最有安全感的国家之一。

The people's lives have greatly improved. They have shaken off absolute poverty and achieved moderate prosperity in all respects. Their rights to existence and development are well protected, and they feel happier, safer and more secure. With a per capita gross national income surpassing US$10,000, China has joined the ranks of upper-middle income economies, and is on its way to become a high-income country. The urban-rural income gap is steadily shrinking, and China has a middle-income group of 400 million people, the biggest in the world.

The employment market in China is stable. At the end of 2020, almost 751 million people in China were in employment.

China has built the world's largest social security network, with basic medical insurance covering 1.3 billion people by the end of June 2021. During the same period, one billion people were covered by basic old-age insurance, 222 million by unemployment insurance, and 274 million by work-related injury insurance. The people have better access to childcare, education, employment, medical services, elderly care, housing, and social assistance.

The cultural sector is flourishing, and the Chinese people enjoy colorful and enriching cultural activities. China has done much to protect its environment; across the country there are more blue skies, lush mountains and lucid waters. China maintains long-term social harmony and stability, and its people live in peace and contentment in a country widely recognized as one of the safest in the world.

人民精神面貌发生由内而外的深刻变化。中国人民不仅在物质上富了起来,也在精神上强了起来,意气风发地迈向更加美好的未来。中国人民可以平视世界,道路自信、理论自信、制度自信、文化自信极大增强。共产党好、社会主义好、改革开放好、伟大祖国好、各族人民好的时代主旋律高亢响亮,中国特色社会主义和中国梦深入人心。爱国主义精神、改革创新精神、新时代奋斗精神广泛弘扬,社会主义核心价值观③传播践行,中华优秀传统文化传承发展,全社会充满向美向上向善的正能量。中国人民热爱自由、崇尚自由,把个人自由融于国家繁荣发展、社会和谐稳定之中,享有真实、全面、广泛的自由。面对前进道路上的困难和挑战,中国人民团结一心、无所畏惧,敢于斗争、坚决胜利。中国人民天下一家的情怀更加彰显,希望世界更加和平,各国人民生活更加美好。一代代中国青年把青春奋斗融入党和人民事业,充满朝气、充满激情、充满希望,成为实现中华民族伟大复兴的先锋力量。

The mindset of the Chinese people has changed profoundly. They have strong faith in the path, theory, system and culture of Chinese socialism. They now view themselves as the equals of any other in the world. They celebrate the CPC, socialism, reform and opening up, the motherland, and the unity of all ethnic groups in China. Patriotism, reform, innovation, and hard work have taken root in their minds. Core Socialist Values [ The Core Socialist Values: Prosperity, democracy, civility and harmony are values that underpin the Chinese nation; freedom, equality, justice and the rule of law are values that hold society together; patriotism, dedication, good faith and amity are values that underlie individual conduct.] are practiced, and traditional Chinese culture is full of vitality. All of this fills Chinese society with positive energy and confidence.

The Chinese people value and uphold freedom. They enjoy true, comprehensive and extensive freedom. While pursuing their own individual freedoms, they also work to promote common prosperity, development, social harmony and stability. United as one, they face difficulties head-on, rise to challenges, and strive for success. They regard all the world's peoples as one big family, and wish peace and a better life for everyone.

Energetic, passionate young Chinese are dedicating themselves to the cause of the CPC and the people, and they are at the forefront in working to rejuvenate the Chinese nation.

经过长期努力,中国取得了巨大发展成就,但中国仍处于并将长期处于社会主义初级阶段的基本国情没有变,中国是世界上最大发展中国家的国际地位没有变。解决好人民日益增长的美好生活需要和不平衡不充分的发展之间的矛盾,让14亿多人民都过上富裕的日子,仍然有很长的路要走,仍然需要付出长期艰苦的努力。

While China has achieved remarkable successes as a result of a dedicated effort made over many years, it is still in the primary stage of socialism and will long remain so. China is still the largest developing country in the world. There is still a long way to go before China can resolve the principal challenge it faces – the gap between unbalanced and inadequate development and the growing expectation of the people for a better life – and deliver prosperity to all its 1.4 billion people.

100年来,中国共产党用理念主张更用实际行动,赢得了人民的衷心拥护。中国人民对党的拥护,是经过反复比较,经过无数事实和考验形成的。中国人民一旦认定了中国共产党的领导,就不曾改变过。100年来,党与人民心心相印、同甘共苦、团结奋斗,形成了不可分割的紧密联系。任何想把中国共产党同中国人民分割开来、对立起来的企图,都不会得逞;任何想让中国人民放弃中国共产党领导的企图,都不会得逞。

Over the past hundred years, the CPC has won the heartfelt support of the people, not with rhetoric, but with actions and outcomes and by meeting repeated challenges. This support has never wavered since the Chinese people first chose the CPC to lead them. The Party and the people work together and share weal and woe, and there is an inseparable bond between them. No attempt to sever that bond will ever succeed, and any attempt to shake the people's faith in the Party's leadership is doomed to fail.

二、为实现理想不懈奋斗

II. Realizing the Ideals of the Party

奋斗,是中国共产党的鲜明品质。中国的革命、建设、改革,是在复杂的内外环境中进行的,道路之险、挑战之多世所罕见。100年来,党遭遇过艰难险阻,经历过生死考验,付出过惨烈牺牲,但始终奋斗不止。党的百年发展史,就是在马克思主义指引下,坚定信念、勇于探索、百折不挠、顽强不屈的不懈奋斗史。

Struggle is a distinctive attribute of the CPC. In a complex domestic and international environment, China has encountered unprecedented difficulties and challenges in its revolution, reconstruction, and reform. Since it was founded a hundred years ago, the Party has never given up on the struggle, whatever hardships, existential trials, or bitter sacrifices it faced. These hundred years have seen the Party fight on, guided by Marxism, and buttressed by firm convictions, an enterprising spirit, and unyielding determination.

(一)坚持科学理论指导

1. Upholding Marxism

马克思主义是中国共产党的根本指导思想,是党的灵魂,是指引党不断前行的光辉旗帜。中国共产党为什么能,中国特色社会主义为什么好,归根到底是因为马克思主义行。党的奋斗历史,就是不断推进马克思主义中国化的历史,就是不断推进理论创新、进行理论创造的理论探索史。

Marxism is the single guiding ideology, the very soul of the CPC, and the banner under which it strives. Fundamentally, the strength of the Party and the strength of socialism with Chinese characteristics are attributable to the fact that Marxism works. The Party's history of struggle is a process of continuing to adapt Marxism to the Chinese context and to explore creative and innovative ideas.

把马克思主义写在自己的旗帜上。马克思主义深刻揭示了自然界、人类社会、人类思维发展的普遍规律,为人类社会发展进步指明了方向,极大推进了人类文明进程。马克思主义提出的共产主义、社会主义理想,与中华文明重民本、尚和合、求大同的理念相契合,与中国历代有志之士追求民富国强的梦想相适应,与近代以来中国先进分子救亡图存的愿望相一致。更为可贵的是,马克思主义不仅提出了共产主义的远大理想,而且指明了实现这个理想的方法和路径。马克思主义传入中国后,中国共产党的早期创立者,经过亲身实践、审慎思考、反复推求,选择了马克思主义。中国共产党人一旦选择了马克思主义,就一以贯之、坚定不移地坚持它、发展它、维护它,从来没有动摇过、改变过、放弃过。

Inscribing Marxism on its own banner. Marxism reveals the universal laws of the natural world, human society, and the human mind, pointing the direction for humanity and human civilization to progress. The communist and socialist ideals expounded in Marxism tally with Chinese cultural values such as a people-centered orientation, harmony, and unity in diversity. They are consistent with the dream pursued by noble and idealistic Chinese for generations – to build a strong and prosperous nation. And they accord with the aspiration of Chinese progressives, dating back to the Opium War, to rescue the nation from subjugation. A key feature of Marxism is that it not only defines the ideals of communism, but also specifies the ways and means by which they can be achieved.

When Marxism was introduced to China, the founders of the CPC first reflected on it and conducted careful analysis, then gained hands-on experience, and finally chose to embrace it wholeheartedly. Since China's Communists chose Marxism, they have remained firm in upholding and developing it. Never have they wavered in their commitment, deviated from its goals, or abandoned it in favor of other options.

把马克思主义作为认识世界、把握规律、追求真理、改造世界的强大思想武器,而不是一成不变的教条。同实际结合,同群众结合,是中国共产党运用马克思主义解决中国问题具有的特点和优点。100年来,党不断推进马克思主义中国化时代化,不断开辟马克思主义新境界,产生了毛泽东思想、邓小平理论、“三个代表”重要思想、科学发展观,产生了习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想,为党和人民事业发展提供了科学理论指导,为丰富和发展马克思主义作出重大原创性贡献。

Using Marxism as a powerful ideological weapon to seek the truth, understand the world and its laws, and transform it, rather than applying rigid dogma. Respecting reality and combining with the people are the characteristics and strengths of the CPC.

Over the past hundred years, the CPC has continued to adapt Marxism to the Chinese context and the needs of the times. Mao Zedong Thought, Deng Xiaoping Theory, the Theory of Three Represents, the Scientific Outlook on Development, and Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era are the results. The Party has thus devised well-conceived theories for its own and the people's guidance, and made an enormous and original contribution to enriching Marxism.

中国共产党之所以在革命、建设、改革进程中不断取得胜利,根本在于掌握了有力的思想武器,能够运用马克思主义立场、观点、方法,正确认识问题,科学分析问题,有效解决问题。实践表明,中国共产党选择马克思主义是完全正确的。新的征程上,党以更加宽阔的眼界审视马克思主义在当代发展的现实基础和实践需要,坚持把马克思主义基本原理同中国具体实际相结合、同中华优秀传统文化相结合,用马克思主义观察时代、把握时代、引领时代,继续发展当代中国马克思主义、21世纪马克思主义。

At the fundamental level, the CPC's successes can be attributed to its mastery of powerful theoretical weapons to correctly understand, scientifically analyze, and effectively solve problems by applying the Marxist stance, viewpoint and methodology. Experience has proved that the CPC's choice of Marxism is correct. On the journey ahead, considering China's realities in contemporary times the Party will continue to adapt the basic tenets of Marxism to the best of China's traditional culture, and use Marxism to observe, understand, and steer the trends of our times in the 21st century.

(二)坚守理想信念

2. Firm Ideals and Convictions

中国共产党一经成立,就把为共产主义、社会主义奋斗作为自己的纲领。100年来,党始终坚守共产主义、社会主义的理想信念,领导人民向着奋斗目标坚定前行,不但建立了社会主义,而且维护和发展了社会主义,在世界上高高举起了中国特色社会主义伟大旗帜,展示了社会主义的生机活力和美好前景。社会主义没有辜负中国,中国也没有辜负社会主义。

From the outset, the CPC has championed the cause of socialism and communism. Over the past hundred years, standing firm in its ideals and convictions, it has led the people to press forward towards these goals. It has established, upheld and developed socialism, upheld the principles of socialism with Chinese characteristics, and demonstrated the vitality and bright prospects of socialism. The Party has remained true to socialism, and socialism has proved its worth to China.

在困顿逆境、挫折失败中奋起。革命战争年代,党多次面临困难和挫折,甚至濒临被敌人消灭的危险境地。大革命失败后,党由近6万人锐减到1万多人。第五次反“围剿”④失败后,党和红军的力量遭受极大削弱。长征⑤途中,湘江战役一战,中央红军从长征出发时的8.6万多人锐减至3万多人。在革命前途变得十分黯淡的时刻,党对自己的信念毫不动摇,在困境中发展壮大,在绝境中突出重围,在逆境中毅然奋起。新中国成立后,面对军事上、经济上、国际上的困难和挑战,党领导人民发扬“一不怕苦、二不怕死”的革命精神,坚定信心,克服困难,使社会主义中国巍然屹立在世界东方。上世纪80年代末90年代初,世界社会主义运动陷入低潮,党领导人民顶住逆流,排除干扰,沿着中国特色社会主义道路坚定前行。进入新时代,面对国内改革、发展、稳定的繁重任务,面对严峻的国际形势和外部压力,党领导人民进行具有许多新的历史特点的伟大斗争,把中国特色社会主义继续推向前进。100年来,困难、失败和挫折没有阻挡住中国共产党的前进,只是使它更加坚强、更加成熟。在重大历史关头和危难时刻,党坚守理想信念,不畏惧、不退缩,迎难而上、勇往直前,一次次彰显了党的力量,一次次增强了人民对党的信任和信心,一次次扭转了党和国家的前途命运,一次次把社会主义事业推向前进。

Rising through adversity and failures. In the years of revolutionary war, the CPC was repeatedly confronted with difficulties and setbacks, to the extent that its very survival was threatened. After the failure of the Great Revolution (1924-1927), the membership of the Party fell from around 60,000 to just over 10,000. After defeat in the fifth encirclement and suppression campaign by the KMT in 1934, [ This refers to the Central Red Army's fight against the fifth encirclement and suppression campaign launched by the KMT troops in the Central Revolutionary Base Area from September 1933 to October 1934. From 1930 to 1934, the KMT troops launched five largescale onslaughts against the Central Revolutionary Base Area headquartered in Ruijin, Jiangxi Province. The Red Army overcame the KMT forces in the first four campaigns, but after defeat in the fifth campaign, it made a strategic withdrawal.] the Party and the Red Army were seriously weakened. The Battle of Xiangjiang soon after the beginning of the Long March [ This was the strategic retreat of the main Red Army forces under the leadership of the CPC, and the trek from the Soviet Area south of the Yangtze River to the Shaanxi-Gansu border area during the period from October 1934 to October 1936, marking a great transition from defeat to victory for the Party and the Chinese revolution.] cost the Central Red Army more than 50,000 of its 86,000 troops. But for all that the situation was bleak, the CPC remained unshaken in its convictions. It shook off its pursuers, rose above adversity, and emerged stronger from the setbacks.

After the founding of the PRC, the country faced testing military and economic challenges and hostility from abroad. Led by the CPC, and fearless of hardship and death, the people overcame these challenges. A new socialist China soon stood firm in the East.

From the late 1980s to early 1990s, when the tide of world socialism was on the ebb, the CPC led the people to press forward on the path of Chinese socialism, heedless of all obstacles.

In the new era, faced with the formidable tasks of reform, development and stability, and confronted by an unpromising external environment, the Party has led the people to continue the great historic struggle and to champion the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics.

Difficulties, failures and setbacks in the past hundred years have never prevented the CPC from forging ahead; they have only made it stronger and helped it mature. At critical historical junctures and in times of crisis, the Party has stood firm in ideals and convictions, rising undaunted to face challenges. This has demonstrated its strength, increased the people's trust and confidence, transformed its own prospects and those of the country, and advanced the cause of socialism.

在逆境中拼搏奋斗,在顺境中继续奋斗。面对胜利顺利,中国共产党力戒骄傲自满,保持奋斗精神。取得执政地位后,在进入繁华城市、执掌全国政权、从事和平建设的历史条件下,党继续保持了谦虚、谨慎、不骄、不躁的作风和艰苦奋斗本色,没有被糖衣炮弹打倒。改革开放后,党抵制住了资本主义和封建主义腐朽思想的影响和侵蚀。进入新时代,党和国家各项事业蒸蒸日上,党保持清醒认识,反复警醒全党绝不能有半点骄傲自满、固步自封,绝不能有丝毫犹豫不决、徘徊彷徨,居安思危,继续奋斗。100年来,党没有躺在功劳簿上沉湎过去,没有因为取得的成绩松弛懈怠,没有在喝彩声、赞扬声中丧失斗志,始终保持了昂扬奋进的精神状态。

Fighting in both favorable and unfavorable circumstances. After securing victory in its military campaigns, the CPC maintained its fighting spirit and strove to avoid complacency. After becoming the governing party of China, it continued to remain modest and prudent, never arrogant or impetuous. In leading reconstruction in the cities in peace time, it preserved the style of plain living and hard struggle and never fell victim to the desire for creature comforts. In the process of reform and opening up, the CPC endeavors to guard against the erosive influence of feudalist and capitalist decadence.

Entering the new era, the CPC has never allowed itself to be carried away by the successes the Party and the state have achieved. It has warned all its members that they must never surrender to complacency or sclerotic thinking, never falter, never waver; rather, they must remain alert to dangers in times of peace and keep fighting.

Over the past hundred years the Party has never rested on its laurels, slackened its efforts, or allowed flattery and praise to dilute its spirit and will to fight.

既锚定远大目标,又脚踏实地,一代人负起一代人的使命,不断向着奋斗目标前进。党追求的共产主义最高理想,只有在社会主义社会充分发展和高度发达的基础上才能实现。中国共产党人之所以为之前仆后继,是因为他们坚信,一代又一代人驰而不息、接续奋斗,崇高理想就一定能够实现。在中华民族伟大复兴的接力跑中,一代又一代中国共产党人,一代又一代中国人民,一棒接着一棒跑下去,奋力跑好自己这一棒,为下一代跑出好成绩。

Being firmly grounded while aiming high for the future. Every generation of Party members has fulfilled its respective missions and kept pressing forward. The ideals of communism can only be realized by the Party based on fully developed and highly advanced socialism. Communists in China believe that if they keep fighting for this with sufficient effort over generations it can be achieved. In the battle to realize national rejuvenation, the Party and the people will pass on the torch from one generation to the next, with each generation fulfilling its duties for the benefit of the next.

在奋斗行动中淬炼奋斗精神,用奋斗精神激励奋斗行动。中国共产党人弘扬伟大建党精神,顽强拼搏、不懈奋斗,涌现了一大批视死如归的革命烈士、一大批顽强奋斗的英雄人物、一大批忘我奉献的先进模范,形成了系列伟大精神,构建起中国共产党人的精神谱系。这些宝贵精神财富,深深融入中华民族的血脉之中,使中国人民的精神面貌发生巨大变化,为民族复兴提供了更持久、更深沉、更有力量的强大支撑。

Forging a fighting spirit in hard work and working hard to keep that spirit. Carrying forward its founding spirit, the CPC has fought hard and persevered. It has developed a set of inspiring principles which are manifested in the ranks of its revolutionary martyrs defiant in the face of death, its hard-working heroes, and its selfless and devoted models. This invaluable spirit has been distilled into the lifeblood of the Chinese nation, boosting the Chinese people's morale, and creating longer, fuller and stronger support for the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.

100年来,党领导人民拼搏奋斗,在中国大地不仅建筑起遍地林立的高楼大厦,而且铸造了巍然耸立的中华民族精神大厦。

Over the past hundred years, led by the CPC, the Chinese people have changed the face of the country through their arduous efforts, and more importantly, reshaped China's national psyche.

(三)在不断探索中前进

3. Breaking New Ground

中国的革命、建设、改革,走的是前人没有走过的道路,没有现成经验可以照搬。面对前进道路上层出不穷的新情况新问题,中国共产党领导人民勇于探索、敢闯敢试,不断实现从未知到已知、从必然王国向自由王国的跨越,不断把社会主义事业推向前进。

China's revolution, reconstruction and reform are unprecedented undertakings, with no previous examples to serve as a guide. Facing new situations and new problems on the way forward, and employing indomitable courage and determination, the CPC has succeeded in blazing a new trail from the unknown to the realms of freedom. All its endeavors have advanced the cause of socialism in China.

把握世界大势,抓住和用好历史机遇。人类历史有其发展的大逻辑。100年来,党在历史前进的逻辑中前进,在时代发展的潮流中发展,因势而谋、应势而动、顺势而为,掌握了历史主动。中国共产党的诞生,社会主义中国的成立,改革开放的实行,都是顺应世界发展大势的结果。改革开放后,党把握和平与发展时代主题,加快推进改革开放和现代化建设;紧紧抓住世界科技迅猛发展机遇,提出“科学技术是第一生产力”的重要论断,集全国之力实施“863”计划、“973”计划、⑥国家重点研发计划等一系列科技计划,极大推动了原始创新能力提升和高技术及其产业发展;顺应经济全球化趋势,实施一系列对外开放重大举措,创办经济特区,开发开放上海浦东,实施“引进来”“走出去”战略,加入世界贸易组织,推动中国经济融入世界。进入新世纪,党抓住21世纪头20年的重要战略机遇期,集中精力,加快发展。进入新时代,党统筹中华民族伟大复兴战略全局和世界百年未有之大变局,作出“中国发展仍处于重要战略机遇期”“机遇和挑战之大都前所未有,总体上机遇大于挑战”的战略判断,顺应和平、发展、合作、共赢的时代潮流,顺应世界多极化和国际关系民主化大势,顺应经济全球化大势,对内推进高质量发展,把握新发展阶段、贯彻新发展理念、构建新发展格局;对外实行高水平开放,实施更大范围、更宽领域、更深层次的全面开放,促进合作共赢,在更好发展自己的同时更好贡献世界。

Recognizing the prevailing trends in the world, seizing and making the most of historic opportunities. There is an essential logic to the progress of human history. Over the past hundred years, the CPC has developed with this logic and kept pace with the trends of the times, constantly adjusting its strategies and policies in accordance with changing circumstances.

The founding of the CPC, the founding of a socialist people's republic, and the launch of reform and opening up all followed underlying global trends. Based on its belief that peace and development were the themes of the times, the CPC pressed ahead with its plans for reform, opening up and modernization. It seized the opportunity of rapid advances in science and technology around the world, and applied the important proposition that "science and technology constitute a primary productive force". It mobilized the resources of the whole country in a series of key national science and technology research and development programs such as the 863 Program and the 973 Program [ The codename 863 refers to the National High-tech R&D Program implemented in accordance with a guideline issued by the CPC Central Committee and the State Council on November 18, 1986, while that of 973 is for the National Key Basic Research Program implemented in accordance with a decision by the National Science, Technology and Education Leading Group on June 4, 1997.]. All of this strengthened China's capacity for original innovation and resulted in significant progress in high-tech and key industries.

The CPC followed the trend of economic globalization and initiated a set of major reform and opening-up measures, for example, creating special economic zones, opening up Shanghai Pudong New Area, implementing the strategies of "bringing in" and "going global", and acceding to the World Trade Organization, all of which helped the Chinese economy to integrate with the international economy.

At the turn of the century, the CPC seized the first two decades as an important period of strategic opportunity to focus on development and promote more rapid growth.

In the new era, the CPC has implemented the strategy of national rejuvenation within the context of global changes of a scale unseen in a century. It has judged that "China remains in an important period of strategic opportunity for development", and that "both opportunities and challenges are unprecedented in scale, with more opportunities than challenges in general".

To tap into the trends of peace, cooperation, multi-polarity, economic globalization, and democracy in international relations, the Party places greater emphasis on the quality of growth. To this end, it has introduced and is implementing a new development philosophy and a new development dynamic as the country enters a new development stage. In external relations, the CPC pursues high-standard opening up and promotes win-win cooperation with more countries in more areas, on a larger scale, and in greater depth. The CPC is willing to contribute more to the world while promoting China's own development.

坚持独立自主,坚定不移走自己的路。在中国这样一个人口众多和经济文化落后的东方大国进行革命、建设、改革,道路问题是最根本的问题。新民主主义革命时期,党一开始想走苏联那样的中心城市暴动的道路,实践证明这条道路走不通,党通过总结经验教训、深化对国情的认识,找到了以农村包围城市、武装夺取政权的正确道路。新中国成立后,党一开始注重学习苏联,但后来发现苏联模式也存在问题,开始探索中国自己的社会主义建设道路。改革开放以来,党领导人民找到了、坚持了、拓展了符合中国国情的中国特色社会主义道路,沿着这条道路坚定不移地走了下来。在经济建设中,党始终坚持自力更生为主的方针,把发展的主动权牢牢掌握在自己手中,近年来,面对国际形势不确定不稳定因素增多,党作出加快构建以国内大循环为主体、国内国际双循环相互促进的新发展格局的重大战略部署,立足自身把国内大循环畅通起来,任由国际风云变幻,始终充满朝气地生存和发展下去。在科技领域,党领导人民自立自强,坚持独立自主、自力更生,依靠中国人自己的力量,建立了独立完整的学科体系和科研布局,走出一条具有中国特色的自主创新道路,实现了科技实力和创新能力的跨越式提升。从新中国成立初期连火柴、铁钉都要依靠进口,到量子通信、人工智能、5G等世界领先,再到“神舟”遨游太空、“祝融”探测火星、“天宫”空间站建造、“蛟龙”入海等,中国正在走向高水平科技自立自强。在社会主义现代化建设进程中,党领导人民推动物质文明、政治文明、精神文明、社会文明、生态文明协调发展,创造了中国式现代化新道路,创造了人类文明新形态,打破了只有遵循资本主义现代化模式才能实现现代化的神话。坚持独立自主,坚持中国的事情按照中国的特点、中国的实际来办,坚定不移走自己的路,是党取得胜利的一条基本经验。中国人民有骨气、有信心、有能力,做好自己的事,走好自己的路。

Following an independent path. To carry out revolution, reconstruction and reform in a poor and backward country with a large population, it is fundamental to choose the right path.

During the New Democratic Revolution, the CPC initially opted to follow the Soviet example of insurrection in key cities. But that proved unsuccessful. It then reviewed the lessons learned, summarized the experience gained, and embarked on the correct path of encircling the cities from the countryside and seizing state power with military force.

After the founding of the People's Republic, the CPC applied itself to learning from the Soviet Union. Encountering problems with the Soviet model, it began to explore its own path for building socialism. Since the beginning of reform and opening up, it has led the people in identifying, upholding, broadening, and committing to the path best suited to China's actual conditions – socialism with Chinese characteristics.

In economic development, the Party has always adhered to the principle of self-reliance. To ensure that robust development continues amid mounting instability and uncertainties in the international environment, the Party has made the major strategic decision to accelerate the fostering of a double development dynamic, with the domestic economy and international engagement reinforcing each other, and the former as the mainstay.

In the field of science and technology, the Party has led the people in independent and self-reliant development. With their own strength, the Chinese people have put in place a complete and independent system of academic disciplines and a comprehensive program of scientific research, paving the way for independent innovation with Chinese characteristics.

All of this has carried forward the country's scientific and technological strength and capacity for innovation in leaps and bounds. In the early days of the People's Republic, even matches and iron nails had to be imported. China now leads the world in quantum communication, artificial intelligence and 5G technology. Its Shenzhou manned spacecraft and Tiangong space lab are orbiting the earth. The rover Zhurong has landed on Mars and is engaged in scientific exploration. Its manned submersible, Jiaolong, dived to the deep sea. All of these serve to demonstrate how China has significantly improved its independent scientific and technological capabilities.

In the process of socialist modernization, the Party has led the people in realizing coordinated material, political, cultural, social and eco-environmental progress, pioneering a new and distinctively Chinese path to modernization, creating a new model for human progress, and refuting the myth that modernization can be achieved only by following the capitalist model.

One of the basic reasons for the Party's success is its adherence to the principles of independence and self-reliance. It follows its own path in managing China's affairs in accordance with the country's own realities and characteristics. The Chinese people have the courage, confidence, and ability to manage their own affairs well.

解放思想,实事求是,敢闯敢试。不论是革命、建设还是改革,中国共产党都坚持一切从实际出发,不唯书、不唯上、只唯实,敢于突破条条框框和现成模式,不断探索新路。在领导经济建设的长期实践中,党既坚持马克思主义政治经济学的基本原理和方法论,又结合中国实际大胆创新,从单一公有制到公有制为主体、多种所有制经济共同发展和坚持“两个毫不动摇”⑦;从传统的计划经济体制到社会主义市场经济体制,从市场在资源配置中起基础性作用到市场在资源配置中起决定性作用、更好发挥政府作用,一系列新探索新实践,既确保了国民经济命脉牢牢掌握在党和人民手中,确保了经济发展服务人民利益、公共利益和国家利益,也提升了市场主体的自主性创造性,极大解放和发展了社会生产力。党的十八大以来,面对改革进入攻坚期和深水区,党以巨大政治勇气推进全面深化改革,革除制约和束缚发展的深层次弊端,推出2400多项改革举措,在重要领域和关键环节取得决定性成果,激活了发展动力,释放了发展活力。在推进改革的实践中,党既大胆探索创新,又把握正确方向,始终把基点放在坚持和完善中国特色社会主义制度上、放在推进国家治理体系和治理能力现代化上,既不走封闭僵化的老路,也不走改旗易帜的邪路,实现了改革、发展、稳定的有机统一、协同推进。

Emancipating the mind, seeking truth from facts and moving forward with unrelenting courage. In all of its endeavors in revolution, reconstruction and reform, the CPC has always proceeded from reality rather than placing its faith in books or established authority. It has constantly explored new paths, free from hidebound restrictions and proscriptive models.

In its long-term leadership of economic development, the Party has adopted the basic principles of Marxist political economics and applied them in China's realities, shifting from a model of pure public ownership to a model where public ownership plays the dominant role alongside economic entities under diverse forms of ownership. It is committed to consolidating and developing the public sector of the economy, and to encouraging, supporting, and guiding the non-public sector of the economy. The economic system has been reformed from a traditional planned economy to a socialist market economy, so that the market can play a decisive rather than a supportive role in resource allocation, while the government can fulfill its role better. This has ensured that the lifelines of the Chinese economy remain firmly in the hands of the Party and the people, and that economic development serves the interests of the people and the country. Market entities can be more innovative, and the productive forces have been unleashed and allowed to develop.

Since the 18th National Congress of the CPC, China's reform has entered uncharted waters and encountered new problems. The Party has shown tremendous political courage, enacting more than 2,400 measures to remove deep-rooted obstacles, and promoting further comprehensive reform. This has achieved decisive results in key areas and boosted the driving forces of development. In pursuing reform, the Party encourages bold experiments and innovation while making sure that progress continues in the right direction. The basis of reform has always been upholding and improving socialism with Chinese characteristics and modernizing the country's system and capacity for governance. Pressing ahead with reform and development while maintaining the stability of the country, it has rejected both the old and rigid closed-door policy, and any attempt to abandon socialism in favor of some erroneous path.

研究规律,把握规律,遵循规律。善于把握规律,按照客观规律办事,是马克思主义政党之所以先进的重要因素。党不断探索共产党执政规律、社会主义建设规律、人类社会发展规律,并把这些规律运用到实践当中,指导和校正自己的行动。在社会主义建设实践中,党对“什么是社会主义、怎样建设社会主义”“建设什么样的党、怎样建设党”“实现什么样的发展、怎样发展”“新时代坚持和发展什么样的中国特色社会主义、怎样坚持和发展中国特色社会主义”等重大问题的认识不断深化,提出一系列新观点新论断,进行一系列新探索新实践,丰富和发展了科学社会主义。从“贫穷不是社会主义,发展太慢也不是社会主义”,到“社会主义的本质是解放生产力,发展生产力,消灭剥削,消除两极分化,最终达到共同富裕”,再到“实现共同富裕是社会主义的本质要求”,党对社会主义本质的认识不断深化。从新中国成立后确立社会主义基本制度,到改革开放后探索建立中国特色社会主义制度,再到党的十八大以来坚持和完善中国特色社会主义制度,构建起包括根本制度、基本制度、重要制度在内的国家制度和治理体系的总体框架,使中国特色社会主义制度更加成熟更加定型,党对社会主义制度建设的认识不断深化。从“又快又好”到“又好又快”,从“经济增长方式”到“经济发展方式”,从高速增长到高质量发展,从加快发展到统筹好发展和安全两件大事,从全面、协调、可持续的发展观到创新、协调、绿色、开放、共享的新发展理念,党对经济社会发展规律的认识不断深化。党的十八大以来,党提出统筹推进“五位一体”总体布局⑧、协调推进“四个全面”战略布局⑨,提出“八个明确”⑩“十四个坚持”⑪,标志着党对共产党执政规律、社会主义建设规律、人类社会发展规律的认识提升到了新的高度。

Understanding, grasping and following the laws of development. The ability to grasp and follow the objective laws of development is an important skill for a progressive Marxist party. The CPC has continued to expand its understanding of governance by a communist party, the development of socialism, and the evolution of human society, and to apply them in practice as a guide for action.

In developing socialism, the Party has constantly asked and answered a series of key questions, such as:

• "What is socialism?"

• "How should we build socialism?"

• "What kind of a political party should the CPC be?"

• "How should we build the CPC?"

• "What kind of development should we pursue?"

• "How should we pursue this development?"

• "What is socialism with Chinese characteristics in the new era?"

• "How should we uphold and develop this socialism?"

It has given a series of new answers that have enriched and developed scientific socialism, and gained a much deeper understanding of the essence and nature of socialism, such as:

• "Poverty is not socialism. Development that is too slow is not socialism, either."

• "The nature of socialism is to release and develop the productive forces, eliminate exploitation and polarization, and achieve common prosperity."

• "Achieving common prosperity is the essential requirement of socialism."

The CPC has also gained a much deeper understanding of the process of building a socialist system, from establishing the basic socialist system in the early days of the PRC, through creating socialism with Chinese characteristics after the introduction of the reform and opening-up policy, to upholding and improving socialism with Chinese characteristics since the 18th CPC National Congress. Socialism with Chinese characteristics has matured with the completion of an overall framework of systems for state governance.

The CPC has also come to a deeper understanding of the laws of economic and social development, as reflected by its shift from "fast and sound growth" to "sound and fast growth", from "economic growth" to "economic development", from "high-speed growth" to "high-quality development", from "accelerating development" to "equal emphasis on development and security", from "the vision of comprehensive, coordinated and sustainable development" to "the vision of innovation-based, coordinated, green, open and shared development". Since its 18th National Congress, the CPC has initiated the Five-sphere Integrated Plan, the Four-pronged Comprehensive Strategy, the Eight Clarifications [ The Eight Clarifications: •that the overarching task of upholding and developing socialism with Chinese characteristics is to realize socialist modernization and national rejuvenation, and on the basis of completing the building of a moderately prosperous society in all respects, a two-step approach should be taken to build China into a great modern socialist country that is prosperous, strong, democratic, culturally advanced, harmonious, and beautiful by the middle of the 21st century. •that the principal challenge facing Chinese society in the new era is the gap between unbalanced and inadequate development and the growing expectation of the people for a better life, which requires further commitment to the people-centered philosophy of development, well-rounded human development, and common prosperity for everyone. •that the overall plan for building socialism with Chinese characteristics is the Five-sphere Integrated Plan, and the overall strategy is the Four-pronged Comprehensive Strategy, with an emphasis on stronger confidence in the path, theory, system and culture of socialism with Chinese characteristics. •that the overall goal of in-depth reform in every field is to improve and develop the system of socialism with Chinese characteristics and modernize China's system and capacity for governance. •that the overall goal of comprehensively advancing law-based governance is to establish a system of socialist rule of law with Chinese characteristics and build a country of socialist rule of law. •that the Party's goal of building a strong military in the new era is to build the armed forces of the people into world-class forces that obey the Party's command, can fight and win, and maintain excellent conduct. •that major-country diplomacy with Chinese characteristics aims to foster a new type of international relations and build a global community of shared future. •that the defining feature of socialism with Chinese characteristics is the leadership of the CPC; the greatest strength of the system of socialism with Chinese characteristics is the leadership of the CPC; the Party is the highest force for political leadership, setting forth the general requirements for strengthening the Party in the new era and underlining the importance of reinforcing the Party's political foundations.] and the Fourteen Imperatives" [ The Fourteen Imperatives are: •ensuring Party leadership over all endeavors, •people-centered development, •comprehensive and in-depth reform, •a new vision for development, •the people running the country, •law-based governance, •core socialist values, •improvement of the people's lives through development, •harmony between humanity and nature, •a holistic approach to national security, •absolute Party leadership over the people's forces, •the principle of One Country, Two Systems for national reunification, •the building of a global community of shared future, •the full and rigorous implementation of the Party's discipline. The Fourteen Imperatives form the fundamental guideline that underpins the endeavors to uphold and develop socialism with Chinese characteristics in the new era.], which exemplify the Party's new understanding of the nature of governance by a communist party, the development of socialism, and the evolution of human society.

社会主义好,就是要解决其他社会形态解决不了的问题,不断推进人的全面发展和实现共同富裕。中国社会主义只搞了几十年,还处在初级阶段。党对社会主义的认识和把握还非常有限,还面临很多没有弄清楚的问题和待解的难题,对许多重大问题的认识和处理还处于不断深化的过程之中。党将继续探索,更好把握中国特色社会主义发展趋势和规律,更好地把新时代中国特色社会主义不断推向前进。

Socialism can solve problems that other social systems cannot, and can achieve sustained, well-rounded human development and common prosperity. After several decades, socialism in China is still at the primary stage. The Party's understanding and practical experience of socialism with Chinese characteristics is still very limited, with many more questions to answer and many more problems to solve. The Party will continue to explore how best to advance socialism with Chinese characteristics in the new era by building a deeper understanding of its nature and laws.

(四)勇于战胜风险挑战

4. Defusing Risks and Overcoming Challenges

中国的革命、建设、改革,面临着党内和党外的、国内和国际的、传统和非传统的、人类社会和自然界的多种复杂严峻的风险挑战。党领导人民迎接挑战、从容应对,敢于斗争、敢于胜利,在应对挑战、化解风险中推动事业发展,取得并巩固了执政地位,保证了国家安全,保持了发展的连续性和稳定性。

China has carried out its revolution, reconstruction and reform against a backdrop of both conventional and exceptional risks and challenges, from both inside and outside the Party, from both within China and abroad, and from both human society and nature. The CPC has led the people in defusing these risks and meeting these challenges with courage, confidence and resilience, while promoting the cause of socialism. It has secured and consolidated its position as the governing party, guaranteed national security, and ensured continuous and consistent development.

保持忧患意识,始终居安思危。中国共产党在苦难中诞生、在斗争中成长,时刻牢记“安而不忘危,存而不忘亡,治而不忘乱”。革命战争年代,在残酷的斗争环境中,党时刻保持高度警惕,在与强大敌人的长期斗争中成长壮大。改革开放新时期,面对社会矛盾易发多发频发,面对世界社会主义出现严重曲折,党把增强抵御风险能力作为党的建设重大历史性课题,成功应对各种风险挑战。党的十八大以来,党清醒认识内外环境新的重大变化和面临的风险挑战,把增强忧患意识、做到居安思危作为治国理政必须坚持的重大原则,把保证国家安全作为巩固执政地位、坚持和发展中国特色社会主义的头等大事,从最坏处着眼,做最充分的准备,朝好的方向努力,争取最好的结果,掌握了应对风险挑战的战略主动。正是因为党在不同历史时期,保持清醒头脑,科学分析形势,下好先手棋、打好主动仗,在风险挑战来临时,能够遇变不惊、化险为夷、取得胜利。

The Party is always ready to protect against potential dangers even in times of peace. Founded in years of trial and tribulation and maturing in adversity, the CPC always keeps in mind the ancient wisdom that "One should be mindful of potential danger in times of peace, the risk of downfall in times of rise, and potential chaos in times of stability."

In the years of revolutionary war, the CPC maintained a high level of vigilance during a life-and-death struggle, and grew in size and strength despite being menaced by formidable enemies.

During reform and opening up, faced with frequent social conflicts and disputes, and major setbacks to world socialism, the CPC made it a priority to increase its ability to fend off threats, and successfully dealt with various risks and challenges.

After its 18th National Congress, the CPC was fully aware of the major changes in the domestic and international environment. One of its major principles of governance is to be always on guard against potential dangers in times of peace. It has made national security its top priority in upholding and developing socialism with Chinese characteristics. Always alert to the worst possible scenarios, the Party adopts proactive strategies and strives for the best results.

In every historical period, the CPC has remained vigilant and clearheaded about the situation, seizing the initiative on every occasion and ensuring success in defusing risks and overcoming challenges.

面对重大风险挑战,迎难而上,敢于胜利。对于危及党的执政地位、国家政权稳定,危害国家核心利益,危害人民根本利益,有可能打断中华民族复兴进程的重大风险挑战,党毫不犹豫、断然出手,坚决斗争、坚决胜利。新中国成立后,面对美帝国主义的威胁和挑衅,党以“不惜国内打烂了重新建设”的决心和气魄,作出抗美援朝、保家卫国的历史性决策,最终取得伟大胜利,粉碎了侵略者陈兵国门、进而将新中国扼杀在摇篮之中的图谋,使新中国真正站稳了脚跟。改革开放新时期,党领导人民经受住1989年政治风波考验,战胜亚洲金融危机、国际金融危机,战胜特大洪涝灾害,夺取抗击非典、汶川地震抗震救灾胜利,依法坚决平息和妥善处理拉萨、乌鲁木齐打砸抢烧严重暴力犯罪事件,抵制住一些外国政治势力对中国的孤立、打压、遏制。党的十八大以来,面对波谲云诡的国际形势、复杂敏感的周边环境、艰巨繁重的改革发展稳定任务,党统筹发展和安全,贯彻总体国家安全观,领导人民有效应对重大挑战、抵御重大风险、克服重大阻力、解决重大矛盾,在危机中育先机、于变局中开新局。推进供给侧结构性改革化解经济风险,果断应对美国单方面挑起的中美经贸摩擦,取得抗击新冠肺炎疫情斗争重大战略成果,采取一系列重大措施一举扭转香港乱局、实现重大转折,保持了经济持续健康发展和社会大局稳定。

The Party meets major risks and challenges head-on. It never hesitates in taking resolute action to address risks and challenges that threaten its position as the governing party, or endanger the stability of state power, the core interests of the country, the fundamental interests of the people, or the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.

Shortly after the founding of the PRC, in the face of threats and provocation by American imperialism, the CPC had the courage to resist US aggression and aid Korea, in defense of the motherland and at the cost of its own economic development. Victory in this war foiled the aggressors' attempt to suffocate the new-born PRC, and established a firm foothold for the country.

After the launch of reform and opening up, the Party led the people through the political turbulence in 1989, the Asian financial crisis in 1997, the global financial crisis in 2008, and a succession of unprecedented natural disasters. It emerged victorious from the fight against the SARS epidemic in 2002 and the Wenchuan earthquake in 2008. It adopted resolute and lawful measures to quell the riots, robbery, arson and vandalism in Lhasa and Urumqi. It also resisted attempts to isolate, suppress and contain China by external political forces.

Since 2012, faced with a sensitive and volatile international situation, and challenging tasks related to domestic reform, development and stability, the Party has placed equal emphasis on development and security, pursued a holistic approach to national security, and led the people in an effective response to major risks, challenges, obstacles and conflicts by exploring new opportunities and breaking new ground.

It has promoted supply-side reform to stave off economic risks. It has implemented effective countermeasures in the economic and trade friction provoked by the US. It has won a strategic victory in the battle against the Covid-19 pandemic. It has taken a series of resolute measures to restore order in Hong Kong and ensure a turn for the better in the region. All of these actions have contributed to social stability in China and sound and sustained economic development.

中华民族伟大复兴,绝不是轻轻松松、敲锣打鼓就能实现的,前进道路上会出现各种可以预测和不可预测的困难和挑战。中国共产党是经过百年锤炼,具有长期丰富斗争实践经验的大党,具有抵御各种风险、驾驭各种复杂局面的能力。任何风险挑战,只要来了,党都将领导人民进行坚决斗争,毫不动摇,毫不退缩,直至取得胜利。

The rejuvenation of the Chinese nation will not be easily achieved. It cannot be achieved merely by beating drums and clanging gongs. There will be all kinds of foreseeable and unforeseeable difficulties on the way forward. The CPC is a major political party that has accumulated rich experience in the long-term struggle over the last hundred years, which has enabled it to withstand risks and address complex issues. No matter the difficulties, the Party will lead the people to final victory.

在百年奋斗征程中,中国共产党锤炼了不畏强敌、不惧风险、敢于斗争、敢于胜利的风骨和品质,这种风骨和品质,成为党鲜明的特质和特点。一切成就都是接续奋斗的结果,一切事业都需要在继往开来中推进。中国共产党以奋斗铸就历史,也必将以奋斗创造未来。

On its centennial journey, the CPC has tempered its character with the courage to vanquish formidable enemies, defuse risks, and overcome challenges. This has become the Party's defining quality. All of its achievements are the results of the hard work of generations of Party members, and the base on which the cause will continue to prosper. The success of the Party in the past equips it to face the future with full confidence.

三、具有强大领导力执政力

III. Robust Leadership and Strong Governance

中国体量巨大、人口众多、国情复杂,求独立、求发展、求富强,必须有坚强有力的领导力量。中国共产党这样一个大党,在中国这样一个大国,能够把亿万人民团结和凝聚起来,一次次跨过急流险滩,一次次战胜困难危机,关键在于党高度团结统一,具有强大的领导力执政力。

China is a huge country with a large population and complex national conditions. In order to achieve independence, development, and prosperity it must have robust and decisive leadership. It is the CPC's solidarity and unity, its firm leadership, and its strong governance capability that have rallied and united hundreds of millions of the Chinese people and overcome a multitude of difficulties and crises.

(一)党中央坚强有力

1. A Strong Central Committee

中国共产党是按照民主集中制⑫原则组织起来的马克思主义政党。维护党中央权威和集中统一领导,是一个成熟的马克思主义执政党的重大建党原则。坚持民主集中制原则,坚持党中央权威和集中统一领导,坚持个人服从组织、少数服从多数、下级服从上级、全党服从中央,在充分发扬民主的基础上进行集中,是党在革命、建设、改革中形成的政治优势和宝贵经验。

The CPC is a mature Marxist political party organized in accordance with the principle of democratic centralism [ This is a principle that combines centralism built on the basis of democracy with democracy under centralized guidance. Democratic centralism is the Party's fundamental organizational principle and leadership system.]. Upholding the authority of the Central Committee and its centralized leadership has always been one of the Party's fundamental operational principles. Democratic centralism involves Party members deferring to Party organizations, the minority deferring to the majority, lower-level Party organizations deferring to higher-level organizations, and the whole Party deferring to the Central Committee. This and upholding the authority of the Central Committee and its centralized leadership are strengths the Party has built from valuable experience gained during revolution, reconstruction and reform.

党中央的权威和集中统一领导,保证了革命、建设、改革顺利推进,保证了党的执政地位巩固和国家长治久安。以毛泽东同志为核心的党的第一代中央领导集体,团结带领全党和全国人民,成功开辟以农村包围城市、武装夺取政权的中国革命道路,完成新民主主义革命,建立中华人民共和国,完成社会主义革命,确立社会主义基本制度,推进社会主义建设,完成了中华民族有史以来最为广泛而深刻的社会变革,为当代中国一切发展进步奠定了根本政治前提和制度基础,为新的历史时期开创中国特色社会主义提供了宝贵经验、理论准备、物质基础。党的十一届三中全会后,以邓小平同志为核心的党的第二代中央领导集体,团结带领全党和全国人民,作出把党和国家工作中心转移到经济建设上来、实行改革开放的历史性决策,深刻揭示社会主义本质,确立社会主义初级阶段基本路线,明确提出走自己的路、建设中国特色社会主义,科学回答了建设中国特色社会主义的一系列基本问题,成功开创了中国特色社会主义。党的十三届四中全会后,以江泽民同志为核心的党的第三代中央领导集体,团结带领全党和全国人民,在国内外形势十分复杂、世界社会主义出现严重曲折的严峻考验面前捍卫了中国特色社会主义,确立了社会主义市场经济体制的改革目标和基本框架,确立了社会主义初级阶段的基本经济制度和分配制度,成功把中国特色社会主义推向21世纪。党的十六大后,以胡锦涛同志为总书记的党中央,团结带领全党和全国人民,在全面建设小康社会进程中推进实践创新、理论创新、制度创新,强调坚持以人为本、全面协调可持续发展,成功在新的历史起点上坚持和发展了中国特色社会主义。党的十八大以来,以习近平同志为核心的党中央,团结带领全党和全国人民,统揽伟大斗争、伟大工程、伟大事业、伟大梦想,坚持和加强党的全面领导,统筹推进“五位一体”总体布局,协调推进“四个全面”战略布局,坚持和完善中国特色社会主义制度,推进国家治理体系和治理能力现代化,推动党和国家事业发生历史性变革、取得历史性成就,中国特色社会主义进入新时代,迎来了实现中华民族伟大复兴的光明前景。

Upholding the Central Committee's authority and its centralized leadership has led to smooth and steady progress in China, and ensures the CPC's position as the governing party and the country's long-term stability.

The first generation of the CPC central collective leadership with Mao Zedong at the core united the whole Party and the people and led them on the revolutionary path, using rural areas to encircle the cities and seizing state power with military force. It was under its centralized leadership that the Party and the people completed the New Democratic Revolution, founded the People's Republic of China, succeeded in socialist revolution, established socialism as the country's basic system, and advanced socialist development. All of this led to success in the broadest and most profound social transformation in the history of the Chinese nation. It also laid down the political and institutional groundwork for all future progress and provided invaluable experience, a theoretical base, and the material conditions for Chinese socialism in the new historical period.

After the Third Plenary Session of the 11th CPC Central Committee in 1978, the second generation of the Party's central collective leadership with Deng Xiaoping at the core led the Party and the people in a historic shift of focus to economic development and reform and opening up. Based on its keen understanding of the essence of socialism, the Party established its basic line for the primary stage of socialism, made it clear that China must define its own approach in building socialism, and provided answers to a series of basic questions. This marked the creation of socialism with Chinese characteristics.

After the Fourth Plenary Session of the 13th CPC Central Committee in 1989, the third generation of the Party's central collective leadership with Jiang Zemin at the core led the Party and the people in defending socialism with Chinese characteristics in a complex domestic and international situation and in the face of serious setbacks experienced by socialism worldwide. It established the objectives and framework of reform for developing the socialist market economy, and put in place basic economic and distribution systems in the primary stage of socialism, advancing Chinese socialism into the 21st century.

After the 16th CPC National Congress in 2002, the Central Committee with Hu Jintao as general secretary led the Party and the people in promoting innovation in theory, practice, and systems in the course of building a moderately prosperous society in all respects, with a focus on people-centered, all-round, coordinated, and sustainable development, and upholding and building socialism with Chinese characteristics, at a new historical point.

Since the 18th CPC National Congress in 2012, the Central Committee with Xi Jinping at the core has led the Party and the people in pursuing a great struggle, a great project, a great cause, and a great dream, upholding and improving the Party's overall leadership, and implementing the Five-sphere Integrated Plan and the Four-pronged Comprehensive Strategy. The Party has made greater efforts to improve Chinese socialism, modernize the system and capacity for governing the country, and uphold socialism with Chinese characteristics. All of this has prompted historic shifts and led to historic achievements in the cause of the Party and the country, ushering Chinese socialism into a new era. The prospects of national rejuvenation are ever brighter.

党的十八大以来,以习近平同志为核心的党中央采取一系列有力举措,全面加强党的领导,进一步坚持和维护党中央权威和集中统一领导。党中央鲜明提出,党政军民学,东西南北中,党是领导一切的,是最高政治领导力量;坚持党的领导,首先是坚持党中央权威和集中统一领导,这是党的领导的最高原则,是最根本的政治纪律和政治规矩;要增强政治意识、大局意识、核心意识、看齐意识,坚定中国特色社会主义道路自信、理论自信、制度自信、文化自信,坚决维护习近平总书记党中央的核心、全党的核心地位,维护党中央权威和集中统一领导。党的十九大将“中国特色社会主义最本质的特征是中国共产党领导,中国特色社会主义制度的最大优势是中国共产党领导,党是最高政治领导力量”确立为习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想的重要内容,并把这一重大政治原则写入党章。十三届全国人大一次会议通过宪法修正案,在宪法序言确定党的领导地位的基础上,又在总纲中明确规定中国共产党领导是中国特色社会主义最本质的特征,强化了党总揽全局、协调各方的领导地位。

Since 2012, the CPC Central Committee has taken a series of effective measures to strengthen the overall leadership by the Party and uphold the authority of the Central Committee and its centralized leadership. The central leadership has emphasized that:

(1) The Party exercises leadership over all areas of endeavor across the country and is the highest force for political leadership;

(2) Upholding overall Party leadership means first and foremost upholding the authority of the Central Committee and its centralized leadership, which is the highest principle of the Party's leadership and the fundamental political discipline and rule;

(3) It is important to strengthen the consciousness of the need to maintain political commitment, think in terms of the broader picture, follow the core leadership of the CPC Central Committee, and act in accordance with its requirements; to enhance confidence in the path, theory, system and culture of Chinese socialism; and to resolutely uphold General Secretary Xi Jinping's core position in the CPC Central Committee and in the Party as a whole.

The 19th CPC National Congress in 2017 emphasized: "Leadership by the CPC is the defining feature of Chinese socialism and the greatest strength of this system. The Party is the highest force for political leadership." The congress confirmed this principle as a significant element of Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, and this major political principle has been enshrined in the CPC Constitution. In 2018 the 13th National People's Congress adopted at its first session an amendment to the Constitution of the People's Republic of China. In addition to providing for the CPC's leading position in its Preamble, the amended Constitution explicitly stipulates in its General Principles that leadership by the Party is the defining feature of socialism with Chinese characteristics.

为确保维护党中央权威和集中统一领导的要求落到实处,党进一步健全完善领导体制和工作机制。党中央制定一系列党内法规,对维护党中央权威和集中统一领导作出明确规定。坚持党的组织和党的工作全覆盖,健全党中央对重大工作的领导体制,强化党中央决策议事协调机构职能作用,完善推动党中央重大决策落实机制,严格执行请示报告制度,推动维护党中央权威和集中统一领导具体化、制度化、规范化。近年来,中央政治局常委会每年专门听取全国人大常委会、国务院、全国政协、最高人民法院、最高人民检察院党组工作汇报和中央书记处工作报告,中央政治局全体同志每年向党中央和习近平总书记书面述职一次,已经成为加强和维护党中央集中统一领导的重要制度安排。

To uphold the CPC Central Committee's authority and its centralized leadership through concrete actions, the CPC has improved its leadership system and its working mechanism. The Central Committee has issued a series of regulations to this end:

• ensuring Party organizations and initiatives cover all areas;

• improving the system by which the Central Committee exercises leadership over major tasks;

• strengthening the roles and functions of relevant Central Committee offices in decision-making, deliberation and coordination, and improving the mechanism by which the Central Committee's major decisions are implemented;

• strictly enforcing the system by which all important issues are promptly reported;

• developing practical measures and making institutional arrangements to implement the principle of upholding the Central Committee's authority and its centralized leadership.

In recent years, the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee has held dedicated meetings to hear annual work reports of CPC leadership groups of the NPC Standing Committee, the State Council, the CPPCC National Committee, the Supreme People's Court, the Supreme People's Procuratorate, and the report of the CPC Central Committee Secretariat. Each member of the Political Bureau has submitted a written work report to the Central Committee and General Secretary Xi Jinping every year. This has been one of the institutional arrangements for strengthening and upholding the Central Committee's centralized leadership.

维护党中央权威和集中统一领导,有坚强有力的领导核心是重中之重、要中之要。新民主主义革命时期,正是因为遵义会议事实上确立了毛泽东同志在党中央和红军的领导地位,开始形成以毛泽东同志为核心的党的第一代中央领导集体,革命事业才转危为安。党的十八大以来,正是因为确立了习近平同志党中央的核心、全党的核心地位,党的面貌、国家的面貌、人民的面貌、军队的面貌、中华民族的面貌才发生了前所未有的变化。100年来,党之所以能够统一思想、步调一致向前进,根本原因就是形成了坚强有力的领导核心;党不断发展壮大,克服重重艰难险阻而立于不败之地,党的领导核心发挥了独特的、不可替代的作用。历史和现实充分表明,全党有核心,党中央才有权威,党才有力量。党形成并拥护领导核心,决不是庸俗化的“个人崇拜”,党自成立之日起就坚决反对“个人崇拜”,并将“党禁止任何形式的个人崇拜”写入党章。党的领导核心并不意味着无限权力、任性决策,而是担负着为大党大国掌舵领航的重大职责。党是按照民主集中制原则组织起来的,党的领导核心也要按照民主集中制原则发挥作用,遵守集体领导制度,遵守党在宪法和法律范围内活动的法治原则。党的领导核心不是天生的,也不是自封的,而是在长期实践中通过正确领导形成的,是全党全国人民的共同选择。

To uphold the Central Committee's authority and its centralized leadership, a robust leadership core is the top priority. During the New Democratic Revolution, it was at the Zunyi Conference in 1935 that Mao Zedong was confirmed as the de facto leader of the Party Central Committee and the Red Army, and the Party's first central collective leadership with Mao Zedong at the core took shape. This move circumvented a serious threat to China's revolution and resulted in positive progress. Since the 18th CPC National Congress, with Xi Jinping at the core of the Central Committee, the Party, the country, the people, the military, and the whole Chinese nation have made unprecedented headway.

Over the past hundred years since its founding in 1921, the CPC has been able to build consensus among its members on the way forward and take concerted actions; the fundamental reason for this is its robust leadership core, which has played a unique and irreplaceable role in leading the Party to grow stronger despite all the difficulties it has encountered.

Both history and reality have shown to us that only with a firm and effective leadership core can the Central Committee exert authority and the Party remain strong.

Upholding the leadership core of the CPC in no way involves the creation of any kind of personality cult – something the CPC has resolutely opposed ever since it was first founded. The Party's Constitution explicitly stipulates that "The Party proscribes all forms of personality cult." The Party leadership core never wields unlimited power or engages in decision-making at will; instead, it takes on heavy responsibilities in steering the Party and the country. The CPC is organized on the basis of democratic centralism, so its leadership core functions by that principle, observes the system of collective leadership, and acts within the scope of the country's Constitution and the law. The Party leadership core does not emerge through entitlement; it is not self-proclaimed. It comes into being through long-term experience under sound leadership and as a common choice of the whole Party and the whole country.

不论是中国几千年的历史,还是中国的革命、建设、改革,都充分表明,中央政权坚强有力,维持大一统局面,国家才能富强、安宁、稳定,人民才能安居乐业。中国共产党实行集中统一领导,符合人民利益,符合中国国情,符合中国历史文化传统,得到了人民广泛拥护,是党领导人民在长期探索实践中得出来的宝贵经验。坚决维护党中央权威和集中统一领导,坚决维护核心、捍卫核心、忠诚核心,是中国共产党和中国人民的共同认识和自觉行动。

China's history, which dates back thousands of years, and its revolution, reconstruction and reform have fully demonstrated that only with a robust centralized authority to maintain unity of the whole country and rally the people can the nation achieve long-term peace, stability, and prosperity, and the people work and live in contentment. Centralized leadership by the Party serves the best interests of the Chinese people, suits China's national conditions, and conforms to traditional Chinese culture. This is an invaluable understanding that the Chinese people have gained through years of CPC leadership. There is a common purpose behind the conscious commitment of the Party and the Chinese people to uphold the authority of the Central Committee and its centralized leadership, and to protect and be loyal to the leadership core.

(二)制定正确路线和战略策略

2. Sound Guidelines and Strategies

坚强的领导,来源于正确的领导;正确的领导,来源于正确的决策。对中国共产党这样一个大党来讲,政策和策略是党的生命。100年来,党在历史重大转折到来时,能够比较好地、有预见地、全面客观地分析研究形势,并在此基础上制定切合实际的目标和任务、政策和路径,使全党在正确路线指引下有条不紊地开展工作。

Robust leadership comes from sound leadership; sound leadership comes from rational policymaking. For a party as large as the CPC, policymaking is its lifeline. Over the past hundred years, at every historic juncture, the CPC has been able to analyze the situation from an overall, objective and forward-looking perspective, and set forth practical goals, tasks, policies and roadmaps. It is the Party's sound guidelines that have enabled it to carry out its work in a well-organized and systematic manner.

制定正确的路线方针政策。在不同历史时期,党科学分析面临形势,准确把握内外条件,在此基础上制定路线方针政策。党在成立之初,制定了最高纲领和最低纲领,指出中国革命必须分两步走,为革命斗争明确了基本方向。抗日战争时期,党制定全面抗战路线和打持久战的战略方针,为抗战胜利指明了方向。社会主义革命时期,制定了“一化三改”的过渡时期总路线⑬,为迈向社会主义社会指明了路径。改革开放后,党制定了“一个中心、两个基本点”的社会主义初级阶段基本路线⑭,确保了中国特色社会主义沿着正确方向不断发展。党的十八大后,党坚持基本理论、基本路线、基本方略,提出统筹推进“五位一体”总体布局、协调推进“四个全面”战略布局,确立了新时代坚持和发展中国特色社会主义的战略规划和部署。正是有了正确的路线方针,党的事业才有所指,全党才有所依,人民才有所趋,才形成了为实现目标共同奋斗的强大力量。

The CPC is adept at formulating sound guidelines, principles and policies. At different historical stages, the Party has succeeded in devising the right policies based on an accurate analysis of domestic and international developments.

In the early years of the CPC, at its Second National Congress in 1922, the Party set forth its primary platform of achieving national independence and establishing a democratic republic, and its ultimate goal of realizing socialism and communism, pointing out the direction for a two-step Chinese revolution.

During the War of Resistance Against Japanese Aggression, the Party identified the correct path towards ultimate success, adopting the strategy of total resistance and protracted war.

During the Socialist Revolution, the Party devised the general guideline for the transition period [ In 1953, the CPC Central Committee adopted the Party's general guideline for the transition period from the founding of the PRC in 1949 to the completion of socialist transformation. The master plan was to realize socialist industrialization and transformation of agriculture, craft industries, and capitalist industry and commerce step by step over a considerable period of time.], mapping out the road towards socialism.

After the adoption of reform and opening up, at its 13th National Congress in 1987, the Party formulated the basic guidelines for the primary stage of socialism – One Central Task, Two Basic Points [ In 1987, at its 13th National Congress, the CPC specified its basic guidelines for building socialism with Chinese characteristics in the primary stage – to unite with and lead the people of all ethnic groups, take economic development as the central task, uphold the Four Cardinal Principles (the socialist road, the people's democratic dictatorship, the CPC's leadership, and Marxism-Leninism and Mao Zedong Thought), and uphold the policy of reform and opening up, be self-reliant, hard working and enterprising, to build China into a prosperous, strong, democratic, culturally advanced and modern socialist country. ] – to keep socialism with Chinese characteristics progressing on the right track.

After its 18th National Congress, in accordance with its basic theories, guidelines and policies, the Party specified the measures for upholding and developing Chinese socialism in the new era, proposing the Five-sphere Integrated Plan for coordinating economic, political, cultural, social and eco-environmental progress, and the Four-pronged Comprehensive Strategy for achieving moderate prosperity, furthering reform, advancing the rule of law and strengthening Party self-governance.

It is due to sound policymaking that the great cause of the CPC has remained on the right course, the CPC has rational guidelines to follow, the Chinese people have been able to enjoy tangible benefits, and the entire Chinese nation has forged a strong synergy to pursue shared dreams and aspirations.

制定阶段性发展目标和战略。为了实现长远目标,中国共产党采取渐进策略,提出一个时期内的目标任务和实现路径,一步一步推进,积小胜为大胜。上世纪60年代,在社会主义革命完成、社会主义建设取得显著成效后,党提出了在20世纪内实现“四个现代化”的奋斗目标和实现这个目标的“两步走”设想⑮。改革开放初期,党提出到20世纪末人民生活达到小康水平的目标。上世纪80年代中期,党制定“三步走”发展战略⑯;90年代中期,制定新的“三步走”发展战略⑰。进入新世纪,党提出在21世纪头20年,全面建设惠及十几亿人口的更高水平的小康社会。党的十八大提出到建党100年时全面建成小康社会。党的十九大提出在全面建成小康社会后到2035年基本实现社会主义现代化、到21世纪中叶建成社会主义现代化强国的奋斗目标。这些目标和部署,既保持一定的连续性稳定性,又根据实际情况及时进行调整,以更好适应发展了的新形势。集中统一领导的政治优势,使得党可以根据长远战略制定阶段性目标,有效协调整体利益和局部利益、长远利益和眼前利益,团结各方为了实现共同目标一起努力,国家的法律、政策也得以稳定连贯实施。在不同历史时期制定并实现阶段性目标,使中国几十年如一日地向前发展迈进,使社会主义现代化的目标一步步成为现实。

The CPC is adept at formulating time-phased development goals and strategies. To achieve its long-range goals, the Party has adopted progressive tactics – defining time-phased objectives and roadmaps and achieving successes in steps.

In the 1960s, after the Socialist Revolution had been completed and initial success in socialist development had been made, the Party set the goal of achieving the Four Modernizations – of industry, agriculture, national defense, and science and technology – by the end of the 20th century, and to this end devised a Two-stage Plan on Economic Development [ In the 1960s, the CPC Central Committee issued a Two-stage Plan on Economic Development, effective since 1966, the first year of the Third Five-year Plan (1966-1970) period: The first stage was to build an independent and relatively comprehensive industrial and economic system by 1980; and the second stage was to achieve modernization of agriculture, industry, national defense, and science and technology by the end of the 20th century, bringing China to the forefront of the global economy.].

In the early stages of reform and opening up, the Party set the goal of providing a relatively comfortable life for the people by the end of the 20th century.

In the mid-1980s, the Party formulated a Three-step Strategy for Economic Development [ In 1987, at its 13th National Congress, the CPC put forward a Three-step Strategy for Economic Development: The first step was to double the 1980 GNP by the end of the 1980s, to ensure the people have adequate food and clothing; the second step was to quadruple the 1980 GNP by the end of the 20th century, to ensure the people live a relatively comfortable life; and the third step was to increase the per capita GNP to the level of moderately developed countries by the mid-21st century, to ensure the people live a well-off life and basically achieve modernization. ] to meet this goal.

In the mid-1990s, the Party proposed a New Three-step Strategy for Economic Development [ In 1997, at its 15th National Congress, the CPC proposed a New Three-step Strategy for Economic Development: The first step was to double the 2000 GNP by 2010, to ensure the people live a better-off life and form a relatively complete system of socialist market economy; the second step was to achieve greater economic growth and establish more complete systems and institutions by 2020; and the third step was to realize basic modernization and build China into a prosperous, strong, democratic and culturally advanced socialist country by the mid-21st century, when the PRC would celebrate its centenary in 2049. ] to meet this goal.

Entering the new century, the Party proposed to build a well-off society of a higher standard in an all-round way to the benefit of well over one billion people in the first two decades of the 21st century.

In 2012, at its 18th National Congress, the Party set the goal of achieving moderate prosperity in all respects by 2021 when the CPC would celebrate its centenary.

In 2017, at its 19th National Congress, the Party set the goals of building on moderate prosperity in all respects to realize basic socialist modernization by 2035, and turning China into a strong, prosperous and modern socialist country by the mid-21st century.

The CPC has worked to see that the above goals and plans remain consistent, but are always adaptable to changing realities and new developments.

Centralized leadership by the Party is one of China's political strengths. It enables the Party to formulate time-phased objectives based on long-range plans. It makes it possible to balance overall with particular interests, and long-term with immediate interests, to forge unity among all social forces to achieve common goals, and to ensure consistency in the implementation of state laws and policies. A step-by-step approach to policymaking has for many years brought China ever closer to the goals of socialist modernization.

通过规划引领发展、化解挑战。制定和实施国民经济和社会发展五年规划(计划),是中国共产党推动发展、实现发展的成功经验。以五年为一个发展阶段,时间长度合适,可以保持政策的稳定和延续,既谋好大事,又办成大事。从1953年实行国民经济第一个五年计划,到现在正实施第十四个五年规划。从上世纪90年代,党把制定五年计划和十年规划结合起来,根据十年或者更长时间经济发展的总趋势和奋斗目标来确定五年计划,使五年计划更具长远性。五年计划制定过程中,深入调查研究,广泛征求意见,反复协商,形成共识。为实现国家规划的落实,建立以国家发展规划为统领的规划体系,把全国总目标按照不同层级、不同类别分解成为若干子目标,使全国形成一盘棋。通过制定规划引领发展,已经从经济社会领域扩展到国家治理的其他领域。具有前瞻性的发展规划和可行性的具体举措相结合,既避免了“只讲长远目标”而“缺乏具体行动”的空谈,也避免了“只顾低头拉车”而“忘了抬头看路”的短视,对于党的事业长期稳定发展发挥了重要作用。

The CPC is adept at spearheading development and overcoming challenges through systematic planning. The mechanism of Five-year Plans on National Economic and Social Development has proven successful. Five years is an appropriate time span to ensure consistency in policymaking and to plan and accomplish major programs and projects. Since the implementation of the First Five-year Plan (1953-1957), the CPC has introduced a total of 14 such plans, with the 14th Five-year Plan (20212025) now under way.

In the 1990s, the Party launched a mechanism of Ten-year Outline Programs to anticipate general trends of economic development in the next decade or the foreseeable future. The purpose is to set long-range goals, provide a framework for the Five-year Plans, and make the plans more future-oriented. In preparing Five-year Plans, the Party conducts in-depth research and many rounds of extensive consultations.

To implement its time-phased plans and programs, a system of national planning guided by the country's overall development strategies has been established. This system divides overall goals into sub-goals in different categories and at various levels to ensure coordinated nationwide development.

The system has expanded from social and economic fields to other areas of state governance. With proactive plans and feasible measures, the Party has succeeded in eliminating both "grand words and no concrete action" on long-range goals, and blinkered carthorses feverishly dragging their loads with no real idea of where they are heading.

试点先行,稳步推进。对关系国计民生的重大问题,党既反对保守,也反对冒进,既大胆试、大胆闯,又实事求是、稳扎稳打,在综合平衡中稳中求进。把制定长期政策目标和广泛的政策试验结合起来,中央设定大的政策目标,在地方设立试点或试验区摸索具体的实施方法,然后总结试点经验,以点带面、以点串线地推广到其他地方,实现探索、试错、纠错、前进的螺旋式发展。党提出并实行改革决策与立法决策相衔接,确保重大改革于法有据、顺利实施。注重发挥法治固根本、稳预期、利长远的保障作用,及时将实践证明行之有效的改革成果上升为法律制度和国家政策。对试点先行中的风险和挑战,党及时作出分析并进行相应的政策和制度调整,避免了在全国推行时出现大范围政策失误甚至引发社会震荡。从建立经济特区到设立中国(上海)自由贸易试验区,从建设雄安新区到支持深圳建设中国特色社会主义先行示范区、支持浦东新区高水平改革开放打造社会主义现代化建设引领区、支持浙江高质量发展建设共同富裕示范区等,党通过试点办法,积极而又稳妥地成功推进一系列重大改革。试点先行、由点到面的工作方法,既实现了改革的“蹄疾步稳”,也将地方的创新精神融入中央的政策制定过程中,促进了中央和地方的良性互动,提高了政策的创新力和适应力。经过长期探索实践,中国实现了以试点促改革、以改革促发展、以发展促稳定,人民在共享发展和稳定“红利”后进一步支持改革的良性循环。

The CPC is adept at conducting pilot programs before launching nationwide reform measures. In addressing issues vital to the economy, development and people's wellbeing, the Party opposes both conservative thinking and impetuous actions, preferring to seek practical, balanced and steady progress while encouraging bold experiments and breakthroughs. Confirming long-term development goals and implementing related policies is always preceded by small-scale pilot programs. Within the policy framework of the central government, regional pilot programs are conducted to work out specific methods, through testing, modifying and then wider application, for the implementation of a particular national policy. These specific methods, if successful, will be gradually replicated by other localities.

The Party's reform initiatives are implemented through national legislation so as to ensure their legal basis and assist their smooth and effective application. The Party attaches great importance to the rule of law and considers it a guarantee for consolidating the foundations of the Party's governance, meeting people's expectations, and maintaining long-term development. Successful reform measures are codified into state laws and policies in a timely manner.

To mitigate the risks of any social instability or other problems that might arise from the ill-judged nationwide rollout of a pilot program, the Party conducts timely analysis of the results of the pilot and makes the appropriate policy adjustments.

The Party has launched a series of major reform initiatives through pilot programs, including:

• special economic zones,

• China (Shanghai) Pilot Free Trade Zone,

• Xiong'an New Area,

• Shenzhen Pilot Demonstration Zone for Chinese Socialism,

• Pudong Leading Pilot Zone for Socialist Modernization Through High-level Reform and Opening Up,

• Zhejiang Demonstration Zone for Common Prosperity Through High-quality Development.

The pilot approach has ensured that vigorous reform can make steady progress. It has made national policies more creative and adaptable, and facilitated positive interaction between the policymaking of central government and the innovative initiatives of local government.

Through constant experiment and practice, China has created a positive cycle – promoting reform through pilot programs, propelling development through reform, maintaining stability through development, and winning public support for reform by sharing the fruits of development achievements with the people.

(三)决策部署有效贯彻

3. Effective Implementation of Decisions and Plans

中国共产党这样一个大党,如果没有坚强有力的组织支撑和纪律约束,就是一盘散沙,大而不强,没有力量。100年来,中国共产党建组织、严纪律、强法治,真正使千百万党员凝聚起来,真正把亿万人民组织起来,保证了党的决策部署能够及时、坚决、有力地贯彻执行。

If there were no strong organizational support and disciplinary restraints, the CPC would become fragmented and remain weak in spite of its massive size. Over the past hundred years, the Party has been consistent in building its organization, tightening its discipline and strengthening the rule of law. It has united tens of millions of Party members and organized hundreds of millions of Chinese people, thereby ensuring that its decisions and plans are implemented in a timely, resolute and forceful manner.

建立上下贯通、执行有力的组织体系。中国共产党的酝酿和发起,就是以“成立一个强固的精密的组织”为目标的。经过长期发展,党建立起由党的中央组织、地方组织、基层组织构成的科学严密的组织体系。党的最高领导机关是党的全国代表大会和它所产生的中央委员会,中央委员会、中央政治局、中央政治局常务委员会是党的组织体系的大脑和中枢,党中央制定党的大政方针,具有定于一尊、一锤定音的权威。党的各级地方组织负责党中央的决策部署在本地区的贯彻落实,并把基层和党员的意见建议报送党中央,是承上启下、实现政令畅通的重要环节。486万多个基层党组织,广泛分布在企业、农村、机关、学校、科研院所、街道社区、社会组织、解放军连队等基层单位,是党的肌体的“神经末梢”,负责把党中央和上级党组织的决策部署贯彻落实到基层末端,并收集反映党员和群众的意见建议。9500多万党员在基层组织中发挥先锋模范作用。依托这种广泛的、严密的、坚强的组织体系,党中央既可以“如身使臂、如臂使指”,灵活高效地进行指挥,使党的大政方针和决策部署及时地、不折不扣地贯彻落实到基层,又可以使党的组织和党员深深扎根人民,不断巩固党的执政根基。

The CPC has built an organizational system featuring unimpeded communication and effective policy implementation at all levels. Prior to and during the creation of the CPC, its founders aimed to establish a strong and tightly-knit organization. Over the years, the Party has established a sound and complete structure consisting of the central, local and grassroots units.

The highest leading bodies of the Party are the National Congress, and the Central Committee which it elects. The Central Committee, the Political Bureau of the Central Committee, and the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau are like the brain and nerve center of a body. The Central Committee is responsible for formulating the Party's policies and guidelines. Therefore, it has the authority to make the final decisions.

Local Party organizations are responsible for implementing the Central Committee's decisions and plans in their respective areas, and for reporting feedback and suggestions from grassroots Party organizations and Party members to the Central Committee. Hence they are important intermediate links helping realize the smooth transmission and implementation of policies.

There are more than 4.86 million grassroots Party organizations, widely distributed in enterprises, villages, Party and government institutions, schools, research institutes, sub-districts, communities, social organizations, military units and other grassroots entities. They are like the nerve endings of the Party, responsible for implementing, at the relevant level, the decisions and plans of the Central Committee and the Party organizations at each successive level up. They also collect and report the concerns and suggestions of Party members and the people. More than 95 million Party members also play an exemplary role in grassroots organizations.

With such an extensive, well-knit and strong organizational system, the Central Committee can command with flexibility and efficiency the subordinate Party organizations just as the brain employs the arms and the arms employ the fingers. This is why the Party's policies, guidelines, decisions and plans are implemented fully and rapidly at the grassroots. This is why the Party's organizations and members keep close ties with the people and constantly reinforce the foundations of the Party's governance.

具有严明的纪律规矩。纪律是党的生命线。没有铁的纪律,就没有党的团结统一,政令就不能通达,党的凝聚力和战斗力、领导力和执行力就会大大削弱。革命战争年代,党作出“三大纪律、八项注意”⑱等纪律规定,提出“加强纪律性,革命无不胜”,加强了内部团结,赢得了人民支持。改革开放新时期,针对资产阶级自由化思潮和西方腐朽生活方式的冲击影响,党提出“一靠理想二靠纪律才能团结起来”,着力加强纪律建设。党的十八大以来,党把纪律建设作为全面从严治党的治本之策,把严明政治纪律、政治规矩摆在首位,坚持依规治党、形成比较完善的党内法规体系,加强党员教育管理,严肃查处违规违纪行为,尊党章、守纪律、讲规矩在党内更加鲜明地立了起来。严明的纪律规矩加上严密的组织体系,使得党像一台结构复杂的精密机器,紧密、协调、高效运转,产生强大力量。

The CPC has strict discipline and rules. Discipline is the lifeline of the Party. Without strict discipline, there would be no unity and solidarity in the Party, policies would not be communicated and implemented smoothly, and the Party's cohesiveness and leadership would be seriously weakened.

In the years of revolutionary war, convinced that "the army will win all battles in revolution as long as discipline is strengthened", the Party issued the Three Main Rules of Discipline and the Eight Points for Attention [ The Three Main Rules of Discipline and the Eight Points for Attention were formulated by Mao Zedong and other Party and military leaders for the Chinese Workers' and Peasants' Red Army during the Agrarian Revolutionary War (1927-1937). Later, they were applied to the Eighth Route Army, the New Fourth Army and the People's Liberation Army (PLA). The contents varied slightly in different military units and different periods of history. In October 1947, they were unified and reissued by the General Headquarters of the PLA. The Three Main Rules of Discipline are as follows: (1) Obey orders in all your actions; (2) Do not take a single needle or piece of thread from the people; (3) Turn in everything that is captured. The Eight Points for Attention are as follows: (1) Speak politely; (2) Pay fairly for what you buy; (3) Return everything you borrow; (4) Pay for anything you damage; (5) Do not hit or swear at people; (6) Do not damage crops; (7) Do not take liberties with women; (8) Do not ill-treat captives.]. It used these to reinforce its internal unity and win popular support.

After the beginning of reform and opening up, in response to the adverse impact of bourgeois liberalization and the decadent Western lifestyle, the Party proposed that unity depends on ideals and discipline, and made great efforts to strengthen discipline.

Since its 18th National Congress, the CPC has employed the enforcement of discipline as an essential tool in its full and rigorous self-governance. It has prioritized its efforts to enforce strict political discipline and rules, and is committed to running itself with rigor by forming a sound system of Party regulations. It has strengthened guidance and management of Party members, and strictly investigated and punished violations of discipline and rules. As a result, the principle of observing the Party's constitution, discipline and rules has become more firmly established.

Strict discipline and rules and a sound organizational system ensure that the sophisticated machine of the Party runs efficiently, with all its parts well-coordinated, generating a powerful force.

把党的领导落实到国家治理各领域各方面各环节。中国共产党作为执政党,通过建立和完善国家治理体系开展执政活动、实现执政目标。党通过领导国家政权机关,将党的领导体现到国家政权机构、体制、制度等的设计、安排、运行之中,有效实现了党的主张与国家意志的有机统一。党始终支持和保证国家政权机关依照宪法法律积极主动、独立负责、协调一致地开展工作。按照党管干部、党管人才原则,党通过甄选德才兼备的优秀人才,按照法定程序推荐到国家政权机关并成为其中的领导人员;又通过国家政权机关实现党对国家和社会的领导,确保党的领导意志贯彻落实到国家治理之中。在国家机关、事业单位、群团组织、社会组织、企业和其他组织中设立党委(党组),由批准其成立的党组织统一领导。在非公有制经济组织和社会组织中建立健全党的组织,做到党和人民的事业发展到哪里,党的组织就覆盖到哪里。党的十八大后,党深化党和国家机构改革,对党和国家组织结构和管理体制进行系统性整体性重构,党的领导体系、政府治理体系进一步健全,党的领导力、政府执行力进一步增强。中国特色社会主义具有制度优势,一个重要方面就是党的领导的政治优势与国家治理的制度优势有机结合,使得党、国家和人民成为目标相同、利益一致、相互交融、同心同向的整体,产生了极大耦合力,最大限度地避免了内耗,显著提升了国家治理效能。

The CPC ensures that its leadership is followed in all aspects of state governance. As a governing party, the CPC exercises governance and realizes its goals by establishing and improving the state governance system. By exercising leadership over departments running state power, and embodying its leadership in the design, setup and functioning of state power systems and institutions, the Party has effectively integrated its views with the will of the state.

The Party actively supports the work of the government in accordance with the Constitution and other laws. With the Party supervising officials and exercising leadership over staff, the CPC selects talented people of integrity and ability, and recommends candidates for leadership positions in government in accordance with statutory procedures. The Party exercises leadership over the state and society through the agencies of state power, and thus ensures that its decisions are implemented in the governance of the country.

The Party establishes Party committees or Party leadership groups in government agencies, public institutions, people's organizations, social groups, enterprises and other entities, and places them under the unified leadership of the Party organizations at the next level up. The Party sets up and improves Party organizations in non-public economic entities and social organizations, to ensure that its leadership reaches all social undertakings.

Since its 18th National Congress, the CPC has further reformed Party and government institutions, and conducted thorough and systematic restructuring of the organization and management of the Party and the government. As a result, the Party's leadership system and the government's administrative system have improved, and the leadership of the Party and the government's capacity to deliver have been strengthened.

The integration of the Party leadership's political strengths and the government's institutional strengths unites the Party, the government and the people behind shared goals, interests and aspirations. This generates a huge cohesive force, keeps internal differences to a minimum, and significantly raises the efficiency of state governance. This is a clear manifestation of the institutional strengths of socialism with Chinese characteristics.

通过法治保障党的政策有效实施。崇尚法治、善用法治、厉行法治,是实现良政善治、保障党的政策实施的必然途径。中国共产党始终坚持依法治国,运用法治思维和法治手段巩固执政地位、改善执政方式、提高执政能力。新民主主义革命时期,党就在中央苏区、陕甘宁边区等局部执政地区,领导制定实施了有关土地、婚姻、劳动、财经等方面的法律。新中国成立后,在废除旧法统的同时,党积极运用新民主主义革命时期根据地法制建设的成功经验,初步奠定了社会主义法治的基础。党的十一届三中全会后,党总结民主法制建设正反两方面经验,加快推进社会主义法治建设,将“依法治国”确立为党领导人民治理国家的基本方略,将“依法执政”确立为党治国理政的基本方式。党的十八大以来,党站在巩固执政地位、确保国家长治久安的高度,定位法治、布局法治、厉行法治,将“全面依法治国”纳入“四个全面”战略布局,坚持党领导立法、保证执法、支持司法、带头守法,坚持依法治国首先要坚持依宪治国,进一步健全党领导全面依法治国的制度和工作机制,更好地通过法定程序使党的主张成为国家意志、形成法律,通过法律保障党的政策有效实施,有力推进了国家治理体系和治理能力现代化。

The CPC ensures effective implementation of its policies through the rule of law. Respecting and practicing the rule of law are essential to good governance and the implementation of the Party's policies. The CPC is committed to law-based governance and always applies law-based thinking and approaches to consolidate its governing status, improve its approach to governance, and strengthen its governance capability.

During the New Democratic Revolution, the Party supervised the formulation and implementation of laws on land, marriage, labor, finance and other matters in the Central Soviet Area, the Shaanxi-Gansu-Ningxia Border Region and other areas under its rule.

After founding the PRC, the Party applied its successful experience in introducing a new legal system in base areas during the New Democratic Revolution, and laid the foundations of socialist rule of law.

After the Third Plenary Session of the 11th CPC Central Committee, the Party reviewed the experience and lessons it had learned in building democracy and the legal system. It used this review to accelerate the implementation of socialist rule of law and establish law-based governance as the basic means of governing the country, and law-based exercise of state power as the basic tool for governance.

Since the 18th National Congress, to consolidate its position as the governing party and ensure lasting peace and stability, the CPC has emphasized the importance of the rule of law. Comprehensively advancing the rule of law is one prong of the Four-pronged Comprehensive Strategy. The Party provides guidance for legislation, guarantees law enforcement, supports judicial justice, and plays an exemplary role in abiding by the law. It holds that respecting the Constitution is essential to law-based governance. The Party is improving its working mechanisms for exercising law-based governance to ensure effective implementation of its policies through the law, and to modernize China's governance system and capacity.

(四)团结和凝聚各方力量

4. Pooling the Efforts of All Sectors

中国共产党之所以有力量,在于党在不同历史时期,始终把统一战线摆在重要位置,坚持大团结大联合,坚持一致性和多样性统一,加强思想政治引领,广泛凝聚共识,广聚天下英才,努力寻求最大公约数、画出最大同心圆,不断巩固和发展最广泛的统一战线,团结一切可以团结的力量、调动一切可以调动的积极因素,最大限度凝聚起共同奋斗的力量。爱国统一战线是党团结海内外全体中华儿女实现中华民族伟大复兴的重要法宝。

The CPC is strong because it has always placed the united front in an important position. It has ensured great unity and solidarity, and balanced commonality and diversity. It has strengthened theoretical and political guidance, built broad consensus, brought together the brightest minds, and expanded common ground and the convergence of interests.

It has always consolidated and developed the broadest possible front, combining all the forces that can be united, mobilizing all positive factors, and pooling as much strength as possible for collective endeavors. The patriotic united front is an important means for the Party to unite all the sons and daughters of the Chinese nation, both at home and abroad, behind the goal of national rejuvenation.

团结和凝聚各方力量战胜强大敌人。大革命时期,中国共产党积极推动同中国国民党的合作,建立国民革命联合战线,给予帝国主义在华的侵略势力和北洋军阀的反动统治以致命打击。抗日战争时期,党推动建立抗日民族统一战线,工人阶级、农民阶级、城市小资产阶级、民族资产阶级、海外华侨、一部分地主买办阶级,以不同形式参加了抗日民族统一战线,使抗日战争成为全民族的反侵略战争。解放战争时期,党在农村、在城市、在国民党军队中,团结一切可以团结的力量,建立最广泛的人民民主统一战线,人民军队能够在那么短的时间内取得三大战役胜利,解放战争能够以如此之快的速度向前推进,与各方广泛支持是分不开的。

The CPC has united with and pooled the efforts of all sectors to defeat powerful enemies. During the Great Revolution (1924-1927), the Party actively called for cooperation with the KMT, which resulted in a nationalist revolutionary united front, striking a blow against foreign imperialist forces in China and ending the reactionary rule of the Northern Warlords.

During the War of Resistance Against Japanese Aggression, the CPC campaigned for a national united front. Workers, peasants, urban petty bourgeoisie, national bourgeoisie, overseas Chinese, and some landlords and compradors answered the call in various ways, waging an all-out people's war.

During the War of Liberation, the Party united all possible forces in both rural and urban areas, even among the KMT troops, forming the broadest possible people's democratic united front. The extensive support of so many parties was indispensable to the victory of the PLA in the three major campaigns and to the rapid success of the War of Liberation.

建立人民大众的、各方面共同参与的人民政权。延安时期,党就倡导建立“民主联合政府”;陕甘宁边区政府实行共产党员、党外进步人士、中间派各占三分之一的“三三制”政权制度,极大调动了各方面人士参与边区建设的热情。新中国成立前夕,在中国共产党倡议下,中国人民政治协商会议召开,中国共产党、各民主党派、无党派人士、各人民团体、人民解放军、各地区、各民族以及国外华侨代表,代表4亿中国人民,充分发扬民主,开展热烈讨论,协商完成了建国大业。新中国成立后,党继续坚持走人民民主统一战线的道路,凝聚各方力量建设国家。改革开放以来,党同全国各民族工人、农民、知识分子,同各民主党派、无党派人士、各民族的爱国力量团结在一起,进一步发展和壮大由全体社会主义劳动者、社会主义事业的建设者、拥护社会主义的爱国者、拥护祖国统一和致力于中华民族伟大复兴的爱国者组成的最广泛的爱国统一战线,为民族复兴大业汇聚各方力量。

The CPC has founded a people's government in which all parties participate. During its Yan'an Period (1935-1948), the Party proposed a "democratic coalition government", with CPC members, non-CPC progressives, and centrists each accounting for one third of the Shaanxi-Gansu-Ningxia Border Region government. This aroused great enthusiasm among all parties involved in the arrangement.

Shortly before the founding of the PRC, the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC) was convened at the behest of the CPC. The CPC, the other political parties, the non-affiliates, people's organizations, and the PLA were all represented, as were various regions and ethnic groups and overseas Chinese. On behalf of some 400 million Chinese people, they engaged in a lively democratic debate and agreed on the terms for the founding of the People's Republic.

After the PRC was founded, the Party continued to maintain the people's democratic united front, involving participants from all walks of life in reconstruction.

After policies for reform and opening up were implemented, the CPC united workers, farmers, intellectuals, and other patriots, regardless of their party affiliation or ethnic background, expanding the patriotic united front and making it as broad as possible. Formed of all builders of socialism, patriotic supporters of socialism, and patriots who support the reunification of the country and the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, the front represents a combined effort to achieve the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.

探索形成新型政党制度。在长期的革命、建设、改革进程中,中国共产党与各民主党派、无党派人士,长期共存、互相监督、肝胆相照、荣辱与共,形成了中国共产党领导的多党合作和政治协商制度。这一新型政党制度,能够真实、广泛、持久地代表并实现最广大人民和全国各族各界的根本利益,有效避免了旧式政党制度只代表少数人、少数利益集团的弊端,有效克服了政党之间互相倾轧造成政权更迭频繁的弊端。中国共产党作为执政党,处于领导地位和执政地位,善于听取意见,乐于接受监督,勇于接受批评。各民主党派作为中国特色社会主义参政党,是中国共产党的好参谋、好帮手、好同事,积极参与国家政权建设和国家大政方针制定,在促进国家政策、法律法规的制定实施等方面发挥了重要作用。

The CPC has formed a new political party system. During the long process of revolution, reconstruction and reform, the CPC, together with the other political parties and the non-affiliates, has formed a CPC-led system of multi-party cooperation and political consultation based on long-term coexistence, mutual oversight, sincerity and sharing weal and woe. This new model can truly, extensively, and consistently promote the interests of the maximum number of people of all ethnic groups and social sectors. It is effective in avoiding the drawbacks of the old political party system that stood for only a small number of people and interest groups, and it can prevent the frequent changes of regime caused by internal strife among political parties.

As the governing party, the CPC is willing and able to hear opinions, and accept scrutiny and criticism. As participants in socialism with Chinese characteristics, the non-CPC political parties function as advisors and assistants of the CPC, and play an active role in establishing the people's government and formulating important national strategies and policies. They have played a key role in devising and implementing national policies, laws and regulations.

不断激发全体人民团结奋进力量。物质生活的日益丰富、和平时期的承平日久,可能会滋生拜金主义、享乐主义、个人主义,导致理想信念消退、奋斗精神缺失、社会凝聚力下降。党对此保持清醒认识,在推进物质文明不断发展的同时,高度重视精神文明建设,坚持不懈在全社会开展党的创新理论、理想信念、奋斗精神教育,加强思想舆论引导,展示昂扬向上的社会主流,反映发展进步的社会本质,营造团结奋进的社会氛围。加强青少年教育,引导他们坚定理想信念、继承革命精神、传承红色基因,扣好人生第一粒扣子,在党的领导下把红色江山守卫好,一代一代传下去。

The CPC has systematically inspired and rallied the people to work together and make progress. Growing affluence and an extended period of peace may breed mammonism, hedonism and self-centrism, leading to a weakening of resolve, a loss of fighting spirit, and a decline in social cohesion.

Always conscious of this, while promoting continuous progress in material terms, the CPC also attaches great importance to education in culture and ethics. It carries out systematic campaigns to encourage the general public to study the Party's theories, ideals, beliefs, and spirit, so as to strengthen guidance and create a positive atmosphere for social development, unity and progress.

The CPC has stepped up education of young people, encouraging them to hold fast to its ideals and beliefs, carry forward the revolutionary spirit, and pass down revolutionary traditions. The Party works to ensure that they are on the right track when starting their lives. Thus, under the CPC's leadership, they will be able to safeguard the socialist country and pass it from generation to generation.

凝聚海外侨胞力量。海外侨胞是中华民族大家庭的重要成员,是实现中华民族伟大复兴的重要力量。党在不同历史时期,团结号召海外侨胞积极投身中华民族复兴大业。广大海外侨胞不忘祖国、不忘祖籍,热情支持中国革命、建设、改革事业,为中华民族发展壮大、促进祖国和平统一大业、增进中国人民同各国人民的友好合作作出了重要贡献。国家的强盛、民族的复兴,极大增强了海外侨胞的民族自豪感和向心力。

The CPC has gathered the strengths of overseas Chinese. Overseas Chinese are important members of the great Chinese family, and a vital force for the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. The Party has united with and called on them to play their part in national revival.

Overseas Chinese, with the motherland and hometown in their hearts, have given unstinting support to China's revolution, reconstruction and reform, and made a huge contribution to the development of the nation, the reunification of the motherland, and the cooperation between the peoples of China and other countries. China's growing prosperity and national rejuvenation have given a great boost to their pride in the nation and sense of identity.

(五)建设高素质干部队伍

5. Fostering High-Caliber Party Officials

政治路线确定以后,干部就是决定因素。党之所以能够实现对党和国家事业的全面领导,能够实现对各个领域各个行业的领导,关键是有一支规模宏大的高素质干部队伍,关键是能够聚天下英才而用之。

With the CPC's political guidelines clearly defined, how officials carry out their duties makes a great difference to the performance of the Party. The CPC can realize its overall leadership over state affairs and in all sectors of society because a large number of high-caliber officials play their role to the best of their ability.

吸引汇聚先进分子。自古以来,中国的仁人志士就有忧国忧民的家国情怀。中国共产党的理想信念、性质宗旨与中国先进分子价值追求的一致性,使得党对先进分子具有强大的吸引力,成为他们一心向往、施展抱负、实现价值的依托。党成立之初,许多家境富裕的青年知识分子放弃优渥生活,加入中国共产党,选择了可能牺牲生命的革命事业。延安时期,全国各界的许多进步人士纷纷奔赴延安,很多热血青年更是“只要还有一口气,爬也要爬到延安城”。新中国成立后,许多在海外的优秀科学家,突破重重封锁回国,为新中国建设贡献力量。今天的中国繁荣发展,为各路英才实现人生理想搭建了更加广阔的舞台。党在不同历史时期,都能吸引汇聚中国最优秀的群体,为民族独立、人民解放和国家富强、人民幸福共同奋斗。

The CPC attracts progressive individuals. For millennia, dedicated progressives in China have demonstrated a deep concern for the country and the people. Today they are attracted to the CPC to realize their aspirations, as the Party's ideals, beliefs and principles are consistent with their values and goals.

In the early years of the CPC, a large number of young intellectuals left their well-off families and joined the Party in its struggle, ready to sacrifice their lives for the Chinese revolution wherever and whenever they might be called upon to do so.

During the Yan'an period, progressive individuals from every sector of society overcame great difficulties to make the testing journey from all parts of the country to Yan'an, where the CPC Central Committee was located. Many young patriots were willing to risk their lives to complete the journey.

After the founding of the PRC, many outstanding overseas Chinese scientists made great efforts to break through the Western blockade and return to China in order to work for the country.

Today's China, on the path to greater prosperity and development, provides an even larger arena for talented individuals to fulfill their aspirations.

Throughout history, the CPC has always been able to gather the most outstanding social groups, all dedicated to the nation's independence, the people's liberation and wellbeing, and the country's prosperity.

重视选贤任能。党始终把选人用人作为关系党和人民事业的关键性根本性问题来抓。革命战争年代,党培养了一大批对党忠诚、英勇善战、不怕牺牲的优秀干部。新中国成立后,随着党的工作重心由农村转向城市、由战争转向生产建设,党培养了一大批懂政治、懂业务、又红又专的优秀干部。改革开放后,适应社会主义现代化建设新要求,党提出建设“革命化、年轻化、知识化、专业化”干部队伍的要求,一批年富力强、锐意改革的优秀干部走上领导岗位。党的十八大以来,党总结干部队伍建设经验,把从严治吏、培养选拔党和人民需要的好干部作为从严治党的重要内容,进一步明确以什么标准选人、选什么样的人、怎样选人,为优秀人才脱颖而出创造了更好条件,培养选拔了一大批新时代的好干部。

The CPC values talented and capable professionals. Selecting and appointing talent has always been of fundamental importance in advancing the cause of the Party and the people.

During the revolutionary war years, the CPC trained a large number of qualified officials who were loyal to the Party, brave and skillful in battle, and unafraid to sacrifice their lives.

After the founding of the PRC, as the CPC shifted its focus from rural areas to cities, and from war to reconstruction, it trained a cohort of officials who were politically solid and professionally competent.

After the beginning of reform and opening up, to facilitate socialist modernization, the CPC began to select officials who were younger, better educated, more professional, and more dedicated to the revolution. A group of young officials committed to reform rose to positions of leadership.

Since its 18th National Congress, selecting and training officials, and tightening their discipline, have been key to strengthening the Party. The CPC has further clarified the standards and procedures for selecting officials for the new era, enabling a large number of outstanding candidates to emerge.

把好干部选出来、用起来。中国共产党在长期探索中,传承中国历史上选贤任能的优良传统,借鉴其他国家的有益做法,形成了选拔、任用、培训、管理、考核、激励等比较完备的选人用人体系,使优秀人才发现得了、培养得好、用得起来。制定党的干部工作方针,强调坚持党管干部原则,坚持德才兼备、以德为先,坚持五湖四海、任人唯贤,坚持事业为上、公道正派,坚持注重实绩、群众公认。提出“信念坚定、为民服务、勤政务实、敢于担当、清正廉洁”的好干部标准,体现了对干部综合素质的要求。干部录用主要是通过严格公平的考试,从全社会优秀人才中选拔。干部提拔晋升,按照好干部标准,围绕德、能、勤、绩、廉,经过组织推荐、民主评议、个别谈话、会议决定等多个程序深入进行考察,同时,严格实行“凡提四必”⑲等制度,防止“带病提拔”。党的各级干部,都是一步步成长起来的,都是通过层层考核选拔出来的优秀者。党高度重视干部的使用培训,通过在职培训、挂职锻炼、交叉任职、多岗轮换等多种形式,提升履职尽责的素质能力,着力建设忠诚干净担当的高素质专业化干部队伍。

The CPC selects competent officials and puts them to good use. Drawing on domestic and foreign experience, the CPC has developed a comprehensive system for selecting, appointing, training, managing, evaluating and incentivizing officials, allowing competent officials to be identified and trained, then assigned to the posts where they are most needed.

The Party selects officials regardless of background, on the basis of both integrity and ability, with priority given to integrity. The Party appoints officials who are dedicated, impartial, upright, pragmatic and successful.

Qualified officials must be firm in their ideals and convictions, willing to serve the people, diligent in work, ready to take on responsibilities, honest and upright.

The recruitment of officials is based on the results of fair national exams and reviews.

The promotion of officials, based on the assessment of integrity, ability, diligence, performance and incorruptibility, follows strict procedures – recommendation by Party organizations, assessment by the public, oral inquiries, and group discussions. To prevent incompetent or even corrupt officials from being promoted, the Party has adopted the mechanism of Four Musts [ Before a proposed promotion is confirmed, the archives of the candidate must be reviewed; the report on personal information must be subject to investigation; feedback from discipline inspection and supervision departments must be reviewed; and details of reported misconduct must be subject to investigation. ] for the selection and appointment of officials at all levels.

To improve officials' performance, the Party provides them with training in various forms, including on-the-job training and assignment to temporary posts, rotating posts, and concurrent Party/administrative posts. The aim is to train competent and professional officials who are loyal, honest and upright.

100年来,中国共产党从一棵小树成长为枝繁叶茂的参天大树。这棵大树,吸吮着马克思主义科学理论的养分,深深扎根于14亿多人民的丰厚土壤之中,坚强有力的党中央和领导核心是主干,党的各级组织是枝干,9500多万党员是树叶。这样一棵枝繁叶茂的大树,具有不断成长的内生动力,具有抵挡任何风雨侵袭的强大力量。

Over the past hundred years, the CPC has grown into a towering tree with its roots spreading throughout China, drawing on a wealth of experience from Marxism and serving 1.4 billion people. The CPC Central Committee with its leadership core is the trunk of the tree, the Party organizations at all levels the branches, and 95 million Party members the leaves. The tree continues to grow with vigor and vitality, impervious to wind and storm.

四、始终保持旺盛生机和活力

IV. Maintaining Vigor and Vitality

革命者永远是年轻。党历经百年风雨仍然走在时代前列、保持青春活力,在于党不但能够领导人民进行伟大的社会革命,也能够进行伟大的自我革命,始终坚持党要管党、全面从严治党,与时俱进推进自我净化、自我完善、自我革新、自我提高,始终保持肌体健康和生机活力。

Forever young are the revolutionaries. The CPC has always been able to maintain vigor and vitality and stand at the forefront of the times despite the many hardships it has endured in the past hundred years. This is because it has constantly engaged in significant self-reform while leading the people in a great social revolution. To maintain its health and vigor, it exercises effective self-supervision, practices strict self-discipline in every respect, consistently pursues improvement, and advances with the times.

(一)坚持党内民主

1. Upholding Intra-Party Democracy

中国共产党倡导民主、推行民主,首先在党内实行民主。党不断探索党内民主的实现形式,激发全党的活力和创造力,努力营造又有集中又有民主、又有纪律又有自由、又有统一意志又有个人心情舒畅生动活泼的政治局面。

The CPC's advocacy and promotion of democracy is demonstrated first in its application within the Party. To achieve intra-Party democracy and create a political model characterized by centralism and democracy, by discipline and freedom, and by unity of will and individual initiative, the Party mobilizes all its members' dynamism and creativity in exploring the optimum models.

不断发展党内民主。党在成立之初就对党员条件、党的各级组织和党的纪律作出具体规定,体现了民主集中制原则。新中国成立后,党在健全民主集中制、实行党务公开、建立党代会常任制、保护和扩大党员民主权利等党内民主建设方面作出重要决定,促进了党内民主的健康发展。改革开放后,党提出“党内民主是党的生命”的重要论断。党的十八大以来,党大力推进党内民主建设,从党中央做起,以上率下、层层推动,党内民主的好作风好传统得到传承和发展,党内民主空气越来越浓厚;民主决策进一步发展,中央委员会、中央政治局、中央政治局常委会作出重大决策部署之前,深入开展调查研究,广泛听取下级党组织和广大党员意见和建议;党的代表大会报告、党的全会文件、党的重要文件和重大决策、重大改革发展举措等,都在党内一定范围内征求意见,有的多次征求意见;严肃党内政治生活,中央政治局带头落实民主生活会制度,认真开展批评与自我批评;党的领导层在政策上和工作上的一些不同意见,能够通过党内正常的讨论,取得意见的协调或认识的一致。在党中央带动下,各级党组织党内民主不断推进,党内生活更加积极健康,领导干部的民主作风不断增强。

Advancing intra-Party democracy. Upon its founding the CPC specified provisions on criteria for full Party membership, Party organizations at all levels and Party discipline, which all embodied the principle of democratic centralism.

Some of the major decisions made by the CPC after the founding of the PRC included improving democratic centralism, making Party affairs transparent, establishing a system of Party congresses with a fixed term, and protecting and expanding Party members' democratic rights.

After the launch of reform and opening up, the Party made an important judgment – that "intra-Party democracy is the Party's lifeline".

Since its 18th National Congress, the CPC has stepped up efforts to strengthen intra-Party democracy.

The CPC Central Committee leads by example in passing on the Party's finest traditions and work styles and developing them at every level. It has created a more favorable environment for intra-Party democracy.

Democratic decision-making has been extended. The CPC Central Committee and the Political Bureau and its Standing Committee carry out in-depth research and solicit opinions from subordinate Party organizations and Party members before making major decisions and plans.

Reports to the Party congresses, documents of the plenary sessions of the Central Committee, other important documents and major decisions of the Party, and key measures for reform and development are drafted and issued after appropriate intra-Party consultations, in some cases amounting to several rounds.

A vigorous campaign has been conducted to regulate political activities and conduct within the Party. The Political Bureau takes the lead in holding meetings for criticism and self-criticism. Differences of opinions among Party leaders on policy and work can be discussed in pursuit of consensus.

With the Central Committee leading by example, intra-Party democracy in Party organizations at all levels has been constantly improved, intra-Party activities are more vigorous, and officials have taken the lead in practicing democracy in their work.

尊重党员主体地位,保障党员民主权利。党员是党内民主的主体。所有党员,不论从事何种社会职业,担任何种职务,入党时间长短和年龄大小,在党内政治生活中都处于平等地位,享有平等权利。党员有参加党的有关会议,阅读党的有关文件,接受党的教育和培训的权利;有在党的会议上和党报党刊上,参加关于党的政策问题的讨论的权利;有对党的工作提出建议和倡议的权利;有行使表决权、选举权的权利,有被选举权;等等。在党内,民主渠道是畅通的,党员在党的会议上能够畅所欲言,能够讲真话、讲实话、讲心里话,不同意见的平等争论是受到鼓励的,基层的许多真实情况是通过畅通的民主渠道充分反映的。真实的、广泛的党内民主,增强了党员参加党内事务的积极性、主动性、创造性,使广大党员的聪明才智得到充分发挥。

Respecting the principal position of Party members and protecting their democratic rights. Party members play a principal role in intra-Party democracy. All Party members, regardless of occupation, position, Party standing and age, enjoy equal status and equal rights in political activities within the Party. They have the right to attend relevant Party meetings, read relevant Party documents, and benefit from Party education and training, to participate in discussion on questions concerning Party policy at Party meetings and in Party newspapers and periodicals, to make suggestions and proposals regarding the work of the Party, and to participate in voting and stand for election.

Within the Party, democratic channels are open and unimpeded. Party members can express their views freely, frankly and honestly at Party meetings. Arguments over differences of opinions are encouraged. Much information from the grassroots is accurately conveyed to the upper levels through unblocked democratic channels. Genuine and extensive intra-Party democracy increases Party members' enthusiasm, initiative, creativity, and will to participate in intra-Party affairs, and pools their wisdom and ingenuity.

把党内民主贯彻到民主选举、民主决策、民主管理、民主监督之中。党的重大决策部署,在党内广泛征求意见。党坚持集体领导制度,各级委员会实行集体领导和个人分工负责相结合的制度形式,对于党内的重大问题,按照集体领导、民主集中、个别酝酿、会议决定的原则,由集体讨论、按少数服从多数作出决定。建立并不断完善党内选举制度,党的各级代表大会的代表和委员会,全部由选举产生,体现选举人的意志。以党的各级领导机关和领导干部,特别是各级领导班子的主要负责人为重点,不断加强党内监督。干部选拔任用中,民主推荐、民主测评已经成为必经程序和基础环节。基层党内民主形式丰富多彩,基层党组织大多实行了直接选举。

Applying intra-Party democracy in elections, decision-making, management and oversight. The Party's major decisions and plans are made after soliciting opinions from a wide range of Party members. The Party upholds collective leadership. Party committees at all levels combine collective leadership with individual responsibility based on the division of work. Decisions on major issues are made after discussion in accordance with the principles of collective leadership, democratic centralism, pre-meeting reflection, and meeting-based decision-making, with the minority deferring to the majority.

The intra-Party election system has been improved. Delegates to Party congresses and members of Party committees at all levels are elected, and reflect the will of the electorate.

Continuous efforts have been made to strengthen internal oversight, focusing on leading Party organs and Party members in leadership positions, and particularly those holding principal positions in leadership teams.

In the selection and appointment of officials, democratic recommendation and appraisal is a basic step and an essential requirement. Intra-Party democracy at the grassroots is practiced in many forms, and direct elections are held by most primary-level Party organizations.

作为执政党,中国共产党党内民主的发展,对于国家政治、经济和社会领域产生重要的积极影响。党的各级领导干部和广大党员,把在党内树立的民主观念、养成的民主习惯、培养的民主作风、形成的民主传统带到各自工作岗位,模范遵守人民民主的法律和制度,影响和带动自己工作领域中的民主风气,增强身边群众的民主意识,有力带动和促进了人民民主的发展。

As the CPC is the governing party, its progress in intra-Party democracy exerts an important and positive influence on the state's politics, and on society and the economy. Party officials at all levels and Party members have vigorously advanced people's democracy by applying democratic ideas, habits, conduct and traditions fostered within the Party, influencing others and nurturing a democratic atmosphere in their own fields, enhancing the sense of democracy around them, and strictly abiding by the law and regulations.

(二)勇于修正错误

2. Correcting Mistakes

中国共产党在领导人民取得革命、建设、改革伟大成就的同时,也经历过失误和曲折。但是,党能够正视自身的问题,勇于坚持真理、修正错误,不断战胜自我、超越自我,领导人民继续前进。

In the course of leading China's revolution, reconstruction and reform to great success, the CPC has made mistakes and experienced setbacks. It has faced up to its problems and mistakes, and corrected them by upholding the truth. Through trial and error, it has grown stronger and better, and continues to lead the people forward.

对待问题和错误坚持正确态度,不遮掩,不回避。中国共产党是全心全意为人民服务的政党,有缺点、有错误不怕别人批评指出,敢于为人民利益坚持正确的、改正错误的。“大跃进”⑳后,毛泽东同志对“大跃进”造成的工作失误主动承担了责任,党的其他领导人向民主党派和无党派人士说明“大跃进”时期国内工作的缺点错误责任在中国共产党,主要责任在党中央,并作了诚恳的自我批评。一个马克思主义政党对自己的错误所抱的态度,是衡量这个党是否真正履行对人民所负责任、是否真正有力量的重要尺度。面对错误,党始终体现出马克思主义政党和一个大党应有的格局、风范和担当,实事求是,襟怀坦白,赢得了人民的理解和拥护。

The CPC openly confronts its shortcomings and errors. As a party in service of the people, it is not afraid of criticism of its shortcomings. It always retains what is right and corrects what is wrong, all in the best interests of the people. After the Great Leap Forward [ This refers to the socialist movement from the winter of 1957 to early 1960 that set unrealistic goals for industry and agriculture, with an overemphasis on speed. It reflected the people's urgent need for development, but failed to respect basic economic laws.], Mao Zedong offered to take responsibility for the mistake. The Party leadership explained to the other political parties and non-affiliates that the CPC and particularly its Central Committee should take the main responsibility for the error, and offered sincere self-criticism.

The attitude of a Marxist party towards its mistakes is an important means to gauge whether it can fulfill its responsibilities towards the people, and whether it is truly a capable organization. In the case of the CPC, as a large Marxist party it always acts in ways commensurate with its character, breadth of vision, and sense of responsibility. Seeking truth from facts, it remains open to criticism and suggestions, and this has won understanding and support from the public.

实事求是地总结教训,在修正错误中继续前进。人民至上的深厚情怀、对党的事业的高度责任感、民主集中制的根本组织原则、批评与自我批评的有力武器,使得党既有敢于面对错误的勇气,也有认识错误、修正错误的能力。党对自己包括领袖人物的失误和错误,历来采取郑重的态度,一是敢于承认,二是正确分析,三是坚决纠正,从而使失误和错误连同党的成功经验一起成为宝贵的历史教材。新民主主义革命时期,党从大革命失败和第五次反“围剿”失败的错误中汲取教训,领导中国革命走上正确的道路。社会主义革命和建设时期,党纠正“大跃进”和“文化大革命”㉑的错误,深刻全面地总结教训,为开辟中国特色社会主义道路奠定了基础。党在与“左”的和右的两种错误倾向长期斗争过程中,全面系统地总结经验教训,先后作出《关于若干历史问题的决议》《关于建国以来党的若干历史问题的决议》,深刻分析所犯错误根源,对重大历史事件和重要历史人物作出实事求是的评价,统一了全党思想,维护了全党团结,为党继续前进提供了重要保证。

The CPC learns from its mistakes, and, while correcting them, presses on. It has the courage to do this precisely because it has a deep love for the people and a strong sense of its cause. It applies the fundamental principle of democratic centralism, and employs the powerful weapon of criticism and self-criticism. Honestly acknowledging its problems and mistakes, including those of its leaders, the CPC has always conducted careful analysis of root causes and taken resolute measures to correct them. Its mistakes, failures, and lessons, together with its successes, all serve as an invaluable textbook.

During the New Democratic Revolution, the CPC drew lessons from the failed Great Revolution and from its defeat in the KMT's fifth encirclement and suppression campaign. It subsequently led the Chinese revolution onto the correct path.

During socialist revolution and reconstruction, the Party corrected the mistakes of the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution [ This refers to the tumultuous political movement from May 1966 to October 1976 initiated by Mao Zedong and manipulated by two counter-revolutionary cliques under Lin Biao and Jiang Qing. It caused great harm to the Party, the nation, and the people.], and conducted a comprehensive, in-depth review of the hard lessons it had learned, thus laying the groundwork for socialism with Chinese characteristics.

In the long-term fight against both Leftist and Rightist tendencies, the Party has made its position clear in the Resolution on Certain Issues in the History of the CPC (released in 1945) and the Resolution on Certain Questions in the History of the CPC Since the Founding of the People's Republic of China (released in 1981). The two resolutions document grave problems and mistakes in the history of the Party. They analyze the root causes and draw objective conclusions regarding important historical events and figures. In this way the whole Party has come to a clear consensus on its past and thus grown stronger in unity.

没有一个政党是不犯错误的,重要的是能否从错误中学习,取得教训。中国共产党是伟大、光荣、正确的党,并不是因为从来不犯错误,而是因为能够正确认识错误,从错误中学习,通过错误的教训提高对客观规律的认识,进而纠正错误,使错误成为正确的先导。坚持真理、修正错误,永远是党坚持为人民服务、坚持人民至上而恪守的态度。

Every political party makes mistakes. What matters most is whether it can learn from its mistakes and improve itself. The CPC is a great and glorious party that charts the correct course. This does not mean that it never errs, but that it adopts the correct approach to its mistakes, corrects them, and learns from them. To uphold truth and correct any mistake is the Party's approach to always serving the people and putting people first.

(三)保持肌体健康

3. Protecting the Party's Health

在革命、建设、改革中,中国共产党面临着形形色色的考验。外部世界的各种诱惑,管党治党的松懈松弛,党员思想行为的不良变化,都会对党的肌体造成侵害。党坚决同影响党的先进性、弱化党的纯洁性的各种现象作斗争,不断医治病症,坚决铲除毒瘤,保持肌体健康。

In revolution, reconstruction and reform, the CPC has been and will be confronted with all kinds of tests, including temptations from the outside world. Any slackness in enforcing Party self-discipline or any negative shift in its members' thinking and behavior will erode its health. With that in mind, the Party takes resolute measures against all phenomena that may undermine its integrity and progressive nature. It treats any signs or symptoms of disease as soon as they appear and promptly removes any virus or tumor identified in order to protect its health.

保持党员队伍活力。党员是党的活动的主体。党高度重视党员队伍建设,在增加数量的同时提升质量,把党员锻造成为一个个坚强个体,党的队伍越来越团结、越来越强大。在不同历史时期,党都注重结合时代特点,最广泛地吸收社会各方面的先进分子,补充新鲜血液,使党始终代表最广大人民的根本利益。虽然不同时期入党条件和程序有一些变化,但对党员的要求都很高,入党程序都很严格。成为共产党员,没有身份、学历、财富等要求,但有着十分严格的政治和道德要求。申请入党要履行严格手续、经过认真教育和严格考察后才能成为正式党员。党始终重视加强党员队伍教育管理,使得来源不同的党员在党的大熔炉里,锤炼成为坚定的共产主义战士。党员不论职务高低,都必须编入党的一个支部、小组或其他特定组织,参加党的组织生活,接受党内外群众的监督,开展批评和自我批评。在加强日常教育管理的同时,党还围绕一个时期面临的形势任务,针对党员队伍存在的突出问题,开展党内集中教育。党高度重视作风建设,把它作为关系人心向背、关系党的生死存亡的重大问题,通过坚决有力的措施,防止和惩治脱离人民、侵害人民利益的各种行为,始终保持党同人民群众的血肉联系。党的主体由健全的坚强的分子组成,但也不可避免地掺杂不坚定分子、变节分子、异己分子和腐败分子。对不合格党员,党及时提出警告、促其改正,严重者坚决清理出党。

Maintaining the vitality of Party members. As Party members play the primary role in implementing CPC programs and activities, the Party attaches great importance to strengthening its membership in both quantitative and qualitative terms and making them a strong and united contingent of staunch Communists. In all historical periods, in the light of changing circumstances, the Party has given particular attention to replenishing its ranks by admitting progressive people from all sectors of society, so that it always represents the fundamental interests of the people. Although the eligibility and procedures for Party membership have varied in different periods, the requirements for Party members always remain high and procedures for joining the Party always remain rigorous. Personal status, level of education and financial background are irrelevant to qualification for CPC membership, but political and moral requirements are strict. An applicant must go through stringent procedures and undergo rigorous education and observation for a probationary period before becoming a full member.

The CPC considers it imperative to strengthen the education and management of its members, regardless of their origins and background, to forge resolute Communists. Every Party member, irrespective of position, must join a branch, group, or other given unit of the Party. They must participate in the regular activities of the Party organizations, place themselves under the scrutiny of people both within and outside the Party, and engage in criticism and self-criticism.

In addition to regular education and day-to-day management, the CPC also carries out themed education programs focusing on the situations and tasks that it faces in any given period, and on the prominent problems that confront its members. The Party gives priority to improving its conduct and regards this as a major issue that has a direct impact on its prospects of winning or losing public support and on the very survival of the Party. To forever maintain its close ties with the people, it applies resolute and effective measures to prevent or punish any action that creates barriers between the Party and the people or infringes on their interests.

The Party is mostly composed of sound and committed members, yet it is inevitable that some of them may become fainthearts, dissidents, corrupt elements, or traitors. To its underperforming members the Party sounds a warning and instructs them to rectify their conduct in a timely manner; it resolutely expels those with serious failings.

加强对权力的制约和监督。中国共产党的权力是人民赋予的,只能用来为人民谋利益,党对此始终保持清醒认识。党创立伊始,就指出地方委员会的财政、活动和政策应受中央执行委员会的监督。抗日战争时期,党提出只有让人民来监督政府,政府才不敢松懈。新中国成立后不久,党成立了中央及地方各级纪律检查委员会,成立国家行政监察部门,加强对领导干部特别是高级干部的监督。改革开放新时期,党积极推进党和国家领导制度改革,健全完善党委内部的议事和决策机制,建立健全决策权、执行权、监督权既相互制约又相互协调的权力结构和运行机制。党的十八大以来,党把加强对权力的制约和监督作为全面从严治党重要内容,围绕“把权力关进制度的笼子里”,突出“一把手”和领导班子这个“关键少数”,以巡视工作条例、党内监督条例等为重点健全党内监督法规体系,锻造巡视利剑并组织开展大规模巡视,实现向中央一级党和国家机关全面派驻纪检机构,深化国家监察体制改革,把党内监督同国家机关监督、民主监督、司法监督、群众监督、舆论监督贯通起来,让权力在阳光下运行。

Strengthening checks and scrutiny over the exercise of power. The mandate of the CPC comes from the people and must be exercised in the interests of the people. The Party is always soberly aware of this. Upon its founding, the Party stipulated that the finances, activities and policies of local committees would be supervised by the Central Executive Committee. During the War of Resistance Against Japanese Aggression, the Party made it clear that only under public scrutiny could a government be clean and efficient. Soon after the founding of the PRC, the Party set up commissions for disciplinary inspection and the state established supervisory departments at the central and local levels to bring officials under closer scrutiny, especially those in senior positions. Since the beginning of reform and opening up, the Party has actively pressed forward with reform of the system of Party and state leadership, improving the mechanisms for deliberation and decision-making within Party committees, and establishing and improving a framework for the exercise of power under which decision-making power, executive power and supervisory power are mutually exclusive but are coordinated with each other. Since its 18th National Congress, the CPC has been strengthening checks on and scrutiny over the exercise of power as an important part of its full and strict self-discipline.

Focusing on confining the exercise of power in an institutional cage, the Party gives prominence to scrutiny of the "key few" – the principal members of the leadership teams at all levels. It is improving its regulatory system for internal oversight, the priorities being the introduction of provisions on tours of disciplinary inspection and the regulations on internal scrutiny. While strengthening the deterrent role of disciplinary inspection, the Party has launched massive inspection campaigns and dispatched resident disciplinary inspection agencies to the central-level departments of the Party and the government. It works to extend reform of the national supervision system and integrates intra-Party oversight with oversight by state organs, democratic oversight, judicial oversight, public oversight, and oversight by the media, to ensure that power is exercised under public scrutiny.

坚决反对腐败。腐败问题是关系党的生死存亡的重大问题。中国共产党深知腐败之害,与腐败水火不容。党成立之初就提出对腐化分子混入党内的现象必须高度警惕,要求坚决清洗不良分子,和不良倾向斗争。新中国成立初期,在党政机关工作人员中开展反对贪污、反对浪费、反对官僚主义的“三反”运动,特别是判处在革命战争中有过功劳但堕落成为大贪污犯的刘青山、张子善死刑,在全党引起震动。党的十八大以来,面对一段时间内党内腐败问题比较严重的状况,党以“得罪千百人,不负十四亿”的意志,以猛药去疴、重典治乱的决心,以刮骨疗毒、壮士断腕的勇气,坚持反腐败无禁区、全覆盖、零容忍,坚定不移“打虎”“拍蝇”“猎狐”,以雷霆之势、霹雳手段惩治腐败,持续形成强大震慑,同时,坚持系统施治、标本兼治,一体推进不敢腐、不能腐、不想腐,反腐败斗争取得压倒性胜利并全面巩固。在解决腐败这个古今中外治国理政的顽疾方面,党不仅有鲜明态度,更有实际行动。

Resolutely combating corruption. Corruption is a major threat to the Party's survival. The CPC is fully aware of the harm that corruption can do and tolerates no corruption. At its very beginning, the Party cautioned that it must stay keenly alert to the entryism of corrupt elements, and vowed to resolutely expel bad elements and fight against negative trends. In the early years of the PRC, the Party launched the campaign against the "three evils" of corruption, waste and bureaucratism within Party and government institutions. In particular, the death penalties imposed on Liu Qingshan and Zhang Zishan, both of whom had performed with great merit in the revolutionary war but later degenerated into major embezzlers, sent a shockwave through the whole Party.

Since its 18th National Congress, facing a situation where corruption had been a growing problem in the Party for some time, the CPC has demonstrated its commitment to resolute action. It would rather offend a few thousand corrupt officials than fail to live up to the expectations of 1.4 billion Chinese people. It has remained firm in its determination and demonstrated great courage in combating corruption. Just as heavy doses of medicine are needed to treat serious disease, stringent measures must be applied to address serious corruption. To this end, the Party has allowed no safe haven, left no ground unturned, and shown no tolerance in fighting corruption. It has taken firm action to "take out tigers", "swat flies", and "hunt down foxes". [ Tigers and flies respectively refer to high-ranking and petty officials guilty of corruption, while foxes refer to corrupt officials who have fled abroad. – Tr.] To form a powerful deterrent it has punished corruption with decisive measures and overwhelming severity. At the same time it has taken a systemic approach to addressing both the symptoms and root causes of corruption, ensuring that officials do not dare to be, are denied the opportunity to be, and have no wish to be corrupt. As a result, a crushing victory has been won in the anti-corruption campaign and the success has been consolidated. In resolving the issue of corruption, a persistent problem in governance at all times and across the globe, the Party has adopted an uncompromising attitude and taken concrete actions.

坚决防止在党内形成特权阶层。中国共产党深刻汲取古今中外治党不严、治国不力的深刻教训,刀刃向内,从严治党,从党中央严起、从党的高级干部严起,严下先严上、严人先严己。革命战争年代,从党的领袖、党的领导人到各级领导干部,与普通士兵和广大群众同甘共苦,形成了无坚不摧的战斗力。新中国成立后,党采取有力措施加强对党的高级干部的监督。改革开放初期,党对高级干部生活待遇作出若干规定,强调高级干部必须带头发扬党的优良传统。党的十八大以来,党中央以身作则、以上率下,严格执行中央八项规定㉒,并把反“四风”㉓、反腐败与反特权思想和特权现象相结合,在干部办公用房、公务用车、秘书配备、公务消费等方面出台了一系列整治措施,严格规范领导干部特别是高级领导干部的工作和生活待遇,带动了全党全社会风气整体转变,凝聚了党心民心,提升了党在人民心中的形象和威信。

Preventing the formation of an entitled elite in the Party. The CPC has drawn profound lessons from examples of failure or ineffective leadership of political parties or states throughout history and across the world. It is always strict with itself, with its Central Committee, and with its senior officials. In the years of revolutionary war, the Party's top leaders and other officials at all levels stood together with the rank and file through thick and thin, forming an invincible force. After the founding of the PRC, the Party adopted rigorous measures to bring senior officials under closer scrutiny. In the early years of reform and opening up, it set out provisions delimiting the legitimate privileges of senior officials, and emphasizing that they must take the lead in carrying forward the Party's fine traditions. Since the 18th CPC National Congress, the Central Committee has played a model role in strictly observing its Eight Rules [ The Eight Rules were set by the Political Bureau of the 18th CPC Central Committee to urge all officials to improve their ways of doing things and maintain close ties with the people. They are summarized as follows: improving investigation and fact-finding trips, streamlining meetings and other activities, reducing documents and briefings, standardizing arrangements for visits abroad, improving security procedures, improving news reports, imposing restrictions on publishing writings, and practicing diligence and frugality.]. It opposes corruption and the Four Malfeasances [ The Four Malfeasances refer to the practices of favoring form over substance, bureaucratism, hedonism, and extravagance.], as well as any sense of entitlement and the inclination to act on it. It has issued a series of rectifying measures on the assignment of offices, official vehicles, and immediate staff, and on spending in the performance of official duties, with the goal of strictly delimiting the privileges of officials, especially senior officials. All of this has led to a complete change in the whole ethos of the Party and society. As a result, the Party has boosted the faith of its members and the people, and enhanced its image and authority in their hearts.

(四)注重学习总结

4. Promoting Study and Review

中国共产党是有本事的党。100年来,党领导人民创造了以少胜多、以弱胜强的战争奇迹,创造了经济快速发展奇迹和社会长期稳定奇迹,一次次让不可能成为可能。党之所以能够站在时代潮头、引领风气之先,能够应对复杂形势、完成艰巨任务,一个关键因素在于党注重学习总结和吸收借鉴,不断增强进行革命、建设、改革所需要的实际本领。

The CPC is a capable party. Over the past hundred years, it has led the people to numerous great achievements: defeating the many and strong with the few and weak in war, maintaining rapid economic growth and lasting social stability, and turning the impossible into the possible again and again. The reasons that the Party has been able to stand in the forefront of the times, respond to complex circumstances, and complete arduous tasks, are twofold. One is its emphasis on study and review; the other its commitment to drawing on good experience from other countries to strengthen its own capability for revolution, reconstruction and reform.

中国共产党是学习型政党。党的性质和担负的使命,要求党必须注重学习、善于学习、不断学习。面对不断发展变化的形势任务,党始终甘当小学生,向群众学、向实践学、向历史学、向别人学。革命战争年代,党靠着学习,找到了中国革命的正确道路。新中国成立初期,党靠着学习,迅速恢复国民经济,使国内外那些怀疑共产党能够搞好经济的人们也不能不表示赞佩。改革开放后,党靠着学习,探索出中国特色社会主义道路。进入新时代,面对现代信息技术的迅猛发展和复杂的国内外环境,党提出建设学习型、服务型、创新型马克思主义执政党的重大任务,在全党大兴学习之风,执政能力和执政水平显著提升。党重视抓好领导干部特别是高级领导干部的学习,培养了一支治党治国治军的中坚力量。中共中央政治局建立集体学习制度㉔,为全党起到了重要的带头示范作用。建立党委(党组)理论学习中心组学习制度,各级党委(党组)领导班子成员定期围绕不同主题进行学习。在全党定期或不定期开展形势政策教育。依托中央和地方各级党校(行政学院),开展大规模多层次培训。重视学习、善于学习,使得党能够适应不断发展变化的形势,树立新观念,掌握新本领,解决新问题。党依靠学习赢得过去,也将依靠学习赢得未来。

The CPC is a learning party. Its nature and mission require it to devote attention to learning, be adept at learning, and continue to learn. Facing developments and changes in its circumstances and tasks, the Party has always been modest, learning from the people, from experience, from history and from other countries.

In the years of revolutionary war, it was by learning that the Party found the correct path for the Chinese revolution. After the founding of the PRC, it was by learning that the CPC was able to quickly restore the economy, winning praise and respect from those doubting its ability. After the launch of reform and opening up, it was by learning that the Party opened up the path of socialism with Chinese characteristics. In the new era of surging modern information technology and a complex domestic and international landscape, the Party has set a major task – to develop itself into a learning, service-oriented, and innovative Marxist governing party, launching campaigns to encourage learning within the Party to strengthen its ability in governance.

The CPC gives priority to learning by officials, particularly those in leading positions, through which it has cultivated a strong contingent of individuals capable of leading the Party, governing the country, and commanding the military. The Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee has a system of regular group study sessions [ Under this system, the general secretary presides over each session and delivers a speech, and all members of the Political Bureau attend the session. Experts and academics are invited to give lectures on issues relating to the economy, politics, history, culture, society, science and technology, military affairs, foreign relations, and other subjects. The Political Bureau of the 18th CPC Central Committee held 43 group study sessions. By July 30, 2021, the Political Bureau of the 19th CPC Central Committee had held 32 group study sessions.], playing an exemplary and leading role for the whole Party. There is also a system of study groups for leading officials, under which Party committees and Party leadership groups at all levels hold study sessions on different topics on a regular basis. Various activities are organized to educate Party members on the current situation and the Party's targeted policies. Training on a large scale and at multiple levels is conducted by central and local Party schools or schools of governance. This requirement for learning and being able to learn has enabled the Party to adapt to changing circumstances, foster new ideas, acquire new skills and solve new problems. It is through learning that the Party has succeeded in the past, and it is through learning that it will succeed in the future.

中国共产党是靠总结经验成长起来的。不论是革命战争年代还是和平建设时期,从党中央到基层组织,完成阶段性工作和重大任务后,都要进行总结,发扬优点,克服缺点,继续前进,做到打一仗进一步。勤于总结、善于总结,已经成为党重要的思想方法和工作方法。党既重视总结成功经验,更重视从失败中学习。自己犯的错误特别是大错误,暴露出的问题、揭示出的规律往往更加深刻,更值得总结。历史上,党每次都能从大的错误中总结教训,使党的事业有一个大的推进。党在探索、总结、提高的螺旋式上升中,实现了重要经验的提炼升华,实现了具有重要意义的历史转折。当代中国是历史中国的延续和发展。党高度重视历史的学习,反复强调学习中国历史,学习党史、新中国史、改革开放史、社会主义发展史,在汲取历史经验中不断前进。党以史为鉴,既注重从中华优秀传统文化中汲取治国理政的智慧和营养,也深刻汲取历代政权更迭和各种政治力量衰败的教训,反复警醒全党,避免重蹈覆辙。党不仅注重总结汲取自身和本国历史的经验,还注重总结汲取世界政党特别是世界社会主义运动的经验教训,以其为镜鉴,反思和改进党的工作,不断提高执政能力和拒腐防变能力。

The CPC has grown strong by reviewing experience and summarizing the lessons learned. Whether in times of war or peace, Party organizations, from the top-level Central Committee to the grassroots, produce a review after completing a project or major task, so that they can identify successes, remedy shortcomings, and move forward. Being diligent in and adept at reviewing experience has become an important part of the Party's theoretical and practical work. In addition to summing up successful experience, the CPC attaches great importance to drawing lessons from and learning from failures. Problems and mistakes – particularly serious ones – and the requirements revealed by such mistakes and problems are often worth summarizing. Throughout its history, the CPC has been able to draw lessons from every major error, in order to advance its cause. From this progressive spiral of review, summary, and action the CPC has extracted important experience, and gone on to make changes of historic significance.

Contemporary China is the extension and development of China in the past. The CPC pays close attention to learning from history and constantly emphasizes the significance of such learning. By studying its own history and the history of China, including the PRC, reform and opening up, and the development of socialism, the Party has been able to move forward based on historical experience. To learn from history the CPC draws on wisdom and nutrients from the best of traditional Chinese culture, and at the same time learns lessons from the rise and fall of previous regimes or political powers. It reminds the whole Party not to commit the same errors. The CPC also sums up experience and lessons from other political parties around the world and from the world socialist movement, to reflect on and improve its work, reinforce its ability to govern the country, and combat corruption.

中国共产党是开明开放的政党。对于人类文明的一切优秀成果,党从来都是结合实际,以开放态度积极吸收借鉴。新中国成立后,党借鉴苏联经验开展社会主义革命和建设,对于恢复和发展国民经济,推动社会主义改造和工业化发展,发挥了重要作用。改革开放后,党积极吸收和借鉴世界各国包括发达资本主义国家的一切反映现代社会化生产规律的先进经营方式、管理方法和科学技术,显著提升了中国的现代化建设水平。党的十八大以来,党积极推动文明交流互鉴,深化与其他政党治国理政经验交流,加强多种形式、多种层次的国际政党交流合作,通过政党间协商合作促进国家间协调合作,推动共同发展,实现互利共赢。

The CPC is an open-minded party. Proceeding from China's realities, the Party absorbs and draws on all the excellent achievements of human civilization. After the founding of the PRC, it learned from the Soviet Union how to carry out socialist revolution and how to build socialism, which helped it to restore and develop the economy and advance socialist transformation and industrialization.

After the launch of reform and opening up, it drew on advanced operating models, managerial experience, and technologies that embody the laws of modern socialized production. What the Party learned from the rest of the world, including developed capitalist countries, helped advance China's modernization.

Since its 18th National Congress, the CPC has promoted exchanges and mutual learning between civilizations, expanded the sharing of experience with political parties from other countries, and strengthened communication and cooperation in many forms and at multiple levels with political parties around the world. Through consultation and cooperation with other political parties, the CPC has strengthened China's ties with other countries in pursuit of common development and mutual benefit.

100年来,中国共产党历经千锤百炼而朝气蓬勃,一个很重要的原因就是勇于自我革命。未来路上,党仍然面临着精神懈怠危险、能力不足危险、脱离群众危险、消极腐败危险,仍然面临着执政考验、改革开放考验、市场经济考验、外部环境考验。但是,经过百年磨砺,党具有自我革命的勇气和能力,能够经受住各种挑战和考验,不变质、不变色、不变味,始终保持旺盛生机和活力。

Over the past hundred years, the CPC has remained robust and vibrant despite having undergone so many trials and tribulations. An important reason for this is that it has had the courage to carry out self-reform. On the way ahead, the Party will still face dangers – loss of drive, incompetence, disengagement from the people, inaction, or corruption. And it will still be confronted with tests of its capacity to exercise governance of the country, carry out reform and opening up, develop the market economy, and respond to external volatility.

However, after a hundred years of hard struggle, the CPC has the courage and ability to carry out self-reform and is able to meet any challenge and withstand any test. It will never change or betray its nature. It will always remain dynamic and grow stronger.

五、为人类和平与发展贡献力量

V. Contributing to World Peace and Development

中国共产党是为中国人民谋幸福的政党,也是为人类进步事业奋斗的政党。无论国际风云如何变幻,中国共产党始终秉持和平、发展、公平、正义、民主、自由的全人类共同价值,始终弘扬国际主义精神,始终站在历史正确的一边,站在人类进步的一边,为世界和平发展作出贡献。党的十八大以来,中国日益走近世界舞台中央,党全面推进中国特色大国外交和推动构建人类命运共同体,以更加积极的姿态在国际事务中发挥作用。中国共产党用实际行动,赢得了世界爱好和平国家和人民的尊敬,中国共产党和中国人民的朋友遍天下。

The CPC is a political party that seeks happiness for the people and progress for humanity. No matter how the global situation might have changed, the CPC has always pursued the shared human values of peace, development, fairness, justice, democracy and freedom. It has championed internationalism, stood on the right side of history and the progressive side of humanity, and contributed to world peace and development.

Since the 18th National Congress of the CPC, China has moved closer to the center of the world stage. Playing a more active role in international affairs, the Party has consistently promoted major-country diplomacy with Chinese characteristics and the building of a global community of shared future. It has won respect from peace-loving people throughout the world with real actions, and friends of the CPC and the Chinese people are to be found all over the world.

(一)维护世界和平

1. Safeguarding World Peace

中国共产党从苦难中走来,为争取民族独立、人民解放历经千辛万苦,深知和平来之不易。在错综复杂的国际形势中,中国共产党始终高举正义的旗帜,支持和平、反对战争,支持民主、反对强权,支持多边主义、反对单边主义,坚定维护世界和平,坚定维护国际公平正义。

Having gone through many testing times in pursuing national independence and the people's liberation, the CPC deeply understands how precious peace is. In a complex world, the CPC has always championed justice, peace, democracy and multilateralism while opposing war, hegemony and unilateralism.

在世界反法西斯战争中捍卫人类和平。在这场关乎人类前途命运的历史大决战中,中国共产党为和平而战、为正义而战。面对错综复杂的民族矛盾和国内阶级矛盾,党以民族利益为重,坚定扛起反法西斯侵略的旗帜,支撑起中华民族救亡图存的希望。党提出全面抗战路线,推动建立抗日民族统一战线,实现了近代以来不曾有过的全民族共同抗敌的崭新局面。党提出打持久战的战略总方针,极大增强了中国人民坚持抗战的信念,为中国抗战指明了方向。党不但在世界东方推动率先建成抗日民族统一战线,也积极推动建立国际反法西斯统一战线。战争后期,党积极支持联合国的创建,为推动构建战后和平秩序发挥了积极作用。党领导人民开辟了世界反法西斯战争的东方主战场,在中国抗日战争中发挥中流砥柱作用,为世界反法西斯战争作出重要贡献。

Defending world peace in World War II. During this epic war on which the future of humanity depended, the CPC fought for peace and justice. In a complex conflict involving nations and domestic classes, it made the interests of the country its priority, steadfastly resisted Fascist aggression, and carried the hopes for national salvation. The Party led the people in fighting in the major eastern theater of the war, and made an important contribution to the ultimate victory.

During the War of Resistance Against Japanese Aggression, the CPC proposed the guidelines for all-out resistance, and pushed for the formation of a united front, creating a situation never before seen in the country's modern history. It defined the strategic guidelines for a protracted war, solidified the Chinese people's resolution to fight, charted the direction for them, and played a key role in the victory.

In addition to taking the lead in successfully pushing for the united front in China, the CPC also called for a united international anti-Fascist front. During the later stages of the war, the Party actively supported the founding of the United Nations, and played an important role in the establishment of a peaceful post-WWII order.

旗帜鲜明反对霸权主义和强权政治。中国共产党在反抗外敌入侵中诞生,反对霸权、反对强权是党与生俱来的鲜明品质。新中国成立后,在对外政策上坚持独立自主原则,坚持中国共产党的事情必须由中国共产党来办、中国的事情必须由中国人民来办,决不允许外来任何力量、任何形式的干涉,决不屈服于任何外来压力,始终保证国家主权、安全、发展利益牢牢掌握在自己手中。党鲜明提出,“一切反动派都是纸老虎”。面对美帝国主义的粗暴挑衅,以战止战、以武止戈,取得抗美援朝战争胜利,以铁的事实说明霸权主义不得人心、注定失败。上世纪70年代,党提出“三个世界”㉕的划分,并强调中国属于第三世界,要联合世界上一切可以联合的力量,结成最广泛的国际反霸统一战线。党的十八大以来,面对个别国家的霸权主义、单边主义,面对一些外国势力在涉疆、涉藏、香港、台湾问题,以及所谓人权、民族、宗教、司法等问题上对中国内政的粗暴干涉,在南海、东海等问题上危害中国领土主权安全的各种图谋与行为,党原则坚定、立场鲜明,敢于碰硬、坚决斗争,坚定维护国家主权、安全、发展利益。当今世界,多极化是大势所趋,某些国家试图像以往那样称王称霸、唯我独尊已经不可能了。任何国家都没有包揽国际事务、主宰他国命运、垄断发展优势的权力,更不能在世界上我行我素,搞霸权、霸道、霸凌。今天的中国,已不是100年前的中国。中国人民从来没有欺负、压迫、奴役过其他国家人民,也绝不允许任何外来势力欺负、压迫、奴役中国人民,谁妄想这样干,必将在14亿多中国人民用血肉筑成的钢铁长城面前碰得头破血流。

Taking a clear-cut stance against hegemony and power politics. Born in resistance against foreign aggression, the CPC has an innate opposition to hegemony and power politics. Since the founding of the PRC, the Party has maintained an independent foreign policy, insisting that the CPC's affairs must be handled by the CPC, and China's affairs must be managed by the Chinese people. It never permits interference by any external force in any form, and never yields to any external pressure. This ensures that China's sovereignty, security and development interests always rest in China's own hands.

In the words of Chairman Mao, "All reactionaries are paper tigers." Confronted with blatant US provocation, the CPC decided to fight to defend China, which led to victory in the War to Resist US Aggression and Aid Korea (the Korean War), proving that hegemony would not be tolerated and was doomed to failure. In the 1970s, the CPC put forward the Three Worlds Theory [ On February 22, 1974, when meeting with Zambian President Kenneth David Kaunda, Mao Zedong proposed classifying countries into three categories, or three worlds. The First World refers to the United States and the Soviet Union, at the time the two superpowers that were using their military and economic power to pursue hegemony. The Second World includes other developed countries. The Third World refers to developing countries in Asia, Africa, Latin America and other regions.], emphasizing that China belonged to the Third World, and it united with all possible forces to form the broadest international front against hegemony.

Since its 18th National Congress, the CPC has faced challenges such as hegemony and unilateralism. It has seen blatant external interference in China's internal affairs related to Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Tibet Autonomous Region, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and Taiwan. It has faced criticism on human rights, ethnic and religious affairs, and the judicial system. On the issue of the South China Sea and the East China Sea, some forces have hidden agendas and have even taken actions that threaten China's territorial security. The CPC has maintained a firm and clear-cut stance, and resolutely defended China's sovereignty, security and development interests.

In today's world, multilateralism is the prevailing trend. Any country that attempts to pursue hegemony and supremacy will fail. No country has the right to dictate international affairs, determine other countries' destiny, monopolize development resources, do as it pleases, or ride roughshod over others. Weak a hundred years ago, China is no longer weak today. The Chinese people have never abused, oppressed or subjugated the people of any other country. By the same token, we in China will never allow any foreign force to abuse, oppress or subjugate us. Any force that attempts to do so will inevitably fail in front of the great wall forged by over 1.4 billion Chinese people.

为维护世界和平贡献智慧和力量。从和平共处五项原则,独立自主的、不结盟的和平外交政策,到建设持久和平、共同繁荣的和谐世界,再到构建人类命运共同体、构建新型国际关系、共建“一带一路”等重要理念、重要倡议,中国共产党为维护世界和平积极贡献中国智慧、中国方案。中国共产党既有维护世界和平的庄严承诺,更有维护世界和平的实际行动。新中国成立以来,中国没有主动挑起过任何一场战争和冲突,没有侵略过别国一寸土地。中国从拥有核武器的第一天起,就积极倡导全面禁止和彻底销毁核武器,始终恪守在任何时候和任何情况下都不首先使用核武器。中国承诺无条件不对无核武器国家和无核武器区使用或威胁使用核武器。改革开放以来,中国致力于促进世界和平,主动裁减军队员额400余万。中国始终不渝奉行防御性国防政策,坚持走中国特色强军之路,中国军队忠实践行人类命运共同体理念,积极履行大国军队国际责任,全面推进新时代国际军事合作,努力为建设持久和平、普遍安全的美好世界作出贡献。中国积极参与国际军控、裁军和防扩散进程,反对军备竞赛,维护全球战略平衡与稳定。中国始终致力于通过谈判、协商方式处理领土问题和海洋划界争端,同14个邻国中的12个国家彻底解决了陆地边界问题,划定了中越北部湾海上界线,为和平解决国家间历史遗留问题以及国际争端开辟了崭新道路。中国积极参与重大国际和地区热点问题解决,根据事情本身的是非曲直作出公正判断,劝和促谈,维稳防乱,为维护国际和地区和平安宁发挥了建设性作用。

Contributing wisdom and efforts to maintaining world peace. Actively offering Chinese solutions to maintain world peace, the CPC has proposed important ideas and initiatives such as the five principles of peaceful coexistence, the independent foreign policy of peace and nonalignment, a harmonious world of lasting peace and prosperity, a global community of shared future, a new model of international relations, and the Belt and Road Initiative. The CPC has not limited itself to solemn promises – it has done what it can to safeguard world peace.

Since 1949, China has neither started a single war or conflict, nor occupied an inch of any other country's land. Since the day that China gained a nuclear weapon, it has been actively advocating for a comprehensive ban and thorough destruction of nuclear weapons, and has pledged to the world that it will never make first use of nuclear weapons, and will never use or threaten to use nuclear weapons against nuclear-free countries and regions.

To promote world peace after the launch of reform and opening up, China voluntarily downsized its military forces by more than 4 million people. It is committed to a national defense policy that is defensive in nature. It has followed the path of building a strong military with Chinese characteristics, devoted itself to building a global community of shared future, and actively assumed its international military responsibilities as a major country. It has given impetus to comprehensive international military cooperation, and contributed to creating a beautiful world with lasting peace and universal security. China has actively participated in arms control, disarmament and nuclear non-proliferation, and opposed arms races so as to maintain global strategic balance and stability.

China is committed to solving land and water border disputes through negotiations and consultation. It has settled all land border disputes with 12 of its 14 neighbors and delimited the maritime boundary in the Beibu Gulf with Vietnam. This provides a new model for the peaceful resolution of historical border issues and other international disputes. China has actively participated in defusing major international and regional flashpoints, making fair and fact-based judgments, facilitating peaceful negotiations, and contributing to international and regional peace and stability.

坚定维护以联合国为核心的国际体系。作为联合国创始会员国、联合国安全理事会常任理事国和最大发展中国家,中国始终坚定维护联合国权威和地位,恪守联合国宪章宗旨和原则,维护以国际法为基础的国际秩序,同各国一道,坚守多边主义,反对单边主义。中国积极参加联合国维和行动,是联合国第二大会费国和维和摊款国,是安理会常任理事国维和行动第一大出兵国。新时代的中国军队已经成为联合国维和行动的关键因素和关键力量,为世界和平与发展注入更多正能量。中国严格履行《巴黎协定》《核安全公约》《不扩散核武器条约》《禁止生物武器公约》《禁止化学武器公约》等国际公约,在联合国框架下积极开展能源安全、粮食安全、网络安全、生物安全、极地、外空、海洋等领域国际交流与合作。当今世界面临深刻的规则危机、秩序危机,维护规则、维护秩序十分紧迫。世界上只有一个体系、一种秩序,就是以联合国为核心的国际体系和以国际法为基础的国际秩序;只有一套规则,就是以联合国宪章宗旨和原则为基础的国际关系基本准则。一个国家或少数国家图谋搞霸权“体系”、霸权“规则”,打着“正义”旗号行“霸权”之实,中国坚决反对,大多数国家也不会接受。

Firmly upholding the international system with the United Nations at the core. As a founding member of the United Nations, a permanent member of the UN Security Council, and the largest developing country, China has always firmly upheld the authority of the United Nations, strictly followed the missions and principles of the Charter of the United Nations, and maintained the world order based on international law. It has worked with various countries to support multilateralism and oppose unilateralism.

China has taken an active part in UN peacekeeping operations. It is the second largest contributor to the UN's peacekeeping budget, and to its regular budget, and the largest contributor of peacekeeping troops among the permanent members of the UN Security Council. Chinese military forces have become a key force in UN peacekeeping missions, creating momentum for peaceful international development. China has strictly enforced international conventions such as the Paris Agreement, the Convention on Nuclear Safety, the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction, and the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction. It has actively engaged in international exchanges and cooperation under the UN framework in such fields as energy security, food security, cybersecurity, and biosafety, as well as polar, outer space and ocean affairs.

Currently the world is plagued with a crisis of rule and order – restoring the rules and maintaining order are matters of the greatest urgency. There is only one international system – the one with the United Nations at the core. There is only one international order, which is based on international law, and there is only one set of fundamental international norms, which is based on the missions and principles of the Charter of the United Nations. Hegemonic "systems" or "rules" set by one country or a few countries, even when wrapping themselves in the cloak of justice, will be resolutely opposed by China and rejected by the overwhelming majority of countries.

推动国际关系民主化。中国共产党是民主的忠实追求者、积极探索者和模范实践者,不但在党内实行民主、在中国发展全过程人民民主,而且在国际上大力推动国际关系民主化。新中国成立之初就鲜明提出,和平共处五项原则应该成为世界各国建立和发展相互关系的准则。按照这一原则,中国与许多国家建立和发展了双边关系。面对世界百年未有之大变局,中国高举和平、发展、合作、共赢的旗帜,推动建设相互尊重、公平正义、合作共赢的新型国际关系,推动国际关系民主化。面对全球范围内经济、科技等领域竞争,中国不是把对方视为对手,而是视为伙伴;不是搞冷战和对抗、控制和操纵,而是促进交流合作、实现互利共赢。中国始终秉持伙伴精神发展与各国关系,构建总体稳定、均衡发展的大国关系框架,按照亲诚惠容理念和与邻为善、以邻为伴周边外交方针深化同周边国家关系,秉持正确义利观和真实亲诚理念加强同发展中国家团结合作。

Promoting democracy in international relations. The CPC is faithful, active, and exemplary in pursuing, exploring, and practicing democracy. It has implemented democracy within the Party and throughout China, and vigorously promotes democracy in international relations.

Shortly after the founding of the PRC, the CPC proposed the five principles of peaceful coexistence as the norms for countries to follow when establishing and building relations with each other. China has applied these principles in its bilateral relations with many countries.

As the world experiences change on a scale unseen in a century, China has followed the principles of peace, development, cooperation and mutual benefit, and pressed for a new model of international relations based on mutual respect, fairness, justice and win-win cooperation.

At a time of intense global competition in economic, scientific, technological and other fields, China still regards other countries as partners rather than rivals. It does not engage in cold war, confrontation, control or manipulation, but rather promotes mutually beneficial exchanges and cooperation.

China has formed partnerships with many countries, and established a framework of major-country relations that is generally stable and balanced. It implements the principles of amity, sincerity, mutual benefit, and inclusiveness in developing relations with neighboring countries, and promotes friendship and partnership with them. China upholds the values of greater good and shared interests, and follows the principles of sincerity, affinity, good faith and real results in strengthening cooperation with other developing countries.

当今世界,公平正义远未实现。少数国家漠视国际公理、践踏国际规则、违背国际民意,公然侵犯他国主权,干涉他国内政,动辄以大欺小、恃强凌弱,把“地球村”变成弱肉强食的原始丛林。一些政客泯灭做人良知、突破道德底线,为政治私利大肆炮制传播谎言、对他国和人民进行攻击抹黑。面对充满危机的世界,中国共产党主张,国家不论大小、强弱、贫富,在国际关系中都是平等的;大国要有大国的样子,要以人类前途命运为要,对世界和平与发展担负更大责任,而不是依仗实力搞唯我独尊、霸凌霸道;世界的命运必须由各国人民共同掌握,各国和各国人民应该共同享受尊严、共同享受发展成果、共同享受安全保障。

The present world is far from fair and just. A small number of countries ignore international law, trample on international justice, disdain international public opinion, flagrantly infringe upon the sovereignty of other countries, interfere with others' internal affairs, and frequently abuse and dictate to smaller and weaker countries, turning the "global village" into a primeval jungle where the strong prey on the weak. Their politicians fabricate and spread lies out of self-interest, and denigrate other countries and peoples.

In a world rife with crises, the CPC holds that all countries, large or small, strong or weak, rich or poor, are equal. Powerful countries should behave as befits their status, make the future of humanity their priority, and shoulder greater responsibility for world peace and development, rather than wielding their power in pursuit of supremacy or hegemony. The future of the world should rest in the hands of all peoples and all countries, and all countries and all peoples should enjoy dignity and security and share development fruits.

政党是维护世界和平、推动人类进步的重要力量。世界各政党诞生的历史背景和条件不同,承载的功能使命不同,取得执政地位、履行执政责任的方式不同。世界是丰富多彩的,不是“非黑即白”的单一色彩,同我即对、非我即错的逻辑方式不符合人类文明发展潮流。评判一个执政党是否先进、合格,评判一种政治制度是否行得通、有效率、真管用,实践最有说服力,人民最有发言权。各国政党应担负起引领方向、凝聚共识、促进发展、加强合作、完善治理的责任,求同存异、相互尊重、互学互鉴,加强交流合作,共谋人民幸福。

Political parties are an important force for safeguarding world peace and promoting human progress. Different political parties around the world, emerging from different historical backgrounds and conditions, are endowed with different missions and obtain their governing status and exercise their authority in different ways. The world is colorful, not monochrome. The logic that "whoever disagrees with me is wrong" is out of line with the evolution of human civilization. Facts are the most convincing criteria for judging whether a governing party is progressive and qualified to rule, and whether a political system is viable, efficient and effective. The people should have the biggest say in making such judgments. Political parties in all countries need to play their part in steering the course forward. They should seek common ground while setting aside differences. They must build consensus, promote development, enhance cooperation, improve governance, respect and learn from each other, strengthen exchanges and cooperation, and work together to seek happiness for all.

(二)促进共同发展

2. Pursuing Common Development

发展是世界各国的权利,而不是少数国家的专利。中国共产党不仅希望中国人民过上好日子,也希望其他国家人民过上好日子。在发展问题上,中国共产党始终坚持发展自己、兼济天下、造福世界,在致力于实现自身发展的同时,为促进共同发展贡献力量。

Development is the right of all countries, rather than the exclusive privilege of the few. The CPC seeks happiness for the Chinese people, and also the wellbeing of all others. The CPC is committed to pursuing development for both China and the world, and to bringing benefits to all.

中国保持长期稳定和发展是对人类的贡献。中国是世界上最大的发展中国家。中国共产党领导人民,集中力量办好自己的事,让国家更富强、人民更幸福,本身就是对世界和平与发展的贡献。中国经济持续健康发展,成为世界经济增长的主要稳定器和动力源。中国完成消除绝对贫困的任务,提前10年实现联合国2030年可持续发展议程减贫目标,对全球减贫贡献率超过70%。中国科技创新为其他国家人民生产生活带来更多便利,为世界科技创新和经济增长注入了新动能。中国以占全球9%的耕地,养活了世界近20%的人口。中国大力加强环境治理,是世界生态文明建设的重要力量。中国积极推进绿色低碳发展,提前实现对国际社会承诺的2020年碳减排目标,并承诺力争2030年前实现碳达峰、努力争取2060年前实现碳中和。中国全方位对外开放为各国分享“中国红利”创造更多机会,庞大消费需求为世界各国提供了巨大市场。新中国成立以来,中国经历了中华民族史乃至人类发展史上从未有过的巨大的经济社会变迁,持续保持了国家政治和社会大局稳定,这既是中国人民的福祉,也是中国为世界和平稳定作出的贡献。

As the world's largest developing country, China contributes to humanity by maintaining long-term stable development. The CPC is leading the Chinese people to focus on completing our own tasks, and making the country more prosperous and the people happier. This is a contribution to world peace and development in its own right. China's economy continues its healthy growth and has become the major driver of global economic growth. China has succeeded in eradicating absolute poverty, meeting the target set out in the United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development 10 years ahead of schedule, and contributing to over 70 percent of global poverty reduction. China's innovative achievements in science and technology have brought greater convenience to work and daily life around the world, and injected new impetus into international technological innovation and global economic growth. China succeeds in feeding almost 20 percent of the global population with only 9 percent of the planet's arable land. China is making great efforts to strengthen environmental governance and has become a major force in global eco-environmental progress. It takes active steps to advance green and low-carbon development and has fulfilled its international commitment to reduce carbon emissions by 2020 ahead of schedule. In addition, it has pledged to peak carbon emissions before 2030 and achieve carbon neutrality by 2060. China's all-round opening up creates more opportunities for other countries to share China's development dividends, and China's strong domestic demand provides a huge market for other countries to explore. Since the founding of the PRC, the country has undergone profound economic and social changes of a scale never before seen in history. It has maintained long-term overall political and social stability, which not only benefits the Chinese people but also contributes to world peace and order.

加强国际发展合作。中国自身是发展中国家,对其他发展中国家正在经受的贫困和苦难感同身受,积极开展国际发展合作,力所能及地为他们提供援助。新中国成立以来,中国向其他发展中国家提供不附加任何政治条件的援助。党的十八大以来,中国的对外援助顺应时代要求,向国际发展合作转型升级,为破解全球发展难题、推动落实联合国2030年可持续发展议程注入中国力量。2013年至2018年,中国累计对外提供援助2702亿元人民币,实施成套项目423个,提供物资援助890批,完成技术合作项目414个,举办人力资源开发合作项目7000余期,共约20万名人员受益。中国积极开展抗击新冠肺炎疫情全球合作,力所能及为国际组织和其他国家提供援助,截至2021年6月,共为受疫情影响的发展中国家抗疫以及恢复经济社会发展提供了20亿美元援助,向150多个国家和13个国际组织提供了抗疫物资援助,为全球供应了2900多亿只口罩、35亿多件防护服、46亿多份检测试剂盒,向100多个国家和国际组织提供5.2亿多剂疫苗,累计组派33批抗疫医疗专家组赴31个国家协助抗疫。当今世界仍然面临着严重的发展困境,许多人还在贫困、饥饿、疾病之中挣扎。一些国家越来越富,另一些国家越来越穷,世界不可能长久太平、持久繁荣。中国共产党主张,加快全球减贫进程,发达国家要加大对发展中国家的发展援助,发展中国家要增强内生发展动力。中国将尽己所能,继续开展国际发展合作,深化南南合作,为全球减贫贡献智慧和力量。

China is committed to strengthening international cooperation. As a developing country itself, China shows great empathy for other developing nations plagued by poverty and hardship, and provides assistance for them as far as its capacity permits. Since 1949, China has been a provider of support to other developing countries with no political strings attached. Since the 18th National Congress of the CPC, in response to the call of the times, China has been upgrading its foreign aid to a model of international development cooperation, contributing its strength to resolving global development issues and implementing the United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. From 2013 to 2018, China allocated a total of RMB270 billion to foreign aid, undertook the construction of 423 complete projects, provided 890 shipments of goods and materials for countries and regions in need, completed 414 technical cooperation projects, and held more than 7,000 training sessions and seminars for about 200,000 people to promote cooperation in building human resource capacity.

China takes an active part in global cooperation against the Covid-19 pandemic, and has done its best to offer help to international organizations and other countries. By June 2021 China had provided US$2 billion in aid for the international Covid-19 response, and as aid to social and economic recovery in developing countries hit by the pandemic. It has sent medical supplies to more than 150 countries and 13 international organizations, and supplied more than 290 billion masks, 3.5 billion protective suits, and 4.6 billion testing kits to the world. It has also provided more than 520 million doses of vaccines to over 100 countries and international organizations, and sent 33 medical expert teams to 31 countries in need of help.

The global path to development is a rocky one, and many people are still struggling with poverty, famine and disease. Some rich countries are getting richer while poor countries are getting poorer. As long as this situation persists, the world can never enjoy lasting peace and prosperity. The CPC holds that to accelerate the global poverty relief process, developed countries need to increase their assistance to developing countries, and developing countries need to generate greater endogenous momentum for development. China will continue to do all it can to promote international cooperation, expand South-South cooperation, and contribute to global poverty reduction.

积极参与引领全球治理体系改革和建设。二战以后建立的国际体系,对于战后恢复世界经济发挥了重要作用,但是,经济全球化带来的发展鸿沟和公平问题日益突出。中国作为负责任大国,始终坚持权利和义务相平衡,积极参与全球治理体系改革和建设,推动建立更加公正合理的国际政治经济新秩序。党的十八大以来,中国积极推动全球治理体系改革和建设,参与制定多个新兴领域治理规则,推动改革全球治理体系中不公正不合理的安排;坚定支持多边主义,搭建政治、经济、安全、人文等领域多边平台,促进对话与合作;发起成立亚洲基础设施投资银行,设立丝路基金,为构建开放型世界经济,促进全球包容、可持续发展贡献更大力量。当前,全球治理体系改革和建设仍然面临诸多困难和挑战,任重而道远。中国将实施更加积极主动的开放战略,以实际行动维护经济全球化,推动构建创新、活力、联动、包容的世界经济。中国将继续发挥负责任大国作用,秉持共商共建共享的全球治理观,积极参与引领全球治理体系改革和建设,推动全球治理体系向着更加公正合理方向发展,使发展成果更多更好惠及各国人民。

China takes an active part in leading the reform of the global governance system. The international system formed after World War II played a pivotal role in post-war global economic recovery. However, the development gap and economic inequality caused by globalization has become increasingly prominent. As a major country that takes its responsibilities seriously, China has always sought to balance rights and obligations. It has taken an active part in reforming and developing the global governance system, and tried hard to recalibrate the international political and economic order according to a fairer and more reasonable set of standards. Since the 18th CPC National Congress, China has actively pressed for reform and improvements in the global governance system. It has participated in formulating rules in a number of emerging fields, and stepped up the reform of unfair and unreasonable arrangements in the existing system.

China firmly supports multilateralism. To facilitate dialogue and cooperation, it devotes itself to building multilateral platforms in areas including politics, the economy, security, and culture. It has initiated the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank and launched the Silk Road Fund, making a greater contribution to an open world economy and inclusive, sustainable global development. At present, considering the many difficulties and challenges ahead, it remains a daunting task to reform and develop the global governance system. China will adopt a proactive opening-up policy, safeguard economic globalization through concrete actions, and promote an innovative, invigorated, interconnected and inclusive world economy. China will continue to play its part as a major country, and follow the principle of achieving shared growth through discussion and collaboration in global governance. It will be an active participant in reforming and developing the global governance system, with the goal of making the system fairer and more reasonable, to enable more people across the world to benefit from development.

(三)走和平发展道路

3. Following the Path of Peaceful Development

和平发展,是中国共产党矢志不渝的追求,是中国发展的鲜明特征。100年来,党领导人民走的是强而不霸的复兴新路,是追求和平、维护和平、捍卫和平的道路。这条道路,是靠中国人民自力更生、艰苦奋斗,而不是靠殖民和侵略走出来的,是既促进自身发展、也为世界和平发展作出贡献的道路。事实充分表明,中国共产党是热爱和平的政党,中国是热爱和平的国家,中国人民是热爱和平、真诚善良的人民。

Peaceful development is an everlasting aspiration of the CPC and the salient feature of China's progress. Over the past hundred years, pursuing and safeguarding peace, the CPC has led the Chinese people on a new path of national rejuvenation that leads to prosperity rather than hegemony. Laid down by the Chinese people through self-reliance and hard work rather than colonization and aggression, this path enables China to accelerate its own development and contribute to world peace and development. History demonstrates that the CPC is a peace-loving political party, that China is a peace-loving country, and that the Chinese people love peace and are sincere and generous.

历史上确有国家因强成霸,但国强必霸不是历史定律。用西方一些国家的发展经验评判中国,把西方一些国家的发展逻辑套用于中国,得出的结论必然荒谬失真。中国走和平发展道路,不是外交辞令,不是权宜之计,不是战略模糊,而是思想自信和实践自觉的有机统一。从中华民族薪火相传的文化基因中,从中国过去到现在一脉相承的发展历程中,从中国与西方大国崛起的相互比较中,可以清晰地看出,和平发展是中国共产党的执政轨迹、执政逻辑、执政方向,是中国的发展轨迹、发展逻辑、发展方向。

In the past, there have indeed been countries that followed the path of hegemony as they grew in strength, but there is no iron law that dictates that a rising power will inevitably seek hegemony. If the experience and logic of the West is applied mechanically in forecasting China's future, the conclusion will inevitably be counterfactual and false.

"China will continue to follow the path of peaceful development." This statement is neither diplomatic rhetoric nor a policy of expediency or strategic equivocation, but reflects the nation's self-confidence and conscientious behavior. Peaceful development is embedded in the trajectory, logic and goals of the CPC's governance and China's development. This is clear in the cultural genes of the Chinese nation that have been passed from generation to generation. It is clear from China's past and present, and from the comparison between the rise of China and the rise of Western powers.

中国走和平发展道路,源于中华文明的深厚底蕴。中华文化蕴含着天人合一的宇宙观、协和万邦的国际观、和而不同的社会观、人心和善的道德观。和平、和睦、和谐是中华民族5000多年一直追求和传承的理念,中国共产党是中华优秀传统文化的忠实传承者,没有侵略他人、称霸世界的基因。

China's path of peaceful development derives from the legacy of the Chinese civilization. China's culture is characterized by a world view of harmony between humanity and nature, a global view of coordination and cooperation between all countries, a social view of unity without uniformity, and a moral outlook of kindness and friendship. Peace, amity and harmony have been cherished and passed down by the Chinese nation through more than 5,000 years of history. A loyal successor to the best of Chinese culture, the CPC has no inclination to invasion and hegemony.

中国走和平发展道路,源于对实现中国发展目标条件的认知。发展是党执政兴国的第一要务。中国的发展得益于和平稳定的外部环境,中国进一步发展同样需要和平稳定的外部环境。对外搞扩张、搞霸权,不符合中国利益,违背人民意愿。积极争取和平的国际环境发展自己,又以自身的发展更好地维护世界和平、促进共同发展,始终是中国共产党坚定不移的选择。

China takes the path of peaceful development due to its clear understanding of its own goals and conditions. Development is the CPC's top priority in governance. China's past development benefited from a peaceful, stable external environment, and its future will also depend on such an environment. Expansion and hegemony violate the interests of China and the aspirations of the Chinese people. The CPC has always been firm in its commitment to a peaceful international environment for China's own benefit, which in turn plays a greater role in safeguarding world peace and promoting common development.

中国走和平发展道路,源于对世界发展大势的深刻把握。当今世界,和平、发展、合作、共赢是时代潮流。任何一个国家,无论大小强弱,只有在平等、互利、共赢基础上参与国际合作,才能实现持续发展;反之,追逐霸权,穷兵黩武,只会消耗国力、走向衰亡。人类历史上由于强国争霸导致战乱频仍、生灵涂炭、人类文明遭受挫折甚至倒退,教训惨痛而深刻。要和平不要战争,要发展不要贫穷,要稳定不要混乱,是各国人民朴素而真实的共同愿望。中国走和平发展道路,符合历史潮流,顺应世界大势。

China takes the path of peaceful development due to its deep understanding of global trends favoring peace, development, cooperation and mutual benefit. Any country, regardless of size and strength, can achieve sustainable development only when it takes part in international cooperation following the principles of equality and mutual benefit. In contrast, those pursuing hegemony and military aggression will only exhaust their resources and eventually decline and fall.

Humanity can learn profound and bitter lessons from history, where people were plunged into misery and human civilization suffered repeated catastrophes due to the wars caused by great powers seeking hegemony. It is a simple and sincere aspiration shared by people around the world to achieve peace, development and stability, rather than war, poverty and unrest. China's path of peaceful development flows with the tide of history and conforms to the general trend of the world.

中国有发展的权利,中国人民有追求美好生活的权利。作为历史上曾经遭受欺凌、蒙受屈辱的大国,中国发展的目的是赢得尊严和安全,让历经苦难的人民过上好日子。在追求这个目标的过程中,中国自然而然地发展了、强大了,但不是想要超越谁、威胁谁、挑战谁、取代谁,更不是要在世界上称王称霸。中国的未来掌握在自己手中,中国的命运由中国人民说了算。没有任何人能够剥夺中国人民追求美好生活的权利,也没有任何人能够阻挡中国向前发展的步伐。

China has the right to development, and the Chinese people have the right to pursue a better life. As a country once subjected to oppression and humiliation, China seeks development with the goal of regaining dignity and security and enabling its people to live a happy life. In the process of pursuing this goal, China has grown and become strong. However, it will never seek to overtake, threaten, challenge or replace any other country, far less seek hegemony. The future of China lies in its own hands, and only the Chinese people can determine the destiny of their own country. No one has the right to deprive the Chinese people of the right to pursue a better life, or to slow China's pace of development.

中国坚定不移走和平发展道路,也希望世界各国共同走和平发展道路。各国走和平发展道路,才能共同发展,国与国才能和平相处。中国决不会以牺牲别人利益为代价发展自己,也决不放弃自己的正当权益。任何国家不要指望中国会拿自己的核心利益做交易,任何人不要指望中国会吞下损害国家主权、安全、发展利益的苦果。

China hopes that other countries will accompany it on the same path. Only by sticking to this path can countries achieve common development and live together in peace. China will never pursue development at the expense of others' interests, nor will China ever give up its own legitimate rights and interests. No country should expect China to trade off its core interests. No country can undermine China's sovereignty, security and development.

(四)推动构建人类命运共同体

4. Building a Global Community of Shared Future

当今世界正处在又一个十字路口,人类面临着前进还是倒退、光明还是黑暗的两种前途、两种命运。百年变局与世纪疫情交织叠加,冷战思维、零和心态沉渣泛起,单边主义、霸权主义、强权政治甚嚣尘上,经济全球化遭遇逆流,军备竞赛加剧,气候变化、恐怖主义、网络攻击、生物安全、重大传染性疾病等传统和非传统安全问题相互交织,严重威胁全球和地区安全。人类共同生活的这颗美丽星球,面临着来自人类本身的巨大危机。

The world has once again reached a crossroads, and humanity faces a choice between two paths. One advances into brightness; the other retreats into darkness. The profound changes we face, on a scale unseen in a century, and the raging Covid-19 pandemic are interlinked. Cold War thinking and the zero-sum game mindset are resurgent. Unilateralism, hegemony and power politics are on the rise. Economic globalization is battling against headwinds. The global arms race is escalating. Conventional and non-conventional security issues, such as climate change, terrorism, cyber-attacks, biosecurity challenges, and major infectious diseases, together pose a severe threat to global and regional security. The beautiful planet on which all humans live is experiencing a tremendous crisis, one caused by humanity itself.

面对百年未有之大变局,面对发展赤字和治理难题,人类社会迫切需要树立新的发展观,构建更加公正合理的国际体系和国际秩序。中国共产党提出构建人类命运共同体,建设一个持久和平、普遍安全、共同繁荣、开放包容、清洁美丽的世界,着眼解决当今世界面临的现实问题、实现人类社会和平永续发展,开辟了合作共赢、共建共享的发展新道路。

Confronted by this level of change, and other difficulties and problems hindering development and governance, there is an urgent need for human society to seek out a new philosophy and make the international system and order fairer and more reasonable. The CPC has proposed building a global community of shared future, with the goal of creating an open, inclusive, clean and beautiful world that enjoys lasting peace, universal security, and common prosperity. By addressing practical problems faced by the world today, human society will achieve peace and sustainable development through win-win cooperation, joint efforts, and shared benefits.

构建人类命运共同体是顺应历史发展大势的必然选择。当今时代,各国相互联系和彼此依存比以往任何时候都更加紧密。各国共处“地球村”,既有本国利益,也有需要与其他国家一起维护的共同利益。很多问题不再局限于一国内部,很多挑战不是一国之力可以应对,没有一个国家能够独自发展或者独善其身。各国只有通力合作,才能有效应对各种风险挑战,才能在实现自身发展基础上实现共同发展。

Building a global community of shared future is an essential choice that aligns with the general trend of history. Today, the interconnections and interdependences between different countries are closer than ever before. All countries coexist in the same global village, where each needs to safeguard humanity's common interests together with other countries, while pursuing its own interests. Many problems are no longer confined to individual countries, and many challenges cannot be overcome by a single country alone. None can achieve development on its own; none is immune from global threats. Only through full cooperation can countries effectively address the problems the world faces and achieve common progress, on the base of their own development.

构建人类命运共同体理念,秉持合作共赢理念,摒弃丛林法则,不搞强权独霸,超越零和博弈。政治上,倡导相互尊重、平等协商,摒弃冷战思维和强权政治,走对话而不对抗、结伴而不结盟的国与国交往新路;安全上,倡导以对话解决争端、以协商化解分歧,统筹应对传统和非传统安全威胁,反对一切形式的恐怖主义;经济上,倡导同舟共济,促进贸易和投资自由化便利化,推动经济全球化朝着更加开放、包容、普惠、平衡、共赢的方向发展;文化上,倡导尊重世界文明多样性,以文明交流超越文明隔阂、以文明互鉴超越文明冲突、以文明共存超越文明优越;生态上,倡导坚持环境友好,加强应对气候变化和生物多样性保护合作,保护好人类赖以生存的地球家园。

The concept of building a global community of shared future calls for promoting win-win cooperation. It rejects the law of the jungle, power politics and hegemony, and goes beyond the zero-sum game mindset.

In terms of politics, China calls on all countries to respect each other, discuss international issues as equals, reject the Cold War mentality and power politics, and take a new approach to developing state-to-state relations based on communication, not confrontation, and based on partnership, not alliance.

In terms of security, China calls on all countries to commit to settling disputes through dialogue and to resolving differences through discussion, to coordinate responses to conventional and non-conventional threats, and to oppose terrorism in all forms.

In terms of economic development, China calls on all countries to work together, to facilitate free trade and investment, and to make economic globalization more open, inclusive, and balanced, so that its benefits are shared by all.

In terms of cultural exchange, China calls on all countries to respect the diversity of civilizations, and to replace estrangement with exchange, clashes with mutual learning, and cultural superiority with coexistence of diverse cultures.

In terms of eco-environmental progress, China calls on all countries to be good friends to the environment, to strengthen cooperation on climate change and biodiversity conservation, and to protect our planet for the sake of human survival.

人类命运共同体理念,揭示了世界各国相互依存和人类命运紧密相联的客观规律,反映了全人类共同价值,找到了共建美好世界的最大公约数。构建人类命运共同体,不是推进一种或少数文明的单方主张,也不是谋求在世界建设统一的行为体,更不是一种制度替代另一种制度、一种文明替代另一种文明,而是主张不同社会制度、不同意识形态、不同历史文明、不同发展水平的国家,在国际活动中目标一致、利益共生、权利共享、责任共担,促进人类社会整体发展。

The concept of building a global community of shared future reflects the truth that all countries are interdependent and the whole of humanity shares the same future. It reflects the common values of humanity and finds the greatest common ground to build a better world. The aim of building a global community of shared future is neither to promote the unilateral propositions of one or a few cultures, nor to seek to make each and every country act in the same manner, far less to replace one system or civilization model with another. Instead, it proposes that countries with different social systems, ideologies, historical civilizations and development levels target the same goals, align their interests, and share their rights and responsibilities, so as to promote the overall development of human society.

“一带一路”是推动构建人类命运共同体的重要实践平台。高质量共建“一带一路”,以和平合作、开放包容、互学互鉴、互利共赢的丝绸之路精神为指引,以政策沟通、设施联通、贸易畅通、资金融通、民心相通为重点,秉持共商共建共享原则,坚持开放、绿色、廉洁理念,努力实现高标准、惠民生、可持续目标,已经从理念转化为行动,从愿景转化为现实,从倡议转化为全球广受欢迎的公共产品。中国已同140个国家和32个国际组织签署了200多份共建“一带一路”合作文件。据世界银行研究报告,共建“一带一路”倡议将使相关国家760万人摆脱极端贫困、3200万人摆脱中度贫困,将使参与国贸易增长2.8%至9.7%、全球贸易增长1.7%至6.2%、全球收入增加0.7%至2.9%。共建“一带一路”倡议源于中国,但机会和成果属于世界。共建“一带一路”追求的是发展,崇尚的是共赢,传递的是希望。

The Belt and Road Initiative provides an important platform for building a global community of shared future. To make a real success of the BRI, it is imperative to follow the Silk Road spirit characterized by peace and cooperation, openness and inclusiveness, mutual learning, and mutual benefit. It is also important to focus on policy coordination, connectivity of infrastructure, unimpeded trade, financial integration, and closer people-to-people ties. It is essential to uphold the principles of extensive consultation, joint contribution, and shared benefits, and to pursue open, green, clean, and close cooperation to improve people's lives and promote sustainable development. The BRI has turned ideas into actions and vision into reality, and the initiative itself is a public product widely welcomed by the international community.

China has signed more than 200 documents on BRI cooperation with 140 countries and 32 international organizations. A World Bank report shows that the BRI could contribute to lifting 7.6 million people from extreme poverty and 32 million from moderate poverty, boost trade by 2.8 to 9.7 percent for participating countries and by 1.7 to 6.2 percent for the world, and increase global incomes by 0.7 to 2.9 percent. The BRI originated in China, but the opportunities and benefits it creates belong to the world. It pursues development, advocates win-win cooperation, and conveys hope.

中国共产党是有远大抱负的政党,这种抱负不是称霸世界,而是贡献世界。100年来,在风云变幻的世界舞台上,中国共产党和中国既坚定地保持自信,也秉持谦虚态度和伙伴精神与其他政党和国家相处。中国共产党始终坚信,大党之大、大国之大,不在于体量大、块头大、拳头大,而在于胸襟大、格局大、担当大。中国共产党始终坚信,和平而不是战争、合作而不是霸道、对话而不是对抗、开放而不是封闭,才是人间正道,才能赢得未来。

The CPC is a political party with lofty goals. Its ambition is not to seek hegemony, but to contribute to the world. Over the past hundred years the CPC and China have shown firm self-confidence on a world stage riven with change, and built constructive relationships with other political parties and countries based on an attitude of humility and a spirit of partnership. The CPC firmly believes that the strength of a powerful political party or a powerful country lies in its open mind, broad vision, and great sense of responsibility, rather than its size and muscle. It also believes that peace, cooperation, dialogue and openness, rather than war, hegemony, confrontation and seclusion, represent the correct and the only path to a better future for humanity.

结束语

Conclusion

胸怀千秋伟业,百年只是序章。

The past hundred years have been the prologue.

中国共产党走过波澜壮阔的100年,演出了威武雄壮的中华民族伟大复兴的历史伟剧。

The past hundred years have witnessed the great struggle waged by the CPC to realize its goal of rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.

这100年,极不平凡,极不容易。中国共产党领导人民创造了引以为豪的辉煌成就,但不会骄傲自满、止步不前,仍将继续奋斗、砥砺前行。

They have also been an extraordinary and difficult hundred years. The CPC has led the Chinese people to outstanding achievements of which they can be proud. But they will never give in to complacency or slacken their efforts. On the contrary, they will continue to work hard and forge ahead.

站在百年历史新起点,中国共产党和中国人民踏上了全面建设社会主义现代化国家的新征程。到2035年,中国将基本实现社会主义现代化;到本世纪中叶中华人民共和国成立100年时,中国将全面建成富强民主文明和谐美丽的社会主义现代化强国。之后,中国共产党将领导人民向着更加高远的目标继续迈进。

From a new starting point, the CPC and the Chinese people have set out on a new journey towards a modern socialist country. By the year 2035 China will realize socialist modernization, and by the middle of the 21st century, when the People's Republic of China celebrates its centenary, China will have developed into a great and modern socialist country that is prosperous, strong, democratic, culturally advanced, harmonious, and beautiful. For the future, the CPC will lead the Chinese people towards even more ambitious goals.

中国共产党的百年历史,清晰映照了来时的路,有力昭示了未来的路。必须坚持中国共产党坚强领导,必须团结带领中国人民不断为美好生活而奋斗,必须继续推进马克思主义中国化,必须坚持和发展中国特色社会主义,必须加快国防和军队现代化,必须不断推动构建人类命运共同体,必须进行具有许多新的历史特点的伟大斗争,必须加强中华儿女大团结,必须不断推进党的建设新的伟大工程,这些,既是党百年历史经验的深刻总结,也是党领导人民开创未来的根本遵循。

The history of the past hundred years tells the story of the road behind and foretells the story of the journey ahead. China must uphold the firm leadership of the CPC, and the CPC must lead the Chinese people in working ceaselessly for a better life. It must continue to adapt Marxism to the Chinese context, uphold and develop socialism with Chinese characteristics, continue the modernization of national defense and the armed forces, work towards a global community of shared future, engage in great endeavors, strengthen the unity of the Chinese people, and advance the new project of consolidating the Party. This is a condensed summary of the 100-year experience of the CPC. It also reflects the fundamental principles by which the Party will lead the people in creating a better future.

实现中华民族伟大复兴是中国共产党的历史使命。中国共产党将团结带领人民继续奋斗,付出更为艰巨、更为艰苦的努力,不断把民族复兴伟业推向前进。实现祖国完全统一是中国共产党的历史任务,中国共产党和中国人民具有坚强决心、坚定意志、强大能力,任何人、任何力量都阻挡不了。

Achieving national rejuvenation is the historic mission of the CPC. It will maintain unity and lead the people to work harder than ever. Realizing China's complete reunification is one of the historic tasks of the CPC. The Party and the people have the resolve, the will and the ability to complete the task. This is a cause that no person and no force will thwart.

让人民过上好日子,是中国共产党矢志不移的奋斗目标。实现共同富裕,让14亿多人享有现代化生活,不是一件轻轻松松的事情。新的征程上,中国共产党始终把人民放在心中最高位置,着力解决发展不平衡不充分问题和人民急难愁盼问题,坚决破除实现共同富裕、实现公平正义的阻碍和束缚,脚踏实地,久久为功,推动人的全面发展、全体人民共同富裕不断取得实质性进展。坚定不移走好自己的路、办好自己的事,不断满足人民过上美好生活的新期待,党就能永远立于不败之地。

The CPC has made an unbreakable commitment to bring the people a happy life. However, it is not an easy task to realize common prosperity and ensure the comforts of modern life for more than 1.4 billion people. On the journey ahead, the CPC will always put the people first, and work hard to resolve imbalances and inadequacies in development and the pressing difficulties and problems that are of the greatest concern to the people. It will overcome any obstacles and break any shackles hindering common prosperity, equity and justice. With pragmatic and sustained efforts, it will make substantive progress towards achieving well-rounded human development and common prosperity for all. The CPC will prevail so long as it follows its own path, runs its affairs well, and works to satisfy the people's new aspirations for a better life.

面向未来,中国共产党将坚定不移地把发展作为执政兴国的第一要务,始终践行以人民为中心的发展思想,全面深化改革和扩大开放,深入推进中国式现代化,实现更高质量、更有效率、更加公平、更可持续、更为安全的发展,让人民更多更好享有经济、政治、文化、社会、生态文明发展成果,以中国新发展为世界提供新机遇、为各国共同发展注入新动力。

Moving forward, the CPC will continue to pursue people-oriented development as its top priority in governance. It will extend reform, open wider to the rest of the world, and follow a unique Chinese path to modernization. This will ensure that economic, political, cultural, social and eco-environmental development is of higher quality, more efficient, more equitable, more sustainable and more secure, so that the people will enjoy a greater share of its benefits. In addition, China will bring new opportunities to the rest of the world and provide new momentum for common development.

面向未来,中国共产党将坚定不移高扬社会主义旗帜,继续推进马克思主义中国化时代化,坚持和发展中国特色社会主义,让社会主义的美好前景在中国大地上更加生动地展现出来,让经过实践检验的科学社会主义理论放射出更加灿烂的真理光芒,让社会主义实践在人类文明进程中有更大作为,为人类对美好社会制度的探索作出更大贡献。

Moving forward, the CPC will continue to build socialism and continue to adapt Marxism to China's conditions and keep it up to date. It will continue to uphold and develop socialism with Chinese characteristics, so that socialism can herald bright prospects for China. The theory of scientific socialism will withstand the test of time and increase its appeal, and socialism in practice will help facilitate human progress and make a greater contribution to the human quest for better social systems.

面向未来,中国共产党将坚定不移站在历史正确的一边,站在人类进步的一边,继续同一切爱好和平的国家和人民一道,弘扬和平、发展、公平、正义、民主、自由的全人类共同价值,坚持合作、不搞对抗,坚持开放、不搞封闭,坚持互利共赢、不搞零和博弈,反对霸权主义和强权政治,推动历史车轮向着光明的目标前进,推动构建人类命运共同体,建设更加美好的世界。

Moving forward, the CPC will continue to stand on the right side of history and human progress. It will work together with all peace-loving countries and peoples to carry forward the common values of humanity – peace, development, equity, justice, democracy and freedom. It will pursue cooperation rather than confrontation, opening up rather than isolation, and mutual benefits rather than the zero-sum game. It will oppose hegemony and power politics and contribute to building a global community of shared future and a better world.

面向未来,中国共产党将坚定不移推进自我革命,加强先进性和纯洁性建设,提高领导水平和执政水平,增强拒腐防变和抵御风险能力,在世界形势深刻变化的历史进程中始终走在时代前列,在应对国内外各种风险挑战的历史进程中始终成为中国人民的主心骨,在坚持和发展中国特色社会主义的历史进程中始终成为坚强领导核心。党自身坚强如铁,就没有任何外部力量能够打垮。

Moving forward, the CPC will continue with its self-reform and maintain its progressive nature and integrity. It will continue to improve its leadership and governance and reinforce its ability to resist corruption and withstand risks. This will ensure that the Party remains always ahead of the times as history progresses and the world undergoes profound change. The Party will always remain the backbone of the nation as China responds to risks and challenges at home and abroad, and a powerful leadership core as the country continues to uphold and develop socialism with Chinese characteristics. No external force can defeat the CPC as long as it retains its strength.

一切事物发展都有逻辑可循,政党也是如此。从中国共产党的过去,可以解释它的现在,也可以看到它的未来。

There is a logic behind all evolution. This is also true of political parties. The history of the CPC helps to explain how it has come to its present form, and also helps to indicate what its future will be.

前路不会平坦,前景光明辽阔。未来征程上,中国共产党将更加紧密地团结起来,中国人民将更加紧密地团结起来,海内外中华儿女将更加紧密地团结起来,为更加美好的未来共同奋斗。中国全面建成社会主义现代化强国的目标一定能够实现,中华民族伟大复兴的中国梦一定能够实现,中华民族一定能够为人类不断作出新的更大贡献。

The journey ahead will not be smooth, but the prospects are bright and broad. The CPC will unite more closely, the Chinese people will unite more closely, and all the sons and daughters of the Chinese nation, both at home and abroad, will unite more closely, all in pursuit of the same, better future. The goal of building China into a great modern socialist country will surely be achieved, the Chinese Dream of national rejuvenation will surely come true, and the Chinese nation will surely make a greater contribution to humanity.

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