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双语对照:《中国的全面小康》白皮书

国新办 2021-10-07 155次

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中国的全面小康

China’s Epic Journey from Poverty to Prosperity

中华人民共和国国务院新闻办公室

The State Council Information Office of the People’s Republic of China

2021年9月

September 2021

目录

Contents

前言

Preface

一、迈向中华民族伟大复兴的关键一步

I. A Critical Step Towards National Rejuvenation

二、全面小康是全面发展的小康

II. Prosperity Through All-Round Development

(一)经济持续健康发展

1. Sustained and Healthy Economic Growth

(二)人民民主不断扩大

2. Expanding People’s Democracy

(三)文化更加繁荣发展

3. Flourishing Cultural Sector

(四)民生福祉显著提升

4. Improving People’s Wellbeing

(五)生态环境发生历史性变化

5. Historic Changes to the Eco-Environment

三、全面小康是全体人民的小康

III. Prosperity for All

(一)不让一个人掉队

1. Prosperity for Every Individual

(二)城乡融合发展

2. Integrated Urban-Rural Development

(三)区域协调发展

3. Coordinated Development Across Regions

四、全面小康是奋斗出来的小康

IV. Prosperity Through Hard Work

(一)始终以人民为中心

1. Always Putting the People First

(二)制定正确路线和战略策略

2. Developing Sound Policies and Strategies

(三)在改革开放中推进发展

3. Development Through Reform and Opening Up

(四)几代人苦干实干、接续奋斗

4. Perseverance over Generations

五、中国全面小康的世界意义

V. The World Benefits from China’s Prosperity

结束语

Conclusion

前言

Preface

小康是中华民族的千年梦想和夙愿。

Achieving moderate prosperity fulfills a long-cherished dream of the Chinese nation.

2021年7月1日,习近平总书记在庆祝中国共产党成立100周年大会上庄严宣告:“经过全党全国各族人民持续奋斗,我们实现了第一个百年奋斗目标,在中华大地上全面建成了小康社会,历史性地解决了绝对贫困问题,正在意气风发向着全面建成社会主义现代化强国的第二个百年奋斗目标迈进。”

On July 1, 2021, at the ceremony marking the centenary of the Communist Party of China (CPC), Xi Jinping, general secretary of the CPC Central Committee and president of China, declared that thanks to the continued efforts of the whole Party and the entire nation, China had realized the First Centenary Goal of building a moderately prosperous society in all respects. This means that it has put an end to absolute poverty, and is now marching in confident strides towards the Second Centenary Goal of building a great modern socialist country.

100年来,中国共产党团结带领中国人民顽强拼搏,几代人一以贯之、接续奋斗,从“小康之家”到“小康社会”,从“总体小康”到“全面小康”,从“全面建设”到“全面建成”,小康目标不断实现,小康梦想成为现实。

Over the past hundred years, led by the CPC, generations of the Chinese people have persevered, progressing step by step from a subsistence standard of living to piecemeal prosperity, then to moderate prosperity throughout the country.

全面建成小康社会,是中华民族的伟大光荣。从百年前饱受欺凌屈辱到实现全面小康,中华民族无比自豪地站立在世界民族之林。全面建成小康社会,中华民族孜孜以求的美好梦想成为现实,标志着实现中华民族伟大复兴向前迈出新的一大步,中华民族迎来了从站起来、富起来到强起来的伟大飞跃。全面建成小康社会,彰显了中华民族对美好生活的向往追求和历经磨难始终不屈不挠、敢于斗争、敢于胜利的精神品格,极大增强了民族自信心自豪感,极大增强了中华民族实现伟大复兴的能力和力量。

The realization of moderate prosperity is a glorious achievement for the Chinese nation. Once subjected to oppression and humiliation, China now stands firm among the nations of the world. This represents one significant step closer to the Chinese Dream of national rejuvenation, and testifies to China’s historic transformation – from standing upright to becoming prosperous and growing in strength. This achievement reflects the Chinese people’s aspiration for a better life, and their indomitable will to surmount all difficulties and challenges on their way forward. It has boosted their pride and confidence in the nation, and inspired further endeavors on the quest for national rejuvenation.

全面建成小康社会,是中国人民的伟大光荣。从百年前受奴役受压迫到物质上富起来、精神上强起来,中国人民无比自豪地行进在中国特色社会主义道路上。幸福美好的小康生活,凝聚着中国人民的聪明才智,浸透着中国人民的辛勤汗水,淬炼了中国人民自强不息的奋斗精神,彰显了中国人民为实现梦想顽强拼搏、“敢教日月换新天”的意志品质。中国人民生活水平显著提升,道路自信、理论自信、制度自信、文化自信极大增强。中国人民是勤劳勇敢的人民,是伟大、光荣、英雄的人民。

The realization of moderate prosperity is a remarkable achievement by the Chinese people. From difficult beginnings they have made both material and cultural progress, moving forward with full confidence along the path of socialism with Chinese characteristics. The creation of a moderately prosperous society epitomizes their ingenuity, diligence, commitment to progress, and determination to pursue their dream and effect change for the better. Their living standards have improved markedly, and they have stronger faith in the path, theory, system and culture of Chinese socialism. The Chinese people are industrious, courageous and honorable – a great and heroic people.

全面建成小康社会,是中国共产党的伟大光荣。从百年前只有50多名党员到拥有9500多万名党员、领导着14亿多人口大国、具有重大全球影响力的世界第一大执政党,中国共产党无比自豪地走在时代前列。全面建成小康社会,兑现了党向人民、向历史作出的庄严承诺,彰显了党为中国人民谋幸福、为中华民族谋复兴的初心使命,彰显了中国共产党是中国人民攻坚克难、开拓前进的领导者和主心骨。党用实际行动,赢得了人民的信赖和拥护。

The realization of moderate prosperity is a commendable achievement for the CPC. Over the past hundred years, the CPC has grown from a small party with just over 50 members into the largest and most influential governing party in the world, with more than 95 million members in a country of over 1.4 billion people. Throughout this process, it has always been at the forefront of the times. In bringing about moderate prosperity, it has fulfilled a solemn promise, and lived up to its original aspiration and founding mission to seek happiness for the people and rejuvenate the Chinese nation. Leading the people in overcoming obstacles and moving forward, the CPC has won their trust and support with real actions.

全面建成小康社会,是中国对世界的伟大贡献。从百年前山河破碎、衰败凋零到今天蓬勃发展、欣欣向荣,中国无比自豪地屹立在世界东方。中国全面建成小康社会,既发展自己,也造福世界。不断富裕起来的中国人民,不断发展进步的中国,为维护世界和平、促进共同发展注入了正能量,彰显了构建人类命运共同体、建设美好世界的中国力量。

The realization of moderate prosperity is a major contribution China has made to the world. Over the past hundred years, China has emerged from poverty and the scourge of war, and become a dynamic and prosperous country, standing tall and proud in the East. In achieving moderate prosperity for the Chinese people, China has contributed to its own development and delivered benefits to the rest of the world. This has created positive momentum for world peace and common development, and contributed China’s strength to building a global community of shared future and a better world.

在一个底子薄、基础弱、国情复杂的大国,全面建成惠及十几亿人口的小康社会,极不平凡,极不容易,中国共产党和中国人民付出了长期艰辛努力。全面建成小康社会,中国人民过上了好日子,但还不富足,人民日益增长的美好生活需要和不平衡不充分的发展之间的矛盾仍然存在。中国共产党将团结带领人民,向着实现人的全面发展、全体人民共同富裕继续迈进。

China is a populous country with complex national conditions, which in the recent past was afflicted with weak economic foundations. To realize moderate prosperity has required great perseverance, and represents a notable achievement on the part of the CPC and the people. But there is still much to do to improve living standards – the challenge remains between unbalanced and inadequate development and the people’s growing expectation for a better life. The CPC will lead the people to work harder for well-rounded human development and common prosperity.

为记录中国全面建成小康社会的伟大历程,介绍中国全面建成小康社会的探索实践,分享中国式现代化建设经验,特发布本白皮书。

To document China’s journey to moderate prosperity and to share its unique experience in modernization with the rest of the world, the Chinese government is releasing this white paper.

一、迈向中华民族伟大复兴的关键一步

I. A Critical Step Towards National Rejuvenation

小康是中华民族自古以来不懈追求的梦想。早在两千多年前,《诗经》就有“民亦劳止,汔可小康。惠此中国,以绥四方”的诗句,《礼记•礼运》描绘了“小康”理想社会状态,反映了中国先人对美好生活的向往和追求。千百年来,中国人民一直梦想实现小康。近代以后,中国逐步成为半殖民地半封建社会,国家蒙辱、人民蒙难、文明蒙尘,中华民族遭受了前所未有的劫难。中国人民始终不屈不挠、奋力抗争,始终为过上幸福美好的生活不懈奋斗。

Xiaokang, meaning moderate prosperity, has been a consistent aspiration of the Chinese nation since ancient times. More than 2,000 years ago the term appeared in the Book of Songs to mean modest comfort:

The people are hard-pressed, they need some modest comfort.

Do well by the Central Plains, and your rule will spread beyond.

Centuries later, the Book of Rites described the ideal state of society that xiaokang would bring about. Both gave expression to the ancient Chinese people’s desire for a better life. But for millennia moderate prosperity remained a dream. After the Opium War (1840-1842), China was gradually reduced to a semi-colonial, semi-feudal society and was subjected to terrible oppression. It went through immense humiliation, its people endured untold suffering, and the ancient Chinese civilization lost its way. However, the indomitable Chinese people never lost heart – they continued to fight tenaciously for their dream of a happy life.

100年前,中国共产党成立,这是开天辟地的大事变。中国共产党一经诞生,就把为中国人民谋幸福、为中华民族谋复兴确立为自己的初心使命。以毛泽东、邓小平、江泽民、胡锦涛、习近平同志为主要代表的中国共产党人,把人民对美好生活的向往作为奋斗目标,团结带领人民接续奋斗、艰苦奋斗、不懈奋斗,不断向着全面建成小康社会迈进。

The founding of the CPC a hundred years ago was a pivotal event in Chinese history. From the outset, the CPC has made the wellbeing of the Chinese people and the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation its abiding goals. Committed to meeting the people’s expectation for a better life, China’s communist movement, with Mao Zedong, Deng Xiaoping, Jiang Zemin, Hu Jintao and Xi Jinping as its leading representatives, has united the Chinese people in a tireless struggle over generations, pressing ahead towards the goal of building a moderately prosperous society in all respects.

党团结带领人民,取得新民主主义革命胜利,建立中华人民共和国,完成社会主义革命,确立社会主义基本制度,推进社会主义建设,实现了中华民族有史以来最为广泛而深刻的社会变革,实现了一穷二白、人口众多的东方大国大步迈进社会主义社会的伟大飞跃,为小康社会建设奠定了根本政治前提和制度基础,积累了重要物质基础,提供了强大精神支撑和安全保证。

Led by the CPC, the Chinese people have achieved one success after another. They won victory in the New Democratic Revolution, and founded the People’s Republic of China (PRC) in 1949. The socialist revolution, the establishment of socialism as China’s basic system, and the ensuing socialist construction brought about the most extensive and profound social changes in the history of the nation.

The transformation from a huge, poor and backward country in the East into a thriving socialist China created the fundamental political conditions and the institutional and material foundations for building a moderately prosperous society. It also provided an unfailing source of inspiration and secured the means required to complete this mission.

改革开放新时期,党团结带领人民持续推进小康社会建设,实现了人民生活从温饱不足到总体小康、奔向全面小康的历史性跨越。改革开放之初,邓小平同志首先用“小康”来诠释中国式现代化,提出“小康之家”,明确到20世纪末在中国建立一个小康社会的奋斗目标,并指出“所谓小康,从国民生产总值来说,就是年人均达到800美元”。从“小康之家”到“小康社会”,“小康”这一饱含中华文化深厚底蕴、富有鲜明中国特色、千百年来深深埋藏在中国人民心中的美好愿景,由此成为中国现代化进程的醒目路标。1982年,党的十二大首次把“小康”作为经济建设总的奋斗目标,提出到20世纪末力争使人民的物质文化生活达到小康水平。1987年,党的十三大制定“三步走”现代化发展战略,把20世纪末人民生活达到小康水平作为第二步奋斗目标。1992年,在人民温饱问题基本得到解决的基础上,党的十四大提出到20世纪末人民生活由温饱进入小康。1997年,党的十五大提出新的“三步走”发展战略,明确到2010年使人民的小康生活更加宽裕。经过长期不懈努力,20世纪末,人民生活总体上达到小康水平的目标如期实现。2002年,党的十六大针对当时小康低水平、不全面、发展很不平衡的实际,提出全面建设小康社会目标,即在21世纪头20年,集中力量,全面建设惠及十几亿人口的更高水平的小康社会,使经济更加发展、民主更加健全、科教更加进步、文化更加繁荣、社会更加和谐、人民生活更加殷实,小康社会建设由“总体小康”向“全面小康”迈进。2007年,党的十七大对实现全面建设小康社会的宏伟目标作出全面部署,在经济、政治、文化、社会、生态文明等方面提出新要求,全面建设小康社会的目标更全面、内涵更丰富、要求更具体。

After the launch of reform and opening up in 1978, the CPC made continuous efforts to build a better-off society, raising the living standards in China from bare subsistence to a basic level of moderate prosperity, and then ultimately to moderate prosperity in all respects.

In the early years of reform and opening up, Deng Xiaoping for the first time used the term xiaokang to present his vision of China’s modernization. He set the goal of delivering a xiaokang life for the Chinese people and building a xiaokang society by the end of the 20th century. “By xiaokang, we mean a per capita GNP of US$800,” he specified.

This long-cherished dream, grounded in traditional Chinese culture and bearing the distinctive hallmarks of the nation, has since become a significant milestone on China’s journey towards modernization.

At its 12th National Congress in 1982, the CPC for the first time made achieving xiaokang the overall objective of China’s economic development, and set the goal of delivering a life of moderate cultural and material prosperity for the people by the end of the 20th century.

At its 13th National Congress in 1987, the CPC formulated a three-step strategic plan for China’s modernization, and set the goal for the second step as elevating the people’s living standards to the level of moderate prosperity by the end of the 20th century.

At its 14th National Congress in 1992, when the basic needs of the Chinese people had largely been met, the CPC envisioned that their living standards would further rise, from simply having the basic necessities to enjoying moderate prosperity by the end of the 20th century.

At its 15th National Congress in 1997, the CPC put forward a new three-step strategic plan for economic development, setting the goal of creating a better-off life for the people by 2010.

Through perseverance and effort over these years, China achieved basic moderate prosperity at the end of the 20th century as scheduled.

At its 16th National Congress in 2002, the CPC pointed out that moderate prosperity remained at a relatively low level – it was not all-inclusive and was very unbalanced. Thus, the Party set the objective of building a moderately prosperous society in all respects. For this purpose, in the first two decades of the 21st century China would further develop the economy, improve democracy, advance science and education, enrich culture, foster social harmony, and upgrade the quality of life.

At its 17th National Congress in 2007, the CPC drew up a comprehensive plan for complete success in building a moderately prosperous society in all respects, and fleshed out the detail, setting new requirements for economic, political, cultural, social and eco-environmental progress.

进入新时代,到了需要一鼓作气向全面建成小康社会目标冲刺的关键时刻。以习近平同志为核心的党中央,团结带领全党和全国人民,锚定这个宏伟目标,统筹推进“五位一体”总体布局,协调推进“四个全面”战略布局,攻坚克难,奋发有为,向着全面建成小康社会进军。2012年,党的十八大提出,在中国共产党成立100年时全面建成小康社会,并确定了全面建成小康社会目标,即经济持续健康发展,人民民主不断扩大,文化软实力显著增强,人民生活水平全面提高,资源节约型、环境友好型社会建设取得重大进展。由“全面建设小康”到“全面建成小康”,彰显了党团结带领人民夺取全面建成小康社会胜利的坚定决心。2017年,党的十九大科学把握党和国家事业所处的历史方位和发展阶段,全面分析全面建成小康社会的基础条件、内外因素,作出决胜全面建成小康社会、开启全面建设社会主义现代化国家新征程战略部署,吹响了夺取全面建成小康社会伟大胜利的号角。习近平总书记把全面建成小康社会放在治国理政突出位置,提出一系列重要思想重要理念,作出一系列重大决策重大部署,强调,全面建成小康社会,是党向人民、向历史作出的庄严承诺,是实现中华民族伟大复兴中国梦的关键一步;在“四个全面”战略布局中,全面建成小康社会是战略目标、居于引领地位,全面深化改革、全面依法治国、全面从严治党是三大战略举措;全面小康,覆盖的领域要全面、是“五位一体”全面进步,覆盖的人口要全面、是惠及全体人民的小康,覆盖的区域要全面、是城乡区域共同的小康;小康不小康,关键看老乡,全面建成小康社会最艰巨最繁重的任务在农村特别是在贫困地区;必须尽快把影响如期实现全面建成小康社会目标的短板补齐;全面建成小康社会要靠实干,基本实现现代化要靠实干,实现中华民族伟大复兴要靠实干;等等。习近平总书记亲自谋划、亲自指挥、亲自推动全面小康社会建设,团结带领全党和全国人民,战贫困、促改革、抗疫情、治污染、化风险,着力提升人民群众获得感、幸福感、安全感,解决了许多长期想解决而没有解决的难题,办成了许多过去想办而没有办成的大事,党和国家事业取得历史性成就、发生历史性变革。经过全党和全国人民持续奋斗和不懈努力,全面建成小康社会目标如期实现,实现中华民族伟大复兴迈出了关键一步。

After China entered the new era, the drive to achieve moderate prosperity in all respects reached a critical point. Firmly focusing on the goal, the CPC Central Committee with Xi Jinping at its core defined the Five-sphere Integrated Plan and the Four-pronged Comprehensive Strategy, designed to overcome all remaining obstacles.

At its 18th National Congress in 2012, the CPC announced that China would realize the First Centenary Goal of building a moderately prosperous society in all respects by 2021 when the Party would celebrate its centenary. It defined the metrics for such a society – sustained and sound economic development, greater people’s democracy, a significant improvement in cultural soft power, higher living standards, and major progress in building a resource-conserving and environment-friendly society.

At its 19th National Congress in 2017, the CPC demonstrated its understanding that China had reached a historic juncture and development stage. It conducted a comprehensive analysis of the fundamental conditions required to achieve all-round moderate prosperity, and the internal and external factors impacting on the process. On this basis it defined a strategy for securing success in building a moderately prosperous society in all respects and embarking on a journey to fully build a modern socialist China.

President Xi gave high priority to this endeavor in governance, presenting a series of important ideas and concepts and making a number of major decisions and arrangements. He emphasized the following issues:

• To achieve moderate prosperity in all respects is a solemn promise made by the CPC. It is also a critical step towards realizing the Chinese Dream of national rejuvenation.

• In the Four-pronged Comprehensive Strategy, achieving the First Centenary Goal is the overarching and strategic objective, while deeper reform, advancing the rule of law, and strengthening Party self-governance are strategic measures.

• Moderate prosperity in all respects means coordinated economic, political, cultural, social and eco-environmental progress, to the benefit of the entire population and covering both urban and rural areas.

• Raising the standard of living of rural residents is critical to China’s success in realizing moderate prosperity, as the most challenging and onerous tasks lie in rural areas, especially the impoverished areas.

• China must repair without delay the weak links that impede its endeavors to complete the First Centenary Goal.

• Only through good solid work can China accomplish moderate prosperity in all respects, achieve basic modernization, and realize national rejuvenation.

President Xi has assumed leadership, made plans, and put his weight behind the endeavor to build a moderately prosperous society in all respects. He has rallied around him Party members and the Chinese people, and led them in eliminating absolute poverty, advancing reform, combating Covid-19, controlling pollution, and defusing risks. Under his leadership, the Chinese people have gained a stronger sense of fulfillment, happiness and security. China has addressed many long-standing and complex problems, and achieved many objectives where progress had been slow. The Party and the country have achieved historic successes and transformations in the pursuit of their cause.

After unremitting hard work by the entire Party and all the people, the moderately prosperous society in all respects has come to fruition as scheduled. This marks a critical step towards national rejuvenation.

2021年7月1日,习近平总书记在庆祝中国共产党成立100周年大会上庄严宣告,经过全党全国各族人民持续奋斗,我们实现了第一个百年奋斗目标,在中华大地上全面建成了小康社会。

At the ceremony marking the centenary of the CPC on July 1, 2021, General Secretary Xi declared that China had succeeded in the First Centenary Goal of building a moderately prosperous society in all respects through the continued efforts of the whole Party and the entire nation.

二、全面小康是全面发展的小康

II. Prosperity Through All-Round Development

全面小康,重在全面。中国的全面小康,体现发展的平衡性、协调性和可持续性,是物质文明、政治文明、精神文明、社会文明、生态文明协调发展的小康;是不断满足人民日益增长的多样化多层次多方面需求,不断促进人的全面发展的小康;是国家富强、民族振兴、人民幸福,多维度、全方位的小康。

All-round development is essential to moderate prosperity. In pursuing moderate prosperity, China emphasizes balanced, coordinated and sustainable progress in the economic, political, cultural, social, and eco-environmental fields. It aims to meet people’s growing needs in all areas and at all levels and to promote their well-rounded development. Moderate prosperity makes China a strong and prosperous country striving for national rejuvenation and people’s wellbeing.

(一)经济持续健康发展

1. Sustained and Healthy Economic Growth

全面小康,经济发展是基础。党把发展作为执政兴国的第一要务,作为解决中国一切问题的基础和关键,团结带领人民以经济建设为中心,不断解放和发展生产力,不断实现更高质量、更有效率、更加公平、更可持续、更为安全的发展,国家经济实力、科技实力和综合国力显著增强。

A sound economy underpins moderate prosperity in all respects. The CPC considers national development to be its top priority in governance and the key to tackling all the challenges facing China. Under its leadership, the Chinese people have focused on economic development and expanded the productive forces, and have made every effort to steer China’s development towards higher quality and efficiency, as well as greater equity, sustainability and security. China’s economic power, scientific and technological capabilities, and its composite national strength have significantly increased.

经济实力大幅提升。中国国内生产总值从1952年的679.1亿元跃升至2020年的101.6万亿元,经济总量占全球经济比重超过17%,稳居世界第二大经济体(图1)。人均国内生产总值从1952年的几十美元增至2020年的超过1万美元,实现从低收入国家到中等偏上收入国家的历史性跨越(图2)。制造业增加值多年位居世界首位,220多种工业产品产量居世界第一,自2010年起连续11年位居世界第一制造业大国。中国已是全球货物贸易第一大国、服务贸易第二大国、商品消费第二大国、外汇储备第一大国,2020年利用外资居全球第一。不断迈向共同富裕的14亿多人口,其中有超过4亿并不断扩大的中等收入群体,是全球最具成长性的超大规模市场,中国经济充满活力,具有巨大潜力和充足后劲。2020年,中国率先控制新冠肺炎疫情,率先复工复产,率先实现经济增长由负转正,充分彰显中国经济的强劲韧性。

Economic strength has increased significantly. China’s GDP soared from RMB67.9 billion in 1952 to RMB101.6 trillion in 2020. As the world’s second largest economy, it accounts for over 17 percent of the global total (Chart 1). With per capita GDP rising from less than US$100 in 1952 to over US$10,000 in 2020, China has achieved a historic transformation from a low-income country to an upper-middle-income country (Chart 2). For years it has ranked first in the world in terms of added value in the manufacturing sector and output of over 220 major industrial products. It has also been the world’s largest manufacturing country for the past 11 years.

China ranks first in terms of trade in goods and foreign exchange reserves, and ranks second in terms of its trade in services and consumer market. In 2020, it was the largest recipient of foreign direct investment. The vitality, potential and staying power of its economy have been nurtured by a population of over 1.4 billion in pursuit of common prosperity, including a middle-income group of over 400 million people that keeps expanding – offering a supersized market growing faster than any other place in the world.

In 2020, China was the first country to bring Covid-19 under control and reopen its economy. It was also the first economy to shift back from negative to positive growth. This reflects the resilience of China’s economy.

科技实力跨越式发展。科技支撑起小康梦。从新中国成立初期连火柴、铁钉都要依靠进口,到量子信息、铁基超导、中微子、干细胞、脑科学等前沿方向取得一系列重大原创成果,到载人航天与探月、北斗导航、载人深潜、高速铁路、5G移动通信、超级计算等一大批战略高技术领域取得重大突破,中国跻身创新型国家行列,正在从科技大国迈向科技强国。科技广泛应用于生产领域,创新驱动发展成效显著,科技进步贡献率超过60%。科技显著提升治理水平,数字政府、数字社会、数字乡村、智慧城市、“互联网+政务服务”等加快普及,网格化网络化智能化治理渐成常态。科技深刻改变人们的生活,网络点餐购物、移动扫码支付、网约车出行、共享单车出行、线上办公、在线教育、远程医疗、智能家居等,给人们带来的不仅是更多的便利,还有更充分的自由、更全面的发展。

Exponential advances have been made in science and technology. The dream of moderate prosperity has been realized with the support of science and technology.

In the early years of the PRC, even matches and nails had to be imported. Now great successes have been achieved in quantum information, iron-based superconductors, neutrinos, stem cells, brain science and other frontier fields. Major breakthroughs have been made in a large number of strategic high technologies, including manned space flight and lunar exploration, the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System, manned deep-sea submersibles, high-speed railways, 5G mobile communications, and supercomputing. China is now a leader in innovation, building greater strengths in science and technology.

Science and technology are widely applied in manufacturing. Innovation-driven development has made serious headway. Advances in science and technology have contributed to over 60 percent of economic growth.

Science and technology have also raised the capacity of governance by a substantial margin. The application of digital technology is fast expanding in government, the countryside and society at large, in forms such as smart cities and internet-based government services. A grid-based social management network and smart governance are gradually penetrating daily life.

Life has changed significantly because of science and technology. As more people turn to online education, shopping, food ordering, mobile payments, ride hailing, bike sharing, telecommuting, remote medicine, and smart homes, they now enjoy greater convenience, more choices, and a fuller life.

产业结构优化升级。中国已建成世界上最完整的产业体系,产业发展持续向中高端迈进。三次产业增加值之比从1952年的50.5∶20.8∶28.7到2020年的7.7∶37.8∶54.5,中国从传统农业大国成为工业大国、服务业大国(图3),中国经济从依赖单一产业为主转向依靠三次产业共同带动。农业现代化成效显著,机械化、数字化、绿色化、功能化、共享化水平明显提高,广大农民逐步告别“面朝黄土背朝天、一身力气百身汗”的辛劳,农村生产力极大解放;粮食生产能力稳步提升,实现谷物基本自给,中国人把饭碗牢牢端在自己手中。中国建成门类齐全、独立完整的现代工业体系,工业化和信息化融合发展的广度和深度不断拓展,“中国制造”向“中国智造”转型升级,产业链供应链现代化水平进一步提升。以新一代信息技术、生物技术、高端装备、绿色环保为代表的战略性新兴产业发展迅速,成为引领高质量发展的重要引擎。数字经济激发经济发展新活力,产业数字化和数字产业化趋势加快。现代服务业加速发展,以“互联网+”为标志的新业态、新模式层出不穷,平台经济、共享经济蓬勃兴起,生产性服务业向专业化和高端化发展,生活性服务业向精细化和高品质转变。产业结构的优化升级促进了经济更加均衡、更加充分的发展,人们个性化品质化多样化需求不断得到满足。

The industrial structure has been continuously upgraded. China has built the world’s most complete industrial system and is moving up the value chain. In 1952, the shares of added value from the primary, secondary and tertiary sectors in China’s GDP were 50.5 percent, 20.8 percent, and 28.7 percent. In 2020, the figures were 7.7 percent, 37.8 percent and 54.5 percent, marking the transformation of China from a traditional agricultural country to a country with large manufacturing and service industries (Chart 3). China’s economy has shifted from relying mainly on the primary sector to being driven by a combination of the primary, secondary and tertiary sectors.

Significant headway has been made in agricultural modernization. The wider application of machinery, digital and green technologies as well as functional and community-shared farming has reduced the need for manual labor, and rural productivity has risen sharply. Grain production capacity has steadily increased, to the extent that China has now achieved basic self-sufficiency in grain supply, which ensures the country’s food security.

An independent and complete modern industrial system with a whole range of sectors has been built. The integration of industrialization and IT application has expanded in depth and extent. “Made in China” is being replaced by “smart manufacturing in China”. Industrial and supply chains have been further modernized. Strategic emerging industries represented by the new generation of information technology, biotechnology, high-end equipment, and green technology are growing fast, serving as a key engine for high-quality development.

The digital economy has unleashed the vigor of businesses. Digital transformation of traditional industries and growth of the digital industry are both making headway. Modern service industries are picking up speed. New forms and models of business based on the internet continue to emerge. The platform economy and the sharing economy are booming. Producer services have become more specialized and moved up the value chain, while consumer services are better targeted and of higher quality.

The steady improvement and upgrading of the industrial structure has promoted balanced and extensive economic development. Consumers’ needs for individualized, high-quality and diverse supply are being met.

现代基础设施网络持续完善。信息畅通、公路成网、铁路密布、大桥巍峨,天涯成咫尺,天堑变通途。“五纵五横”综合运输大通道基本贯通,高速铁路、高速公路、城市轨道交通运营总里程和港口深水泊位数量均居世界第一,民航运输总周转量连续多年位居世界第二,中国加快向交通强国迈进。四通八达的交通网络深刻影响了城市格局、人口布局和经济版图,深刻改变了人们的生活圈、工作圈。能源供给保障能力和能源开发技术水平持续提升,能源开发效率明显提高,基本形成煤、油、气、核和可再生能源多轮驱动高质量发展的能源生产体系。水利基础设施不断完善,中国以占世界6.6%的淡水资源支持和保障了占世界近20%的人口和17%的经济总量。互联网基础设施建设加速推进,网络覆盖越来越广、资费越来越低、网速越来越快,随时随地可以一键互联、一“网”打尽,信息高速路畅通了人民幸福路。

Modern infrastructure networks have been improved. Thanks to efficient information networks and an extensive network of roads, railways and bridges, temporal distance inside China has been significantly shortened, and it has become much easier to travel across the country, even on difficult terrain (Panel 2). An integrated transport network encompassing five north-south corridors and five east-west corridors connects the whole country. China leads the world in the total route length of high-speed railway, urban rail transit and expressway, and in the number of deep-water berths. For many years, its civil aviation sector has ranked second in the world in terms of total traffic turnover.

The country is quickly building itself into a leader in transport. Its extensive network has had a huge impact on the configuration of China’s cities, and on its population distribution, economic activities and even the life and work perimeters of the residents.

Energy supply capacity, development technology, and efficiency have continued to improve. A diversified high-quality energy production system has been established, concurrently driven by coal, oil, natural gas, nuclear power, and renewable energy.

Thanks to the constantly improving water resource management and infrastructure, China is able to support around 20 percent of the world’s population and 17 percent of the global economy with only 6.6 percent of the planet’s fresh water.

Progress in internet infrastructure has brought about wider service coverage, lower prices, faster internet speed, and easy connection anytime and anywhere. The information highway enabled by the internet has improved people’s lives.

(二)人民民主不断扩大

2. Expanding People’s Democracy

全面小康,既有效保障人民经济权利,也有效保障人民政治权利。党领导人民走中国特色社会主义政治发展道路,坚持党的领导、人民当家作主、依法治国有机统一,发展全过程人民民主,民主从价值理念成为扎根中国大地的制度形态、治理机制和人民的生活方式。中国人民当家作主,依法享有广泛、充分、真实的民主,真正成为国家、社会和自己命运的主人。

By achieving moderate prosperity in all respects, China has better ensured the economic and political rights of its people. The CPC leads the Chinese people on the socialist path of political advancement with Chinese characteristics. It upholds the unity of the Party’s leadership, the people’s position as masters of the country, and law-based governance, and is committed to developing whole-process people’s democracy. Democracy has thus grown from a set of values into a system, a governance mechanism, and a way of life rooted in the land of China. The Chinese people have become true masters of their country, society and future, and enjoy extensive, full and genuine democracy.

人民享有广泛民主权利。在中国,国家一切权力属于人民。人民依法实行民主选举、民主协商、民主决策、民主管理、民主监督。在中国,年满18周岁、具有中华人民共和国国籍、依法享有政治权利的公民,都有选举权和被选举权。坚持普遍、平等、直接选举和间接选举相结合以及差额选举、无记名投票的原则,依法保障人人享有平等的选举权利。社会主义协商民主广泛多层制度化发展,人民通过各种途径、渠道、方式,就改革发展稳定重大问题,特别是事关人民切身利益的问题广泛协商,找到全社会意愿和要求的最大公约数。党和国家制定实施重大决策,广泛征求和听取各方面意见,最大限度吸纳民意、汇集民智、凝聚民力,努力实现决策科学化民主化。人民广泛、直接参与社会事务管理,实现自我管理、自我服务、自我教育、自我监督。人民依照宪法和法律规定,有权对国家机关和国家工作人员提出批评和建议,有权对国家机关和国家工作人员的违法失职行为提出申诉、控告或者检举。民主选举、民主协商、民主决策、民主管理、民主监督各个环节环环相扣、彼此贯通,实现过程民主和结果民主、形式民主和实质民主、直接民主和间接民主相统一,保障了人民的知情权、参与权、表达权、监督权。

The people enjoy broad democratic rights. In China, all power of the state belongs to the people. The people engage in democratic elections, consultation, decision-making, management and oversight in accordance with the law.

The principles that apply in China’s direct and indirect elections are universal suffrage, equal rights, multiple candidates, and secret ballot. All citizens of the PRC who have reached the age of 18 – with the exception of those persons deprived of political rights in accordance with the law – have the right to vote and stand for election.

Socialist consultative democracy has experienced broad-based, multilevel and institutionalized development. Through various means and channels, the people are involved in extensive consultations on matters concerning reform, development and stability, especially those related to their vital interests, to reach the broadest convergence on the aspirations and expectations of society as a whole.

In making and implementing major decisions, the Party and the state solicit advice from all sectors of society, take account of public opinion, and pool the wisdom and strength of the people, in order to ensure democratic and sound decision-making.

The people participate extensively and directly in managing social issues, and local residents run their own affairs by serving the community and exercising self-education and public scrutiny.

In accordance with the Constitution and laws, the people have the right to offer criticism and make suggestions regarding any government office or employee. They have the right to level complaints, charges, or accusations against any government office or employee for violations of the law or dereliction of duty.

Democratic elections, consultation, decision-making, management and oversight are closely linked and integrated. There is a unity of democratic processes and democratic results, procedural democracy and substantive democracy, and direct democracy and indirect democracy, and the people’s rights to be informed, to participate, to express views, and to supervise the exercise of power are protected.

人民的民主生活丰富多彩。中国的民主好不好,中国人民感受最真切、最有发言权。察民情、聚民智、解民忧,问需于民、问计于民,是党执政的重要方式、政府治理的重要方式。在中国,民主蔚然成风,人们心情舒畅,社会充满生机活力。从衣食住行、看病上学到社区管理、社会治理,再到大政方针、发展规划,人民的意见建议都可以通过民主渠道表达出来。民主恳谈会、听证会、网络议政、远程协商、“立法直通车”、“小院议事厅”、“板凳民主”等等,一个个火热的基层民主实践、一个个别具特色的基层民主形式不断涌现,民事民议、民事民定、民事民办渐成风气。中国式民主让人民的期盼、希望、诉求有地方说、说了有人听、听了有反馈,真正解决人民想要解决的问题,真正把14亿多人的所思所盼融入国家发展,形成万众一心、团结奋斗的局面。

The Chinese people enjoy extensive democratic rights. They have the best understanding of China’s democracy, and they have the final say as to whether it works or not.

The CPC keeps attuned to the situation of the people, understands their needs, addresses their concerns, pools their wisdom, solicits their opinions, and asks for their advice. These are important means for the Party and the government to govern the country. In China, democracy is healthy, the people live in contentment, and society is full of vitality. On various matters including necessities of daily life, transport, health care, education, community management, social governance, state policies and development planning, the people can have their voices heard through democratic channels. Popular and original practices and forms of primary-level democracy continue to emerge, such as democratic discussions, hearings, online political deliberation, remote consultations, local legislative outreach offices, community councils and neighborhood meetings. This represents a general trend whereby matters concerning the core interests of the people are discussed and dealt with by the people themselves, and they make the decisions.

China’s democracy ensures that the people have channels to express their expectations, wishes and requests, to have their voices heard, and to receive feedback. This process effectively addresses the problems faced by the people, and conveys the aspirations of the whole of society, so that the whole nation unites as one and works together for common goals.

人民民主有制度保障。以人民代表大会制度这一根本政治制度,中国共产党领导的多党合作和政治协商制度、民族区域自治制度、基层群众自治制度等基本政治制度为主要内容的人民当家作主制度体系,为维护人民利益奠定了坚实制度基础。全国人民代表大会和地方各级人民代表大会是人民行使国家权力的机关,各级人大都由民主选举产生,对人民负责、受人民监督;各级国家机关都由人大产生、对人大负责、受人大监督;各级人大代表都由民主选举产生,忠实代表人民利益和意志,依法参加行使国家权力。中国共产党领导的多党合作和政治协商制度这一新型政党制度,以共产党领导、多党派合作,共产党执政、多党派参政为基本特征,实现了执政与参政、领导与合作、协商与监督的有机统一,在内容上体现了人民的权利诉求,在程序上体现了人民当家作主。民族区域自治制度,既保证了国家团结统一,又实现了各民族共同当家作主,推动了民族地区发展,促进了民族团结,56个民族像石榴籽一样紧紧抱在一起,极大增强了中华民族凝聚力、向心力。基层群众自治制度,保障人民通过村民委员会、城市居民委员会等多种形式直接行使民主权利,提升了基层治理实效。以职工代表大会为基本形式的企事业单位民主管理制度,对于保障职工的合法权益和主人翁地位,调动职工积极性,推动企事业发展,发挥了积极作用。以宪法为核心的中国特色社会主义法律体系不断完善,为人民当家作主提供了坚实的法律制度保障。

People’s democracy has an institutional guarantee. It mainly includes such systems as people’s congresses – which form the fundamental political system of China – CPC-led multiparty cooperation and political consultation, regional ethnic autonomy, and grassroots self-governance. Ensuring the people’s principal status as masters of the country, these systems have laid a firm institutional foundation for protecting the people’s interests.

The people exercise state power through the NPC and the local people’s congresses at all levels, which are responsible to the people and subject to their oversight. State organs are created by people’s congresses at each successive level and are responsible to them and subject to their oversight. People’s congresses at all levels are constituted through direct or indirect democratic elections. Their responsibility is to faithfully represent the interests and will of the people and to participate in the exercise of state power in accordance with the law.

Multiparty cooperation and political consultation under the leadership of the CPC is a new type of political party system, in which the CPC is the ruling party and the other parties participate in governance. It has realized unity between governance and participation in governance, leadership and cooperation, and consultation and oversight. It ensures that the people’s rightful claims are honored through a procedure guaranteeing the people’s status as masters of the country.

The system of regional ethnic autonomy guarantees the nation’s unity and solidarity, and ensures that all ethnic groups participate in governance. It fully protects the equal rights of all 56 ethnic groups and the power of self-governance in ethnic autonomous areas, underpins development in ethnic minority areas, and reinforces ethnic unity.

The system of grassroots self-governance enables the people to directly exercise democratic rights through multiple channels such as villagers committees and urban residents committees. This improves the effectiveness of community-level governance. The system of democratic management through employees congresses in enterprises and public institutions plays a positive role in protecting the lawful rights and interests of employees. It ensures they run their own affairs, brings vitality to these organizations, and helps them flourish and prosper.

The socialist legal system with Chinese characteristics, with the Constitution at the core, is improving, providing a solid legal guarantee for the people to play their role as masters of the country.

社会公平正义不断彰显。依法治国基本方略全面落实,依法治国、依法执政、依法行政共同推进,法治国家、法治政府、法治社会一体建设,司法体制机制改革深入推进,法治在体现人民利益、反映人民愿望、维护人民权利、增进人民福祉方面的作用更加彰显。社会公平正义的法治价值追求逐渐贯穿到立法、执法、司法、守法的全过程和各方面,司法为民理念充分践行,司法公信力显著提升。公平正义的阳光照进人民心田,让人民群众在每一个司法案件中都感受到公平正义的目标不断实现。

Social equity and justice prevail. The fundamental strategy of governing the country by rule of law has been fully implemented. China has succeeded in coordinating law-based governance, exercise of state power, and government administration, and in integrating rule of law for the country, the government, and society. Reform of the judicial system and mechanisms has advanced. The rule of law plays a greater role in representing the people’s interests, reflecting their wishes, protecting their rights and interests, and improving their wellbeing.

Social equity and justice – goals of the rule of law – are manifest in the whole process and every aspect of legislation, law enforcement, judicature, and law observance. The principle that judicial activities must serve the people is applied in full, and judicial credibility has seen a notable improvement. People can see for themselves that China is moving closer to the goal that equity and justice are served in every judicial case.

(三)文化更加繁荣发展

3. Flourishing Cultural Sector

全面小康,是物质文明和精神文明协调发展的小康,既是国家经济实力增强,也是国家文化软实力提升;既是人民仓廪实、衣食足,也是人民知礼节、明荣辱。党领导人民坚持走中国特色社会主义文化发展道路,增强文化自觉,坚定文化自信,建设社会主义文化强国,铸就了巍峨耸立的中华民族精神大厦。中国人民的精神生活更加丰富,精神面貌深刻改变,精神力量显著增强。

In a moderately prosperous society in all respects, material progress should go hand in hand with advances in culture and ethics. The country’s economic strength and its cultural soft power should increase together. The people should have sufficient food and other daily needs, but they should also conduct themselves with dignity and a strong sense of morality.

Under the leadership of the CPC, the people have followed a socialist path of cultural development with Chinese characteristics, raising their awareness of and reinforcing their confidence in Chinese culture. The development of a great socialist culture has reshaped China’s national psyche. Chinese people now have richer cultural activities and greater inner strength, and they have changed their outlook in profound and positive ways.

人民共同奋斗的思想基础更加牢固。中国特色社会主义和中国梦深入人心,共产党好、社会主义好、改革开放好、伟大祖国好、各族人民好的时代主旋律高亢响亮,全体人民道路自信、理论自信、制度自信、文化自信显著增强。社会主义核心价值观传播践行,爱国主义精神、改革创新精神、新时代奋斗精神广泛弘扬,积极进取、开放包容、理性平和的国民心态更加成熟。人民英雄、时代楷模、道德模范成为新时代的明星偶像,全社会日益形成见贤思齐、崇尚英雄、争做先锋的良好氛围。革命文化大力弘扬,红色故事广为传诵,红色旅游成为时尚,红色传统焕发时代光芒,人们在感悟革命历史中接受精神洗礼、传承红色基因、汲取前进力量。新闻媒体、影视出版、文学艺术、网络空间等,坚持正确舆论导向,充分展示昂扬向上的社会主流,积极反映发展进步的社会本质,大力营造团结奋进的社会氛围,全社会充满向美向上向善的正能量。构筑中华民族共有精神家园,中华民族共同体意识不断铸牢。

The ideological foundations of collective endeavor are growing stronger. Socialism with Chinese characteristics and the Chinese Dream are heartily embraced by the nation. Popular support for the CPC, socialist system, and reform and opening up is running high; love of the country and ethnic unity resonate deeply with the people. The public has more confidence in the path, theory, system and culture of Chinese socialism. The core socialist values and the spirit of patriotism, reform, innovation and hard work are taking root among the people. Qualities of a mature citizenry prevail, including openness, inclusiveness, rationality, dignity, and the desire to excel.

The people’s heroes, role models, and iconic figures are the brightest stars of our time, and members of the public are more inclined to admire such individuals and become pioneers of progress. China’s revolutionary heritage has been carried forward, and revolution-themed tourism is gaining momentum. By revisiting their revolutionary past, people are motivated to refine their character and carry on the revolutionary faith.

The press, films, television programs, publishing, literary and artistic works, and cyberspace maintain the right tone in public communication, showing the enterprising spirit of mainstream society, creating a positive atmosphere for social development, unity and progress, and filling society with uplifting energy. All this has reinforced the cultural bonds shared by the Chinese and created a stronger sense of national identity among the people.

人民精神文化生活日益丰富活跃。从农家书屋、乡镇综合文化站,到城市公共图书馆、博物馆、文化馆、美术馆,覆盖城乡的公共文化设施网络持续完善,基本实现免费或低价开放,公共文化服务的丰富性、便利性、均等性显著增强。数字图书馆、公共文化云平台、“云端博物馆”蓬勃兴起,人们足不出户就能在线享受优质公共文化服务。文化产业持续健康发展,新型文化企业、文化业态、文化消费模式加速形成,网络文化产业迅猛发展,时尚的文化场馆、高质量的文化产品、具有创意的文化活动更好满足人们个性化多样化品质化国际化的文化需求。影视出版繁荣发展,“暑期档”“国庆档”“春节档”大片云集,精品图书不断呈现,人们享受越来越多的高品质文化盛宴。文化娱乐领域乱象有效整治,天清气朗风气正在形成。中外文化交流日益扩大,人们不出国门也能欣赏世界顶级文艺演出。文化与旅游融合发展,旅游景区、休闲度假、乡村旅游、红色旅游等旅游产品文化内涵不断提升,成为传播社会主义核心价值观的重要渠道、满足人民群众文化和旅游消费需求的重要方式、展示美丽中国的重要窗口,人们在行走中华大地、领略大好河山中感悟中华文化之美、陶冶心灵情操。全民健身热悄然兴起,从竞技体育到群众性体育活动,从国际赛事摘金夺银到闲暇时跳起欢快的广场舞,全民健身强健着民族筋骨、强大着民族力量,中国正在从体育大国迈向体育强国。

People are enjoying richer cultural activities (Panel 4). Public cultural facilities, ranging from rural reading rooms and cultural stations to urban libraries, museums, cultural centers, and art galleries, have been steadily improved, and are mostly open to the public free of charge or at a minimal cost. Public cultural services have become more diversified, equitable and convenient. With the appearance of digital libraries, cloud platforms and cloud museums, people can enjoy good-quality public cultural services in the comfort of their own homes.

The cultural sector is undergoing sustained, sound development, with new types of enterprise, new forms of business, and new models of consumption emerging at a faster pace. The online cultural industry is growing in strength. Stylish cultural venues, fine cultural products, and creative cultural events meet the demand for greater individuality and diversity, higher quality, and closer connections with the wider world.

The film, television and publishing sectors are booming. Blockbusters jostle for attention during the summer vacation, National Day and Chinese New Year holidays, and bestseller books hit the shelves in a steady stream, regaling citizens with a cultural feast. Effective measures have been taken to foster a wholesome social environment in the cultural and entertainment industries by combating undesirable phenomena. Cultural exchanges with other countries are expanding, enabling people to watch the best artistic performances from around the world without going abroad.

The cultural and tourism industries are more integrated and varied. Sightseeing trips, leisure tourism, farm tours and revolution-themed tourism meet people’s varying cultural and entertainment needs, and at the same time promote core socialist values. They introduce travelers not only to China’s beautiful landscape but also its splendid culture – an experience that both pleases the eye and nourishes the mind.

Public fitness programs are sweeping the country, in the form of both competitive sports and mass leisure activities. Competing for medals at international events or group dancing in parks – these programs help build healthier bodies as well as stronger bonds among the people. China is becoming a growing power in international sport.

中华优秀传统文化传承弘扬。中华优秀传统文化创造性转化、创新性发展,焕发新的生机活力,延续了民族文化血脉,凝聚了民族精神,点亮了人们的小康生活。越来越多的传统经典、戏曲、音乐、舞蹈、书画等走进校园、走进课堂,挥毫泼墨、吟诗诵词成为青少年的新时尚。收藏在博物馆里的文物、陈列在大地上的遗产、书写在古籍里的文字都“活”了起来,世代相传的非物质文化遗产绽放出更加迷人的光彩,传统文化更可游可感可知、更好懂好听好读。考古研究成果丰硕,实证中华文明起源和发展的历史脉络和灿烂成就。越来越多的人陶醉于古典艺术的芳华流韵、国家宝藏的博大精深,从中感受中华文明的源远流长、中国历史的灿烂辉煌。春节、元宵节、端午节、中秋节等传统节日,传承文化基因,丰富时代内涵,注入时尚元素,融入现代生活。讲仁爱、重民本、守诚信、崇正义、尚和合、求大同,孝老爱亲、自强不息、敬业乐群、扶正扬善、扶危济困、见义勇为等中华优秀传统文化中的思想观念、人文精神、道德规范传承弘扬,集体意识、团结精神、奋斗品质、家国情怀等中华民族优秀品格发扬光大,凝聚起中国人民的精神力量。

Traditional Chinese culture is preserved and carried forward. Creative evolution and development have injected new vitality, continuing China’s cultural traditions, reinforcing its national spirit, and illuminating life in the new era.

More classics and classical arts such as Chinese operas, music, dancing, painting, and calligraphy have made their way into classrooms and become popular among the youth. From old artifacts in museums, historical sites, and texts of ancient books, to intangible cultural heritage passed down through generations, traditional culture is reviving and finding new appeal. Directly felt and experienced, it is becoming more accessible and comprehensible.

Archeological findings have produced more evidence of the origin and evolution of the Chinese civilization and its remarkable achievements. People are increasingly captivated by China’s classical arts and awed by its cultural treasures, which speak volumes about the deep roots of the Chinese civilization and the splendor of Chinese history. Celebrations of traditional holidays, including the Chinese New Year, the Lantern Festival, the Dragon Boat Festival, and the Mid-Autumn Festival, continue to observe old customs but also adopt contemporary elements adapted to modern life.

The concepts, values and moral norms of fine traditional culture are still espoused and practiced. They include benevolence, the people-centered approach, honesty, justice, harmony, unity in diversity, filial piety, love for one’s family, pursuit of progress, dedication to work, friendliness, advocating what is good and righteous, helping those in difficulties or danger, and acting bravely for a just cause. Rallied by traditional values, including patriotism, collectivism, unity and diligence, the Chinese people are standing stronger together.

中华文化走出去步伐不断加大。中医药、武术、京剧、茶道等中国优秀传统文化走向世界,中国电影走出国门,美食美景受到热捧,影视综艺、网络文学、流行音乐广受欢迎。56处世界遗产向世人展示全面真实的古代中国和现代中国。中华文化在国际上的亲和力感召力不断提升。

The international appeal and influence of Chinese culture is growing. Traditional Chinese medicine, martial arts, Peking Opera, the tea ceremony and China-made films are now found in more countries. Chinese food, scenic sites, TV dramas, variety shows, online literature, and pop music are enjoyed globally. The 56 UNESCO world heritage sites in China are windows to understand the country’s past and present.

(四)民生福祉显著提升

4. Improving People’s Wellbeing

全面小康,以人为本,民生为先。党坚持以人民为中心的发展思想,把改善人民生活、增进人民福祉作为出发点和落脚点,不断解决关系人民切身利益的突出问题,不断提升人民的获得感、幸福感、安全感。14亿多中国人民过上了几千年梦寐以求的好日子,生存权和发展权得到有效保障,幼有所育、学有所教、劳有所得、病有所医、老有所养、住有所居、弱有所扶更好实现。

A moderately prosperous society in all respects puts people first and places their wellbeing above anything else. The people are at the center of the philosophy of the CPC. Improving people’s lives and wellbeing is the Party’s goal as it continues to address their issues of major and immediate concern, and raise their sense of fulfillment, happiness and security. The Chinese people are now leading the decent life to which this nation has aspired for several thousand years. Their rights to subsistence and development are well protected. They have access to childcare, education, employment, medical services, elderly care, housing and social assistance.

人民生活水平显著提高。居民收入持续增加,全国居民人均年可支配收入从1978年的171元增加到2020年的32189元。城乡居民恩格尔系数分别从1978年的57.5%、67.7%下降到2020年的29.2%、32.7%(图5),城乡居民生活质量不断提升。温饱问题解决后,人们对生活品质、品位有了更高的追求,衣食住行不断升级,消费结构从生存型逐渐向发展型、享受型过渡。衣,从穿暖到穿美、穿出时尚;食,从吃饱到吃好、吃出健康;住,从有所居到更敞亮、更宜居;行,从便利通畅到快捷舒适。吃穿用有余,家电全面普及,乘用汽车快速进入寻常百姓家。餐饮、健康、教育、旅游、文娱等服务性消费持续快速增长,在居民人均消费支出中占比逐渐达到一半左右。越来越多的人有“钱”有“闲”,“诗和远方”更加触手可及,“说走就走”不再是梦想,旅游扮靓人们的幸福生活,中国正在进入大众旅游时代。

People’s lives have been notably improved. Personal incomes have grown steadily, with the average per capita disposable income up from RMB171 in 1978 to RMB32,189 in 2020 (Chart 4). Quality of life has improved, with the Engel coefficient of urban residents down from 57.5 percent in 1978 to 29.2 percent in 2020, and that of rural residents down from 67.7 percent to 32.7 percent (Chart 5). Once their basic need for food and other daily necessities has been satisfied, people want a better life, including better food, clothes, housing, and travel facilities. Subsistence-based consumption is gradually giving way to a model directed towards greater fulfillment and comfort. People regard clothes not only as something that can protect them from the elements, but also as something that can make them look more attractive. Food serves not only to fill an empty stomach, but also to provide better nutrition and good health. People also aspire to live in bigger homes and better neighborhoods, and have faster and more comfortable transport. They are fully supplied with daily necessities and own a range of home appliances; car ownership is increasing rapidly. Consumption of services such as catering, health care, education, tourism, culture and entertainment has continued to surge, and now represents approximately half of China’s per capita consumer spending. More people have sufficient time and money to explore their dreams away from the hustle and bustle of daily life. Traveling no longer requires lengthy preparation and has added to the pleasures of life. China has entered the era of mass tourism.

就业局势长期稳定,就业质量显著提升。就业人数从1949年的1.8亿增加到2020年的7.5亿,就业规模不断扩大;从绝大多数劳动者以农业为生到第三产业就业人数占47.7%、城镇就业人数占61.6%,就业结构不断优化;从劳动者普遍处于文盲半文盲状态到劳动年龄人口平均受教育年限10.8年、技能人才总量约2亿,就业人员素质大幅提高。亿万劳动者拥有自己热爱的工作,开启幸福生活的大门。从计划分配到市场就业、自由择业、自主创业,从传统就业方式到新就业形态,劳动者的就业观念深刻变革、就业空间更加广阔、就业方式日益多元。人们的兴趣爱好、特长禀赋与个人就业意愿、社会需求、国家需要更好结合,自我价值更好实现,主动性创造性显著增强,创新创造热情不断迸发。劳动者合法权益得到保障,劳动报酬保持增长,劳动所得受到保护,人们越来越有尊严地劳动、快乐地劳动,依靠自己的双手创造美好生活。从“单休制”到“双休制”,从“黄金周”到带薪年休假,劳动者休息休假权益越来越有保障,工作生活更加平衡。劳动最光荣、最崇高、最伟大、最美丽日益成为全社会的共识和行动,勤奋做事、勤勉为人、勤劳致富成为风尚,崇尚劳动、尊重劳动、热爱劳动的社会氛围更加浓厚。

The job market remains stable and the quality of employment is rising. China’s employed population rose from 180 million in 1949 to 750 million in 2020. In the past, most working people were farmers. The employment structure has improved to the extent that 47.7 percent of the workforce are now employed in the tertiary sector, and 61.6 percent are working in cities. The working-age population, once mostly illiterate and semi-literate, now has an average of 10.8 years of schooling, and a higher-quality workforce is reflected in the fact that the number of skilled workers has reached about 200 million. Millions of people have found work they enjoy and work that can bring greater happiness to their lives. In the past, people were assigned to jobs. Now they can choose their career freely, based on market needs, or even start their own business. New forms of employment have emerged alongside traditional ones. This has brought a profound change to the mindset of the workforce, broadened their choices, and expanded the forms of employment available. Individuals can tie their interests, hobbies, skills and talents more closely to their job expectations, and to social demand and national needs. This has helped people to realize their personal values and further raised their initiative and their passion for creativity. The employed have seen their lawful rights and interests protected, their pay increased, and their incomes secured. More and more people can find work from which they can draw happiness and dignity. They are creating a better life with their own hands.

China’s policy has progressed from one day off to two days off per week and from the “golden week holidays” to paid annual leave. The rights of working people to rest and leisure are better protected, to help them balance work and life. The idea that work is a most honorable and noble activity has been welcomed, and is practiced by the great majority of the people, who believe that hard work is essential to success in life. The prevailing trend is to advocate, respect and value work.

教育事业蓬勃发展。从文盲半文盲大国到教育大国、迈向教育强国,从人口大国到人力资源大国、迈向人力资源强国,中国已建成包括学前教育、初等教育、中等教育、高等教育等在内的当代世界规模最大的教育体系,教育现代化发展总体水平跨入世界中上国家行列(专栏5,表1)。学前教育普及率、普惠率超过84%,九年义务教育巩固率达到95%以上,高中阶段教育全面普及,区域、城乡、校际教育差距逐步缩小,从“有学上”到“上好学”、从“学有所教”到“学有优教”,中国基础教育跨越式发展,让每个孩子都能享有公平而有质量的教育正在变为现实。中国高等学校累计培养近亿名高素质专门人才,高等教育进入普及化阶段,教育水平跃升至世界中上国家水平。职业技术教育不断发展,为经济社会发展输送大量高素质技能人才,培养越来越多的能工巧匠、大国工匠。特殊教育从无到有、加快发展,残疾人享有平等受教育权正在实现。网络化、数字化、个性化、终身化的学习体系加快构建,“人人皆学、处处能学、时时可学”的学习型社会正在形成,学习逐渐成为人们的日常习惯和生活方式。中国的教育,畅通了向上流动的通道,改变了无数人的命运,实现了无数人的梦想,让人们拥有更多人生出彩的机会。

Education is thriving. China has evolved from a populous country where a vast majority of people were illiterate or semi-illiterate, through one with significant education resources and a huge workforce, to one with high-quality education and human resources. It has established the world’s largest education system that spans preschool, primary, secondary, and higher education, ranking in the upper-middle category worldwide in terms of modern education (Panel 5 and Table 1). The enrollment rate in preschool education and the coverage rate of affordable preschool education have surpassed 84 percent, the completion rate of nine-year compulsory education has exceeded 95 percent, and senior secondary education is universally available across the country. Gaps in education between different regions, urban and rural areas, and different schools have all diminished. China’s basic education has progressed from providing access to schools and teachers to ensuring the quality of both, and a good and equitable education for all children is becoming a reality.

China’s universities and colleges have trained nearly 100 million high-caliber professionals. Enrollment in higher education is surging and the education level now ranks in the upper-middle category worldwide. Its vocational education institutions have trained a large number of highly skilled personnel and craftspeople. In the past, there was no provision of special education; now people with disabilities are guaranteed equal rights to education. A system for lifelong learning is under construction, augmented by internet and digital technologies and offering wide personal choices, and as self-improvement comes to be an everyday activity, a learning society for all is taking shape. Education in China has opened up paths for people to pursue a better life, changed their destiny, turned their dreams into reality, and presented them with more possibilities in life.

社会保障惠及全民。中国基本建成包括社会保险、社会救助、社会福利、社会优抚在内的世界上规模最大的社会保障体系,正向全覆盖、保基本、多层次、可持续的目标迈进。截至2021年6月底,全国基本养老、失业、工伤保险参保人数分别达到10.14亿人、2.22亿人、2.74亿人,基本医疗保险覆盖超过13亿人。生育保险依法覆盖所有用工单位及职工。住房保障力度不断加大,累计建设各类保障性住房和棚改安置房8000多万套,帮助2亿多困难群众改善住房条件,低保、低收入住房困难家庭基本实现应保尽保,中等偏下收入家庭住房条件有效改善。积极应对人口老龄化上升为国家战略,居家社区机构相协调、医养康养相结合的养老服务体系加快建立,多数城市社区初步形成助餐、助医、助洁等为主体的“一刻钟”居家养老服务圈,越来越多的农村社区建起村级幸福院、日间照料中心等养老服务设施,城乡普惠型养老服务、互助型养老进一步发展,广大老年人不离家、不离村就能享受到专业养老服务,老有所养、老有所依、老有所乐、老有所安的目标不断实现。残疾人权益保障更加有力,8500万残疾人同步迈入小康。儿童福利和未成年人保护体系不断完善,有力保障了儿童健康和全面发展。越织越密的社会保障安全网,充分发挥可持续的托底作用,人们工作更安心、生活更舒心、对未来更有信心。

Social security covers all people. China has established the world’s largest social security system, comprising social insurance, social assistance, social welfare, and support for entitled groups – components of an inclusive, multi-tiered, and sustainable system that guarantees basic living needs. By the end of June 2021, the number of people covered by basic old-age insurance was 1 billion; unemployment insurance, 222 million; work-related injury insurance, 274 million; basic medical insurance, more than 1.3 billion. The law provides that maternity insurance covers all employers and employees.

The country has strengthened housing security by building more than 80 million units of government-subsidized housing and housing for people displaced by urban transformation. It has also improved the housing conditions of more than 200 million poor people. Now, the vast majority of households with housing difficulties, either those entitled to subsistence allowances or those with low incomes, are covered in the system, and households with lower middle incomes have seen notable improvements in their housing conditions.

China has implemented a national strategy for addressing population aging, and is developing an old-age service network that coordinates home, community and institutional care, and combines medical care with maintaining good health. Most urban communities have provided home care services available within 15 minutes, which typically include meal preparation and delivery, medical services, and cleaning. More rural neighborhoods have built eldercare facilities such as nursing homes and day care centers. Affordable eldercare services and mutual-aid eldercare saw further development in both urban and rural areas. The elderly can now access professional eldercare in their homes or villages and have access to assistance, leisure, and places to settle.

China has ensured that the 85 million people with disabilities share the benefits of moderate prosperity as it steps up efforts to protect their rights and interests. The system for child welfare and the protection of minors has also improved, providing an effective shield for their healthy all-round growth.

The social security system is becoming more inclusive and offering people sustained guarantees at work, in life, and for their future.

全民健康托起全面小康。新中国成立以来,从疫病横行到可防可控,从缺医少药到病有所医,从只能本地报销到逐步异地结算,从单纯医院就医到家庭医生签约服务覆盖面不断扩大,中国医疗卫生体系逐步健全,医疗资源配置进一步优化,人们看病难、看病贵的问题逐步得到缓解。医疗技术水平和服务能力不断提升,“互联网+医疗健康”持续发展,医药价格逐步回归合理水平,越来越多的常用药、救命药纳入医保目录,人民群众看得上病、看得起病、看得好病。城乡基本医疗公共服务均等化不断推进,农村医疗卫生服务体系持续改善,医疗保障制度不断健全,农村居民看病就医有地方、有医生、有保障,因病致贫、因病返贫问题得到有效解决。健康中国行动加快推进,全民健身和全民健康持续融合,有利于健康的生活方式、生产方式、经济社会发展模式和治理模式正在形成。人民健康水平不断提升,从新中国成立之初处于世界平均水平到现在处于中等收入国家前列。中国取得抗击新冠肺炎疫情重大战略成果,中国医疗卫生体制的优越性进一步彰显,人民生命健康得到有效维护。

Health care is ensured for all. In its early days the PRC was ravaged by disease and plagued by inadequate medical resources, but it is now capable of effective disease prevention and control, and of providing satisfactory medical services to its people. It has shifted its medical insurance policy from local reimbursement only to trans-regional settlement, and extended its medical services from hospitals only to care provided by growing numbers of contracted family doctors. These represent components of a sound medical and health care system with better allocated medical resources, and help to address the problems of difficult and expensive access to medical treatment.

Medical technologies and service capabilities have risen as internet applications boost the sector. As part of its endeavor to ensure affordable and effective medical services, China has brought drug prices down to reasonable levels and regularly adds common drugs and life-saving drugs to the medical insurance list. There is no letup in the drive to provide equal access to basic public medical services in both urban and rural areas. A better medical and health care service system and a sound medical insurance system in rural areas have guaranteed medical services for rural residents, and helped prevent people from falling into, or back into poverty due to ill health.

The Healthy China initiative is part of the country’s effort to pursue fitness for all and health for all. The results can be seen in the form of lifestyles, approaches to work, and models of social and economic development and governance that are conducive to public health. In public health, China has steadily risen from an average world rating to the front ranks among middle-income countries. China’s fight against Covid-19 safeguards the life and health of the people, and its achievements in this battle bear witness to the strengths of China’s medical and health care system.

人民群众安全感不断提升。从社会管理到社会治理,从加快形成科学有效的社会治理体制到打造共建共治共享的社会治理格局,社会治理的社会化、法治化、智能化、专业化水平不断提升,建设更高水平的平安中国成效显著。社会治安防控体系持续完善,防控触角延伸到“最后一公里”,人民群众的安全感和满意度显著提高。扫黑除恶专项斗争深入开展,打“网”破“伞”重拳出击,黑恶势力有效铲除,黑恶犯罪根本遏制,社会治安环境显著改善,法治权威充分彰显,人民群众拍手称快。小事不出村、大事不出镇、矛盾不上交,基层社会矛盾预防和化解能力显著增强。网格化管理、精细化服务、信息化支撑、开放共享的基层管理服务体系不断完善,基层治理新格局逐步形成,市域社会治理现代化稳步推进,社会治理整体效能显著提升。2020年,全国群众安全感为98.4%。中国长期保持社会和谐稳定、人民安居乐业,成为国际社会公认的最有安全感的国家之一。

The public enjoy a greater sense of security. From “social management” to “social governance”, from “forming a well-designed and effective social management system” to “establishing a social governance model based on collaboration, participation, and common interests”, China has refined social governance within the framework of law by encouraging more public participation and applying the latest information technology to provide professional services.

The Peaceful China initiative has yielded remarkable results. Crime prevention and control is stronger, and measures extending to the “last kilometer” have given the public a greater sense of security and satisfaction. An intensified campaign has curbed organized crime, and the “protective umbrellas” that shelter them. The public welcomes a safe and stable environment backed by the authority of the rule of law.

Dispute prevention and problem solving at community level has significantly improved, with an approach under which trivial matters are handled at village level, major problems are settled at township level, and all disputes are addressed locally before they are passed up to the higher authorities. The open and IT-based system has been constantly improved, with grid-based management providing better service to the public and giving rise to a new style of community-level governance. Social governance in urban areas has also made steady progress.

China’s overall improvement in social management lifted the public’s sense of security to an impressive 98.4 percent in 2020. China maintains long-term social harmony and stability, allowing its people to live in peace and contentment in a country widely recognized as one of the safest in the world.

(五)生态环境发生历史性变化

5. Historic Changes to the Eco-Environment

良好生态环境是最普惠的民生福祉,是全面小康最亮丽的底色。党既为当代计,也为万世谋,着眼中华民族永续发展,提出“绿水青山就是金山银山”理念,确立节约资源和保护环境的基本国策,大力推进美丽中国建设,辽阔大地山川更加秀美,人民生活的家园天更蓝、地更绿、水更清,地球家园增添了更多“中国绿”。

A sound eco-environment is the most inclusive contributor to people’s wellbeing, and a salient feature of moderate prosperity in all respects. To further the interests and wellbeing of both current and future generations, and guarantee China’s sustainable development, the CPC has decreed that lucid waters and lush mountains are invaluable assets. It has adopted a basic national policy of resource conservation and environmental protection, and worked hard to build a Beautiful China. Its endeavors have made the skies bluer, the lands greener, and the waters more lucid across the vast and beautiful landscape of the country, and added more green touches to the planet that is home to us all.

制定实施严格的生态文明制度。以法治理念、法治方式推动生态文明建设,实施“史上最严”的环境保护法,制修订一系列法律法规,基本形成生态环境法律法规框架体系,基本实现各环境要素监管主要领域全覆盖。从生态环境保护制度、资源高效利用制度,到生态保护和修复制度、生态环境损害责任终身追究制,再到环境保护目标责任制和考核评价制度、中央生态环境保护督察制度,中国以最严格的制度、最刚性的约束,促进发展转型,推动习惯养成,提升生态环境保护治理效能。全面落实河湖长制、林长制,把河道当街道管理、把库区当景区保护,山有人管、林有人造、树有人护、责有人担,实现山水“长治”。环境保护公众参与制度进一步完善,环境信息公开力度持续加大,公众参与环境决策和监督、投诉和举报环境违法行为的机制更加完善,民众环保意识不断增强,形成全民参与生态环境保护的新局面。14亿多人民是绿色发展的受益者,更是生态文明的建设者。

China has formulated and enforced stringent systems for eco-environmental protection. It applies the principles and methods of the rule of law into practice in promoting eco-environmental progress. By enacting the strictest Environmental Protection Law in its history, and formulating or amending a range of other laws and regulations, it has created a legal framework on the eco-environment that covers all environmental factors in major fields.

China has established a series of eco-environmental protection systems in areas such as efficient use of resources, conservation and restoration, lifelong accountability for damage, responsibility for and performance evaluation of targets, and central government supervision. The most rigid possible constraints imposed by these stringent systems have resulted in better outcomes in changing the development model, fostering eco-friendly habits among the people, and promoting environmental protection and governance.

China has implemented the system of “river chiefs”, “lake chiefs”, and “forest chiefs” across the country, managing its river courses carefully as if they were sub-districts in urban areas, and protecting its reservoir areas with the same care as scenic resorts. As a result, designated personnel are in place to tend mountains, plant trees, protect forests, and take on related responsibilities, thus establishing lasting governance of the eco-environment.

China has involved the whole of society in eco-environmental protection. A better system has been established for public participation, including decision-making, scrutiny, and reporting on environmental violations; environment-related information has become more transparent; and public awareness of environmental protection has been raised. The people have therefore benefited from green development while contributing to eco-environmental progress.

污染防治攻坚战取得显著成效。持续打好蓝天、碧水、净土保卫战,2020年,全国地级及以上城市空气质量优良天数比例为87.0%;PM2.5未达标地级及以上城市平均浓度比2015年下降28.8%;地表水水质优良率达到83.4%,居民集中式生活饮用水水源达标率为94.5%,地级及以上城市建成区黑臭水体已基本消除;受污染耕地安全利用率达到90%左右、污染地块安全利用率达到93%以上,如期实现固体废物进口清零目标。人们呼吸的空气更清新了、喝的水更干净了、吃的食物更放心了、生活的环境更优美了,切实感受到环境变化带来的幸福和美好,对蓝天白云、清水绿岸的满意度和获得感进一步提升。2020年,中国民众对生态环境质量的满意度达89.5%。

China has made strong headway in preventing and controlling pollution. In its drive to keep the skies blue, the waters clear, and the land pollution-free, China achieved the following in 2020:

• In cities at or above prefecture level, 87 percent days reached good or excellent air quality.

• In cities at or above prefecture level that fell short of the national standards, average PM2.5 concentrations decreased by 28.8 percent from 2015.

• The proportion of excellent and good-quality surface water reached 83.4 percent.

• Up to 94.5 percent of the drinking water sources serving urban communities reached the required standards.

• Black and foul water bodies in urban built-up areas at or above the prefecture level were largely eliminated.

• Approximately 90 percent of polluted farmland and more than 93 percent of polluted land plots were rendered safe for use.

• The target of bringing down the imports of foreign solid waste to zero was achieved as scheduled.

In a more beautiful living environment with fresher air, cleaner drinking water, and safer food, the people have enjoyed the pleasures brought by environmental improvements, and registered greater satisfaction with the improved eco-environment and a stronger sense of gain. In 2020, 89.5 percent of Chinese people were satisfied with the eco-environment.

生态系统质量和稳定性不断提升。坚持系统观念,坚持节约优先、保护优先、自然恢复为主,统筹山水林田湖草沙一体化保护和系统治理,增强生态系统整体性,完善自然保护地、生态保护红线监管制度,筑牢国家生态安全屏障,促进生态环境持续改善,让中华民族在绿水青山中永续发展。全民义务植树持续开展40年,全国动员、全民动手、全社会共同参与,植树造林、绿化祖国成为全社会自觉行动。全国人工林面积扩大到11.9亿亩,不毛之地变成绿洲,黄土高坡披上绿装,中国成为全球森林资源增长最多和人工造林面积最大的国家。2020年底,全国森林覆盖率达到23.04%,草原综合植被覆盖度达到56.1%,湿地保护率达到50%以上。探索建立生态保护红线制度,生物多样性保护得到加强,各级各类自然保护地占到陆域国土面积的18%,山清水秀、小溪潺潺、草绿花红、鸟鸣虫吟的自然生态景观越来越多。国家森林城市创建持续推进,468个城市开展了国家森林城市建设,“让森林走进城市,让城市拥抱森林”逐渐成为现实。以国家园林城市创建为抓手,大力推动城市园林绿化,城市建成区绿地率达到38.24%,人均公园绿地面积达到14.78平方米。一个善待自然、青山常在、绿水长流、空气常新、人与自然和谐共生的美丽中国正越来越清晰起来。

China has improved the health and stability of its ecosystems. Prioritizing resource conservation and environmental protection, and letting nature restore itself, the country has protected and managed its mountain, river, forest, farmland, lake, grassland, and desert ecosystems with a holistic approach. It has improved its management and inspection systems for nature reserves and eco-environmental protection zones, thereby strengthening eco-environmental security and ensuring China’s sustainable development.

Through wide motivation and four decades of continuous effort, China has turned forestation and greening into a voluntary activity involving the whole of society. Extending its man-made forests to a total area of 79.3 million ha nationwide, China has transformed deserts into oases, and carpeted the Loess Plateau with greenery. The country has the highest growth in forest resources and the largest area of man-made forests in the world. By the end of 2020, it had raised its forest coverage to 23 percent of its land mass and the vegetation coverage of its grasslands to 56.1 percent, and brought over 50 percent of its wetland areas under protection.

In addition, China has set up a system for eco-environmental protection zones, safeguarding its biodiversity with natural reserves at different levels and of various types now covering 18 percent of the country’s land mass. The people can experience more picturesque natural scenes with beautiful mountains, clear waters, green grass, colorful flowers, singing birds, and buzzing insects.

The effort to build national forest cities continues to intensify, turning “forests in cities” into a reality. A total of 468 cities have been part of the greening movement, and vigorous steps to this end have raised the green space to 38.2 percent of urban built-up areas, and the per capita urban park green space to 14.8 sq m. All of this heralds a Beautiful China where the people take care of and live in harmony with nature.

绿色发展方式和生活方式逐步形成。“绿水青山就是金山银山”理念日益深入人心,生态优先、绿色低碳逐渐成为普遍遵循的发展路径,节约资源和保护环境的空间格局、产业结构、生产方式、生活方式加快形成。经济结构和能源结构持续调整,国土空间开发格局不断优化,环保产业、清洁能源产业、清洁生产等绿色产业蓬勃发展,清洁低碳转型步伐加快,经济社会发展和生态环境保护协同共进。中国成为世界利用新能源第一大国和世界节能进步最快的国家,2020年单位国内生产总值能耗和碳排放分别比2015年下降13.2%、18.8%。从农村厕所革命到生活垃圾、生活污水治理,从大力推进生活垃圾分类、城市黑臭水体治理到城市公园、绿地、绿道建设,城乡人居环境更加整洁、舒适、美丽。以公交、地铁为主的城市公共交通日出行量超过2亿人次,骑行、步行等城市慢行系统建设稳步推进,绿色、低碳出行理念深入人心。从“光盘”行动、节水节纸、节电节能,到环保装修、拒绝过度包装、告别一次性用品,“节俭风”吹进千家万户,简约适度、绿色低碳、文明健康的生活方式成为社会新风尚。

China is embracing a green path to development and a green way of life. As the concept that lucid waters and lush mountains are invaluable assets gains more public support, the whole country has gradually shifted to a path of prioritizing eco-environmental conservation and pursuing green and low-carbon development. It is now moving faster towards an energy-conserving society, with a configuration of land use, an industrial structure, a production model, and a way of life that underpin resource conservation and environmental protection. The economic structure and the energy mix are undergoing constant adjustments, the use of territorial space is improving, eco-friendly sectors such as environmental protection, clean energy, and clean production are thriving, the transition to green and low-carbon development is accelerating, and economic and social development is advancing in parallel with eco-environmental protection.

China tops the world in terms of new energy use and progress in energy conservation. Between 2015 and 2020, its energy consumption per unit of GDP fell by 13.2 percent and carbon emissions dropped by 18.8 percent. Through a range of initiatives including the “toilet revolution” in villages, domestic waste disposal and sewage treatment, domestic waste sorting, treatment of black and foul water bodies in cities, and construction of urban parks, green spaces, and greenways, people in both urban and rural settings now live in a cleaner, more comfortable, and more beautiful environment.

Urban public vehicles, mainly buses and subways, carry over 200 million passengers every day. Roads and facilities friendly to cycling and walking are expanding in urban areas, and more people are favoring green and low-carbon modes of transport. In addition, tens of thousands of households are practicing thrift through actions such as saving food, water, paper, and energy, choosing eco-friendly materials for home decoration, and saying no to over-packaging and disposable products. The nation is turning towards a thrifty, green, low-carbon, and healthy lifestyle.

三、全面小康是全体人民的小康

III. Prosperity for All

中国的全面小康,是全体人民共同享有发展成果的小康。不让一个人掉队,不让一个区域落下,不让一个民族滞后,体现了实现人的全面发展和实现全体人民发展的有机统一,体现了实现共同富裕的社会主义本质要求。全面小康的阳光照亮960万平方公里广袤大地的每一个角落,14亿多人民、56个民族共同享有幸福美好的小康生活。

A moderately prosperous society in all respects is a society in which all people share the fruits of development, a society where no individual, region or ethnic group is left behind, and a society that promotes the well-rounded development of all. Each of these is essential for achieving common prosperity, a major goal of socialism. China has now succeeded in creating such a society, where the people from all 56 ethnic groups enjoy a happy and comfortable life in every corner of China’s vast land.

(一)不让一个人掉队

1. Prosperity for Every Individual

中国是世界上最大的发展中国家,基础差、底子薄,发展不平衡,长期饱受贫困问题困扰。没有贫困人口的脱贫,没有贫困地区的小康,就没有全面建成小康社会。党团结带领人民,以坚定不移、顽强不屈的意志,与贫困长期斗争。党的十八大以来,党把农村贫困人口全部脱贫、贫困地区全部摘帽、解决区域性整体贫困,作为全面建成小康社会、实现第一个百年奋斗目标的底线任务和标志性指标,领导人民坚决打赢新时代脱贫攻坚战,完成了消除绝对贫困的艰巨任务。

China is the largest developing country in the world. The country was long plagued by weak foundations, uneven development, and poverty. Unless every poor person and all poor areas could rise out of poverty, moderate prosperity in all respects would be impossible.

Led and united by the CPC, the Chinese people have fought a steadfast war against poverty. After its 18th National Congress in 2012, the CPC made the elimination of regional poverty and absolute poverty in rural areas its basic objective and the defining indicator for achieving the First Centenary Goal, and has secured a complete success.

贫困群众与全国人民一道迈进小康。实施精准扶贫方略,做到扶持对象、项目安排、资金使用、措施到户、因村派人、脱贫成效“六个精准”,实施发展生产、易地搬迁、生态补偿、发展教育、社会保障兜底“五个一批”。到2020年底,中国如期完成新时代脱贫攻坚目标任务,现行标准下9899万农村贫困人口全部脱贫,832个贫困县全部摘帽,12.8万个贫困村全部出列。少数民族和民族地区脱贫攻坚成效显著,到2020年底,内蒙古自治区、广西壮族自治区、西藏自治区、宁夏回族自治区、新疆维吾尔自治区和贵州、云南、青海三个多民族省份3121万贫困人口全部脱贫;28个人口较少民族全部实现整族脱贫,一些新中国成立后“一步跨千年”进入社会主义社会的“直过民族”,又实现了从贫穷落后到全面小康的第二次历史性跨越。农村建档立卡贫困人口的收入和福利水平大幅提高,“两不愁三保障”全面实现,教育、医疗、住房、安全饮水等条件明显改善,既满足了基本生存需要,也为后续发展奠定了基础(专栏8)。从2016年起,通过大力实施易地扶贫搬迁,960多万居住在“一方水土难养一方人”地方的建档立卡贫困人口告别穷山恶水之地,易地搬迁,实现了脱贫。脱贫攻坚唤醒了贫困群众对美好生活的追求,提振和重塑了自力更生、自强不息、勤劳致富、勤俭持家、创业干事、创优争先的精气神,增强了脱贫致富的信心和劲头。脱贫攻坚任务目标完成后,对脱贫地区、脱贫人口实施跟踪监测,设立一定过渡期保持帮扶政策总体稳定,定期检查、动态管理,早发现、早干预、早帮扶,提升脱贫地区自主发展能力,激活脱贫人口自我发展动力,确保稳定脱贫、防止返贫。

China adopted a targeted strategy to help poor people rise out of poverty and achieve moderate prosperity along with the rest of the country. Targeted efforts have been made in six areas:

• identifying the poor accurately;

• arranging targeted programs;

• utilizing capital efficiently;

• taking measures targeting individual households;

• dispatching officials based on conditions in individual villages;

• achieving the set goals.

Five measures for poverty eradication have also been taken:

• boosting the economy to provide more job opportunities;

• relocating poor people from inhospitable areas;

• compensating for economic disadvantage associated with reducing environmental damage;

• improving education in poor areas;

• providing subsistence allowances for those unable to escape from poverty through their own efforts.

By the end of 2020, all of the 99 million rural poor, and all of the 832 counties and 128,000 villages classified as poor under China’s current poverty line, had emerged from poverty.

The government has substantially reduced poverty in ethnic minority groups and areas. By the end of 2020, a total of 31.2 million people had been raised from poverty in the five autonomous regions of Inner Mongolia, Guangxi, Tibet, Ningxia and Xinjiang, and the three provinces of Guizhou, Yunnan and Qinghai, where many ethnic minorities live. All members of the 28 ethnic groups, with populations below 300,000, had risen out of poverty, and the ethnic groups which made the direct transition from a primitive to a socialist society in the early years of the PRC experienced another dramatic transformation – from absolute poverty to moderate prosperity.

The incomes and welfare of the registered poor in rural areas have improved substantially. Adequate food and clothing, and access to compulsory education, basic medical services and safe housing have been guaranteed for them. Improvements in education, health care, housing, and access to safe drinking water and other amenities have met their basic needs and also laid the foundations for their future development (Panel 8).

Since 2016, more than 9.6 million people registered as living below the poverty line have been lifted out of poverty through relocation from places that are inhospitable for them to make a decent living.

The battle against poverty has inspired people to strive for a better life and built up their confidence and determination. Those who have risen out of poverty are inspired to seek prosperity through hard work, self-reliance, thrift and entrepreneurship.

After eradicating absolute poverty, China has been conducting follow-up monitoring for those areas and people who have newly escaped poverty, and has set a grace period during which assistance and other supportive policies will continue. Through regular inspections and dynamic management, problems can be spotted as soon as they arise, and intervention and assistance can be carried out promptly. These areas have been equipped to generate their own capacity for development, and people recently emerging from poverty have been motivated to invest their own efforts, so that they will not fall back into poverty.

特殊困难群体生存发展权利有效保障。对特殊困难人员的生存和发展,采取特殊政策,加大帮扶力度,福利水平持续提高,生存权利充分保障,发展机会明显增多。坚持男女平等基本国策,将妇女作为重点扶贫对象,把缓解妇女贫困程度、减少贫困妇女数量放在优先位置,通过扶贫政策、资金、措施予以积极支持,帮助贫困妇女解决最困难最忧虑最急迫的问题,实现脱贫的近1亿人口中妇女约占一半,贫困妇女生存发展状况显著改善。实施《国家贫困地区儿童发展规划(2014-2020年)》。对儿童教育和健康实施全过程保障和干预,实施贫困地区儿童营养改善项目,为6-24月龄婴幼儿每天提供1包富含蛋白质、维生素和矿物质的辅食营养补充品,覆盖832个原国家级贫困县,累计有1120万儿童受益。组织各类志愿者与孤儿、农村留守儿童、困境儿童结对开展关爱帮扶,大幅提高孤儿保障水平,困境儿童关爱水平明显提高。适时提高城乡居民基本养老保险缴费和待遇水平,建立农村留守老年人关爱服务制度,加强失能贫困老年人关爱照护,贫困老年人生活和服务保障显著改善。700多万贫困残疾人如期脱贫,保障水平全面提升,特殊需求得到更好保障,贫困重度残疾人照护服务创新实践取得显著成效。

The rights of special groups to subsistence and development have been effectively guaranteed. Preferential policies have been adopted to reinforce support, improve their welfare, and increase their access to development opportunities.

The basic national policy of gender equality has been universally applied. Women have been a prioritized target group for poverty alleviation and reduction. China has adopted preferential policies, allocated funds, and implemented targeted measures to help poor women address their pressing problems. Women account for about half of the 99 million people who have emerged from poverty.

China has implemented the National Development Plan for Children in Poor Areas (2014-2020) to ensure the education and health of children in poor areas and make any necessary interventions. The Nutrition Improvement Program for Children in Poor Areas has been implemented. In 832 counties formerly classified as impoverished at national level, the government provides a free daily pack of dietary supplements rich in proteins, vitamins and minerals to every baby aged 6-24 months, benefiting a total of 11.2 million children. Volunteers have been organized to provide paired care and assistance to orphans, left-behind rural children, and other children in need. The government has strengthened the guarantees for the basic needs of orphans and improved care for all children in need.

China has promptly increased the premium of basic old-age insurance and pension for both urban and rural residents. A system of care and services for left-behind rural seniors has been established. Care for poor seniors who cannot carry out essential self-care has been strengthened. The government has ensured seniors’ basic living standards and their access to essential services.

China has guaranteed basic needs and services for people with disabilities, helping more than 7 million poor disabled people out of poverty. Their special needs are now better met, and significant progress has been made in providing better nursing services for poor people with severe disabilities.

(二)城乡融合发展

2. Integrated Urban-Rural Development

全面小康是城乡区域共同发展的小康。城乡统筹更加协调,以人为核心的新型城镇化深入推进,“三农”突出问题不断解决,城乡分割逐步打破,城乡联系显著加强,城乡发展差距不断缩小。在小康社会建设中,农村与城镇双轮驱动、相辅相成、齐头并进。

In a moderately prosperous society, urban-rural development is more balanced and people-oriented urbanization is advancing, while the salient problems of agriculture, rural areas and rural people are being addressed. The urban-rural divide is being narrowed, the development gap between urban and rural areas continues to shrink, and integration has increased. Like two wheels of a cart, urban and rural areas complement each other and advance side by side.

乡村走向繁荣发展。乡村振兴战略深入实施,农业全面升级、农村全面进步、农民全面发展的目标逐步实现。农业现代化加快推进,粮食和重要农产品供给保障能力进一步提升,粮食产量连续6年稳定在1.3万亿斤以上,果菜茶肉蛋鱼等产量稳居世界第一。农业综合生产能力稳步提升,农业科技进步贡献率超过60%,农作物耕种收综合机械化率达到71%。设立中国农民丰收节,中国农民有了自己的专属节日。以种植业为主的农业经济转变为农林牧副渔全面发展和一二三产业融合发展,农业农村多种功能不断拓展,特色生态产业、农村电商、乡村旅游、休闲农业、文化体验、健康养老等新产业、新业态加快发展,推动乡村产业走向全面振兴。农村基础设施建设持续加强,硬化路、动力电、4G网基本实现行政村全覆盖,农村物流水平稳步提升,快递基本实现“乡乡有网点”并加快“进村”步伐。越来越多的农村实现水源净化、道路硬化、夜晚亮化、能源清洁化、人居环境美化(专栏9)。农房和村庄建设现代化加快推进,厕所革命成效显著,乡村建设整体水平不断提升,许多曾经的偏僻穷困乡村,如今旧貌换新颜,村如公园、户有花园,成为农民宜居宜业的美丽家园。农村彻底扫除青壮年文盲,九年义务教育全面巩固、质量持续提高,人口素质显著增强。健康乡村建设全面推进,村卫生室标准化建设和健康管理水平进一步提升,农民健康水平和人均寿命大幅提高。从农家书屋、文化礼堂到健身广场,农民文化生活丰富多彩。农民的开放意识、创新意识、科技意识、法治意识、市场意识等现代观念显著增强,简朴节约、绿色环保、讲究卫生等科学、健康、文明的生活方式成为新追求,婚事新办、丧事简办、孝老爱亲、扶危济困、扶弱助残等社会风尚广泛弘扬,既有乡土气息又有现代时尚的新时代乡村文明新风正在形成。一个个山清水秀、文明和谐、宜居宜业、欣欣向荣的美丽村庄正渐次出现在中国大地上,农业强、农村美、农民富的目标不断实现。

Rural areas are becoming increasingly prosperous. With the implementation of the rural revitalization strategy, agriculture is being upgraded, rural areas are developing, and rural people are experiencing improvements in every aspect of life. Agricultural modernization is accelerating, and the supply of grain and other important agricultural products has been secured. China’s annual grain output has remained above 650 million tonnes for the last six years. Its output of fruits, vegetables, tea, meat, eggs and fish all rank top of the world. Its comprehensive agricultural production capacity has been steadily increasing, and the contribution of scientific and technological advances to agricultural production has surpassed 60 percent. The overall level of mechanization in tilling, sowing and harvesting has reached 71 percent. The Chinese Farmers’ Harvest Festival has been created so that farmers have their special day. The grain-dominated agricultural economy has been replaced with a more diverse rural economy featuring agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry and fisheries, and integrated development of primary, secondary and tertiary sectors. The roles of agriculture and rural areas continue to expand. Emerging industries and new business forms, such as eco-agriculture with distinct local characteristics, rural e-commerce, rural tourism, leisure agriculture, cultural experiences, and health care for seniors, are growing faster and bringing all-round development to the rural economy.    

Rural infrastructure has been strengthened. Almost all administrative villages have access to surfaced roads, three-phase electric power, and 4G cellular networks. Rural logistic services are steadily improving. Express delivery stations have been set up in every town and township; they are spreading quickly into villages. More and more villages have purified water sources, surfaced roads, street lighting, clean energy, and a beautiful environment (Panel 9). The modernization of rural houses and villages is continuing, and the “toilet revolution” has produced obvious results. Many remote and once-impoverished villages have been completely transformed. Graced with village parks and home gardens, they have become better places to live and work in.

Illiteracy among rural youth and the middle-aged has been eliminated. Nine-year compulsory education has been consolidated, with the quality improving steadily. Rural people are significantly better educated. The Healthy Villages program has been rolled out, and village clinics have become more standardized and their health management ability has improved. The health level and life expectancy of rural residents have significantly increased. Rural cultural activities have become more colorful, and villagers can enjoy the facilities in rural reading rooms, cultural halls and fitness spaces.

Rural people are more open-minded, and are increasingly familiar with modern concepts such as innovation, science and technology, law and the market. They now pursue scientific, healthy and civilized new ways of life which are simple, thrifty, eco-friendly, and hygienic. Good social practices, including modest weddings and funerals, practicing filial piety, and helping the needy, the weak and the disabled, have been promoted. A new society blending rural traditions with modern style is taking shape. More beautiful, harmonious, livable and flourishing villages across the country are benefiting from a cleaner environment. The goals to make agriculture strong, rural areas beautiful, and rural people prosperous are being realized.

城镇化水平持续提高。城镇化是现代化的必由之路,是实现全面小康的幸福之路。新中国成立前,中国大地上城镇寥若晨星、衰败破落;今天的中国,城镇繁星璀璨、繁华时尚。中国经历了世界近现代史上规模最大、速度最快的城镇化进程,从1949年至2020年,常住人口城镇化率由10.6%提高到63.9%,城市数量由132个增长到687个,建制镇数量由2000个增长到2.1万多个。现代化国际化的大都市、厚重雍容的历史古都、典雅精致的文化名城、类型迥异的特色小镇,星罗棋布,城城不同,风景各异。城镇化的加快推进,形成了面积庞大、人口众多、联系紧密的城市群,成为经济发展和现代化建设的重要载体,提升了城市运行效率和居民生活质量。中国基本形成以城市群为主体、都市圈为依托,大中小城市和小城镇协调发展的城镇体系。

Urbanization is increasing. Urbanization is the only route to modernization and moderate prosperity. Before the founding of the PRC, cities and towns, usually declining and rundown, were few and far between. Today, they are spread across the country, bustling with life and modern amenities.

China has gone through the broadest and fastest urbanization process in the history of the modern world. From 1949 to 2020, the percentage of permanent urban residents in the overall population rose from 10.6 percent to 63.9 percent, and the number of cities grew from 132 to 687, while the number of administrative towns soared from 2,000 to more than 21,000. Widely distributed, these cities and towns are of various sizes, each with its own characteristics. They include modern and internationalized metropolises, grandiose ancient capital cities, glamorous cultural destinations, and towns with unique features. As urbanization accelerates, tightly-knit city clusters have formed, each covering a large area and inhabited by a large population. They are becoming powerhouses driving economic development, modernization, and the improvement of urban operational efficiency and their residents’ living standards.

A multi-tiered modern urban system has taken shape, composed of city clusters, metropolitan areas, cities of all sizes, and towns, all developing in tandem.

以人为核心的新型城镇化加快推进。宜居、创新、智慧、绿色、人文、韧性城市建设有序推进,城市成为人民高品质生活的空间。水、电、路、气、信息网络等基础设施发达,城市运行更加安全,居民基本生活需求得到充分保障。就业机会更多元、更公平,教育资源更优质、更均衡,医疗体系更完善、更先进,购物、出行更智能、更便捷,越来越多的人进入城市,城市居民生活水平不断提升。图书馆、博物馆、美术馆、展览馆、体育馆、文化馆、影剧院量质齐升,全民阅读活动、城市公共文化空间、公共文化数字化网络化智能化加快发展,城市基本公共文化服务更普惠、更优质、更精准,人们多姿多彩、更高层次的追求不断得到满足。白天的城市车水马龙,夜晚的城市流光溢彩,夜市、夜间演出、深夜书店、灯光秀、24小时便利店越来越多,夜生活、夜经济、夜文化悄然兴起,人们充分享受高品质的“八小时以外”生活。城市人居环境明显改善,望得见山、看得见水、记得住乡愁的美好愿景正在生动展现出来。城市规划建设突出以人为本,更考虑人的因素、更强调人性化设计,生产空间、生活空间、生态空间更加清晰合理。保护历史遗存、留住城市记忆、延续城市文脉正在成为城市建设的新常态,城市历史文化底蕴更加深厚。成渝双城经济圈高效率推进,成为带动全国高质量发展的重要增长极和新的动力源。雄安新区建设全面提速,一座承载着“千年大计、国之大事”的未来之城、一个社会主义现代化城市的样板和标杆正在迅速崛起。

People-oriented new urbanization is accelerating. As places where people can enjoy high-quality life, Chinese cities are becoming more livable, innovative, smarter, greener, more people-centered and resilient. With advanced water, electricity, gas, road, internet and other infrastructure, cities are safer and better able to ensure that residents’ basic living needs are met (Panel 10). Employment is more diverse and opportunities are more equitable, education resources are better and more balanced, the medical care system is more mature and advanced, and shopping and traveling are easier and smarter. Many more people are settling in cities and the living standards of urban residents continue to improve.

Libraries, museums, art galleries, exhibition halls, gymnasiums and stadiums, culture centers, cinemas and theaters have grown in numbers and quality. Public reading activities, urban public cultural spaces, and the application of digital, internet and smart technologies in public cultural services and products have all developed at a faster pace. Basic public cultural services in cities have become more accessible, better in quality and more customized. People’s diverse and higher-level needs are satisfied. During the day, cities are abuzz with activities, while at night they glitter with color. Night markets, night performances, late-night bookstores, light shows, and round-the-clock convenience stores have mushroomed, fueling night life, night culture, and the night economy, so that people can enjoy quality after-work life.

The urban environment is improving. Urban dwellers’ dreams of living in places with mountains and waters reminiscent of their pastoral roots have come true. Urban planning is more people-oriented. Working, living and environmental spaces are divided more clearly and more rationally. City planning attaches greater importance to the preservation of historical sites and cultural traditions. The Chengdu-Chongqing economic circle is taking shape and growing fast, becoming an important engine driving the country’s high-quality development. The construction of the Xiong’an New Area has picked up speed, and it is emerging as a future city vital to the country’s long-term development and an icon of socialist modernization.

新型工农城乡关系加快形成。城市的发展,辐射和带动了乡村的发展;乡村的振兴,支持和促进了城市的发展。城乡劳动力、资本、技术、数据等要素流动更加畅通,城市落户限制逐步消除,促进城市人才、资本、科技入乡政策建立健全,农村农业发展潜力进一步释放。户籍制度改革不断深化,城乡统一的户口登记制度全面建立,农业转移人口城镇化进程不断加速。2016年至2020年,约1亿左右农业转移人口在城镇落户。居住证制度全面实行,义务教育、医疗卫生、技能培训、社会保障等基本公共服务加快覆盖城镇常住人口。农村居民在城乡之间发展空间越来越大,可以安稳留乡,有地种、有房住;可以踏实进城,能就业、有收入;可以返乡创业,有平台、有政策。城乡居民收入差距进一步缩小,城乡居民人均可支配收入比值自2008年以来连续13年平稳下降,2020年为2.56∶1。城乡基础设施建设向着联通化、一体化的方向加快迈进,交通运输更加便捷顺畅,畅通了工业品下乡、农产品进城双向流通渠道,有效促进了农民增收。县城短板弱项加快补齐,越来越多的农民选择到县城安家置业。农家乐、生态游、乡村民宿蓬勃发展,越来越多的城市居民到乡村休闲度假,越来越多的进城务工人员返乡创业,为乡村振兴提供了新动能。今天的中国城镇,为农业农村发展提供人才、资金、科技支撑,不断满足农村居民日益增长的消费需求,为进入城镇的农村居民提供越来越多的就业机会和越来越完善的基本公共服务。今天的中国乡村,不仅是城市的“米袋子”“菜篮子”,让城市居民吃得更好、更健康,而且为城市发展输送更多建设者、提供庞大消费市场,吸引着越来越多的城市居民到乡村就业创业。工农互促、城乡互补、协调发展、共同繁荣的新型工农城乡关系正在加快形成。

A new urban-rural relationship is taking shape. Urban development has boosted rural development, and vice versa. The flow and transfer of factors of production between urban and rural areas, including labor, capital, technology and data, has become smoother. Cities have gradually lifted restrictions on household registration, while policies to promote the flow of talent, capital and technology from urban to rural areas have been formulated or improved. The development potential of rural areas and agriculture is being unleashed. Reform is under way to establish a uniform urban-rural household registration system. It is becoming easier for people moving from rural to urban areas to gain permanent urban residency. From 2016 to 2020, about 100 million people were granted permanent urban residency. A residence permit system has been implemented, under which permanent urban residents are increasingly covered by basic public services such as compulsory education, medical and health services, skills training, and social security.

Rural residents have more options in both urban and rural areas. They can either stay in the rural areas where they have fields to till and homes to live in; or go to cities where they can find work and enjoy other benefits. Later they can return to their hometowns to start their own businesses assisted by favorable policies.

The income gap between urban and rural residents has been further narrowed. The urban-rural disposable income ratio has declined steadily for 13 years since 2008, to 2.56:1 in 2020. Urban and rural infrastructure has become better connected and integrated, and transport between urban and rural areas is smoother and more convenient. Unimpeded delivery of manufactured goods into rural areas and agricultural products into cities has effectively boosted rural incomes.

Measures have been taken to make up for deficiencies in county seats, as more and more rural residents choose to become urbanites in nearby county towns. Flourishing agritainment, eco-tourism, and village home stays are attracting many more urban residents to spend holidays in rural areas, while a growing number of migrant workers have returned to their hometowns to start businesses, injecting new momentum into rural revitalization.

Nowadays, cities and towns boost rural and agricultural development with talent, capital and technology, meet the mounting rural consumer demand, and provide rural migrants with more job opportunities and better basic public services. The rural areas supply better and healthier produce to urban residents, provide a big consumer market and labor supply for urban development, and attract a larger number of urban residents to work and start businesses there. A new type of urban-rural relationship is taking shape, featuring mutual benefit, common prosperity, and coordinated and integrated development.

(三)区域协调发展

3. Coordinated Development Across Regions

中国幅员辽阔、人口众多,各地区自然资源禀赋差别大、发展不平衡。经过长期努力,统筹区域发展取得重大进展,东部地区率先发展,西部大开发、东北振兴、促进中部地区崛起等区域发展战略相继实施,京津冀协同发展、长江经济带发展、粤港澳大湾区建设、长三角区域一体化发展、黄河流域生态保护和高质量发展等区域发展重大战略高质量推进,主体功能区战略和制度逐步完善,形成了国土空间布局更加优化,东西南北中纵横联动,主体功能明显、优势互补的区域协调发展新格局。

China has a vast territory and a large population, and its natural resources vary greatly from region to region, resulting in developmental imbalances. Following decades of hard work, substantial progress has been made in coordinating the development of different regions. Major initiatives have been implemented to support the pioneering role of the eastern region, develop the western region, revitalize the northeast, and spur the rise of the central region. In addition, new regional strategies – to coordinate development in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region, develop the Yangtze River Economic Belt, build the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area, integrate development in the Yangtze River Delta, and strengthen eco-environmental conservation and high-quality development in the Yellow River Basin – have achieved substantial success. The strategic and institutional framework for functional zoning has improved.

These initiatives and strategies have resulted in a better configuration of China’s territorial space, with clearly defined functions for each area, and reinforcing connectivity and complementarity between the regions.

区域发展重大战略高质量推进,区域协调发展呈现新格局。京津冀协同发展迈出坚实步伐,从塔吊林立、热火朝天的雄安新区建设现场到水城共融、蓝绿交织、文化传承的北京城市副中心,从“轨道上的京津冀”到生态联防联控联治、产业升级转移,从协同发展体制机制日趋完善到基本公共服务均等化水平持续提高,北京非首都功能疏解有序推进,空间布局和经济结构优化提升,京畿大地涌动着活力与生机。长江经济带坚持生态优先、绿色发展的战略定位和共抓大保护、不搞大开发的战略导向,把修复长江生态环境摆在压倒性位置,推动经济社会发展全面绿色转型,力度之大、规模之广、影响之深前所未有,生态环境保护发生转折性变化,经济社会发展取得历史性成就。粤港澳大湾区建设持续推进,硬联通、软联通不断加强,与国际接轨的开放型经济新体制加速构建,三地合作更加深入广泛,大湾区综合实力显著增强。长三角区域一体化进程加快,政策协同、产业合作、设施共建、服务共享、分工合理的一体化格局逐渐成形,全国发展强劲活跃增长极、全国高质量发展样本区率先基本实现,现代化引领区、区域一体化发展示范区、新时代改革开放新高地正在形成。黄河流域生态保护和高质量发展扎实起步,生态系统修复加速,新旧动能转换成效显著,黄河流域重要生态屏障作用进一步发挥,黄河流域特色鲜明的高质量发展区域布局正在形成。

The new regional strategies have yielded concrete results in coordinated regional development. China has taken solid steps to coordinate development in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region. To this end, it has carried out the following initiatives:

• developing the Xiong’an New Area in Hebei and the Beijing Municipal Administrative Center in eastern suburban Beijing;

• building an integrated rail network in the region;

• integrating the prevention, control and treatment of pollution;

• facilitating industrial upgrading and relocation;

• optimizing the regional mechanism for coordinating development;

• providing equal access to basic public services.

Orderly progress has been achieved in relieving Beijing of functions that are not essential to its role as the national capital. Spatial and economic configuration has been improved to make the region more dynamic.

In developing the Yangtze River Economic Belt, China has prioritized eco-environmental conservation and green development, and stepped up joint efforts to prevent overdevelopment. It has applied measures of unprecedented intensity, scale and impact to restore ecosystems and make economic and social development more eco-friendly in the Yangtze River Basin. As a result, the region’s eco-environment has improved considerably, as has its economic and social development.

China has made steady progress in developing the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area, and in expanding infrastructure and policy connectivity between the three locations. The composite strength of the area has been reinforced through expanding regional cooperation and building an open economy aligned with international standards.

The integration process in the Yangtze River Delta involves policy coordination, industrial cooperation, co-development of infrastructure, a rational division of functions, and shared access to public services. The region has developed into a dynamic growth pole in China and a national pacesetter in high-quality development, integrated regional development, modernization, reform and opening up in the new era.

The Yellow River Basin has made solid initial progress in eco-environmental conservation and high-quality development through restoring ecosystems and transforming growth drivers. The region is reinforcing its role as a major ecological shield and forming a distinctive economic configuration that taps into local strengths.

东中西和东北“四大板块”优势互补、齐头并进,陆海统筹力度加大。西部地区基础设施和生态环境建设取得重大进展,积极承接东部产业转移,优势区域重点发展、生态功能区重点保护的新格局正在形成。2020年,西部地区生产总值占全国的比重较1999年提高3.1个百分点。东北地区加快建设现代化经济体系,不断推进资源枯竭型城市转型,优质农业、装备制造业发展壮大,寒地冰雪、生态旅游等特色产业蓬勃发展,老工业基地焕发新的生机,营商环境不断改善。中部地区经济总量占全国的比重进一步提升,粮食生产基地、能源原材料基地、现代装备制造及高科技产业基地和综合交通运输枢纽地位更加巩固,新型城镇化、新型工业化主战场的作用进一步发挥,国家现代化经济增长新动能区域的功能进一步凸显。东部地区继续发挥改革开放先行先试、综合创新能力强、现代制造领先、服务业高端的优势,科技创新投入持续加大,产业转型升级和新旧动能转换加快推进,战略性新兴产业快速发展,在建设自由贸易试验区、全面创新改革试验区等方面成效显著,经济社会现代化水平进一步提升,国际竞争力进一步增强。海洋经济综合实力不断提升,发展布局持续优化,海洋科技自主创新取得新突破,海洋生态环境保护进一步加强,海上开放合作不断拓展,为推进建设海洋强国奠定了坚实基础。

The eastern, central, western and northeastern regions of the country are developing in tandem, and land and marine development is better coordinated. The western region has significantly improved its infrastructure and eco-environment. It actively takes over industries relocated from the eastern region. Priority has been given to areas with comparative strengths and to the protection of eco-environmental functional zones. In 2020, the share of China’s GDP contributed by the western region was 3.1 percentage points higher than in 1999.

Northeast China has moved faster to modernize its economy and transform resource-exhausted cities. The region has expanded high-quality agriculture and equipment manufacturing, and boosted ice and snow tourism and eco-tourism. It has brought new vitality to old industrial bases, and improved the business environment.

The central region has seen a further increase in its contribution to the national economy. It has consolidated its status as a base for grain production, energy resources, modern equipment manufacturing, and high-tech industries, and also as a comprehensive national transport hub. The region is playing a greater role in new urbanization and industrialization, and fostering new drivers of growth for China’s economic modernization.

The eastern region has continued its role as a testing ground for reform and opening up, and maintained its strengths in innovation, modern manufacturing, and high-end services. It has increased investment in scientific and technological innovation, expedited the transformation and upgrading of industries and growth drivers, and accelerated the growth of strategic emerging industries. It has made remarkable progress in building pilot free trade zones and pilot reform zones for all-round innovation, modernizing its economy and society, and strengthening its international competitiveness.

China’s marine economy continues to strengthen through better planning. New breakthroughs have been made in indigenous innovation in marine science and technology. The marine eco-environment is better protected. Opening up and cooperation in marine development is expanding. All this has laid a solid foundation for developing China’s marine economy.

四、全面小康是奋斗出来的小康

IV. Prosperity Through Hard Work

中国的全面小康,是中国人民依靠自己的辛劳和智慧,拼搏奋斗出来的。新中国成立时,面对的是一个积贫积弱、满目疮痍的烂摊子。中国共产党团结带领人民,白手起家、自力更生、艰苦奋斗,干出了一片新天地,实现了千百年来梦寐以求的小康。小康美好生活,是人民创造的;小康壮丽史诗,是人民书写的。

China has achieved moderate prosperity in all respects through the consistent hard work and wisdom of the Chinese people. When the PRC was founded, it was a war-torn country mired in poverty. The CPC has united and led the Chinese people in rebuilding the country from scratch through self-reliance and hard work, achieving the moderate prosperity to which they have aspired for thousands of years, and creating a better and moderately prosperous life.

(一)始终以人民为中心

1. Always Putting the People First

小康大业,富民为本。中国共产党干革命、搞建设、抓改革,都是为了让人民过上幸福生活。在小康社会建设进程中,党坚守初心使命,为了人民奋斗,依靠人民奋斗,团结人民共同奋斗,不断把小康事业推向前进。

Working to benefit the people is fundamental to moderate prosperity. Everything the CPC has done in revolution, reconstruction and reform is designed to ensure a good life for all. The CPC has stayed true to its original aspiration and founding mission, and pressed forward for moderate prosperity for the people, by the people, and with the people.

恪守全心全意为人民服务的根本宗旨。中国共产党是为人民奋斗的政党,始终把人民放在第一位,坚持尊重社会发展规律和尊重人民历史主体地位的一致性,坚持为崇高理想奋斗和为最广大人民谋利益的一致性,坚持完成党的各项工作和实现人民利益的一致性,不断把为人民造福事业推向前进。党来自人民、植根人民,最懂人民疾苦,最懂人民期盼,最懂人民向往。从“为人民服务”,到“把人民拥护不拥护、赞成不赞成、高兴不高兴、答应不答应作为制定方针政策和作出决断的出发点和归宿”“代表最广大人民的根本利益”“实现好、维护好、发展好最广大人民的根本利益”,再到“人民对美好生活的向往,就是我们的奋斗目标”,党践行全心全意为人民服务的根本宗旨,一以贯之,坚定不移,努力建成人民满意、高质量的小康社会。

The CPC has remained committed to its fundamental purpose of serving the people wholeheartedly. It is dedicated to the people and always puts their interests first. It follows the underlying trends of social development and respects the people’s principal role in making history. It pursues the lofty goal of working for the wellbeing of the Chinese people, and does everything in the interests of the people.

The CPC is rooted in the people. It is thoroughly aware of their needs, concerns and expectations. From its very beginning, the CPC has striven to serve the people and won their support and endorsement. It represents the fundamental interests of all the Chinese, and everything it does is to realize, safeguard, and advance their interests. Meeting the people’s expectation for a better life is its goal. Holding fast to its fundamental purpose, the CPC aims for high standards in building a moderately prosperous society that satisfies the needs of the people.

把人民对美好生活的向往作为奋斗目标。党把最广大人民根本利益作为作决策、定政策的最高标准,在小康社会建设的不同历史时期,都是从人民利益出发,想人民之所想、急人民之所急、解人民之所困。党把发展作为执政兴国的第一要务,坚持发展就是硬道理,不断解放和发展生产力,不断提高发展质量和水平,不断促进人的全面发展和全体人民共同富裕。进入新时代,人民对美好生活的向往更加强烈,党以人民忧乐为忧乐,以人民甘苦为甘苦,团结带领人民决胜全面小康,推出一系列开创性举措,人民享有更多实实在在的发展成果,小康社会建设不断取得实质性进展。

The CPC regards the people’s expectation for a better life as its goal. It makes decisions and adopts policies in the fundamental interests of the people. At different stages of building a moderately prosperous society, the CPC has always acted to advance the people’s interests, kept in mind their needs, shared their concerns, and resolved their difficulties.

The CPC has taken sound development as its top priority in governance. It has unleashed and developed the productive forces, and pursued well-rounded human development and common prosperity. Into the new era, as the people’s desire for a better life grows stronger, the CPC, with the people’s wellbeing at the forefront of its mind, has launched a full range of initiatives, enabling the people to fully share the country’s development gains and make continuous progress towards all-round moderate prosperity.

依靠人民创造小康伟业。小康是人民的小康,全面建成小康社会离不开全体人民的共同参与、共同建设、共同努力。党始终坚持人民主体地位,最广泛地发动和组织人民为着自己的利益而拼搏,为实现小康而奋斗,战胜一个又一个困难,取得一个又一个胜利。党充分尊重人民所表达的意愿、所创造的经验、所拥有的权利、所发挥的作用,激励号召人民自力更生、艰苦奋斗,激发人民创造伟力,凝聚人民智慧力量。党在不同历史时期,不断巩固和发展最广泛的统一战线,团结一切可以团结的力量,调动一切可以调动的积极因素,为全面建成小康社会汇聚各方力量。在小康社会建设伟大进程中,亿万中华儿女同心同德、同舟共济,把热血、汗水洒在中国大地上,为创造美好生活牺牲奋斗,书写了彪炳史册的人间奇迹。

The CPC has relied on the people to build a moderately prosperous society. Moderate prosperity is for the people and by the people, and the participation and endeavor of all the people is indispensable to its success. The CPC ensures the principal status of the people, and mobilizes them to strive for their interests and moderate prosperity, surmounting one obstacle after another and making great strides forward.

The CPC respects the wishes the people express, the experience they accumulate, the rights they have, and the role they play. It motivates the people to be self-reliant and hardworking, inspires their creativity, and pools their wisdom and strength. It has consolidated and developed the broadest possible united front, united all the forces that can be united, and mobilized all positive factors to work as one in building a moderately prosperous society in all respects. The Chinese people have dedicated themselves to the great journey towards moderate prosperity and a better life. Their epic deeds will go down in history.

(二)制定正确路线和战略策略

2. Developing Sound Policies and Strategies

小康社会建设,事关人民切身利益,事关中华民族伟大复兴战略全局,政策和策略至关重要。在不同历史时期,党科学分析面临形势,准确把握内外条件,紧密结合实际,科学制定目标和任务、政策和路径,使小康社会建设在正确路线指引下向前推进。

Building China into a moderately prosperous society in all respects bears on the vital interests of the people and the overall strategy of national rejuvenation. To succeed in this goal, the right policies and strategies are essential. At different historical stages, the CPC has devised such policies based on an accurate analysis of the domestic and international landscape, and set forth practical goals, tasks and roadmaps according to China’s conditions. This has provided a sound base for the task of building a moderately prosperous society in all respects to press ahead.

加强战略谋划和顶层设计。党统筹全面小康的奋斗目标、发展动力、实现路径、机遇挑战、内外条件等关键因素,坚持系统观念,坚持前瞻性思考、全局性谋划、战略性布局、整体性推进。改革开放后,党根据中国人口基数大、国情复杂、发展不平衡的实际,正确处理和把握沿海与内地、东部与西部、先富与后富的关系,允许一部分地区、一部分人先富起来,然后带动所有地区、所有人共同富裕,走出一条“先富带后富、沿海带内地”的路子,推动人民生活质量和社会共享水平显著提升。进入新时代,党科学判断中国发展所处的历史方位,准确把握决胜全面小康特征,作出统筹推进“五位一体”总体布局、协调推进“四个全面”战略布局的决策部署,以全面建成小康社会为战略目标,以全面深化改革、全面依法治国、全面从严治党为战略举措,以打赢脱贫攻坚战为底线任务,深化供给侧结构性改革,推进高水平对外开放,加快构建新发展格局,推动高质量发展,团结带领人民取得全面建成小康社会胜利。党顺应世界发展大势,把握和平与发展时代主题,坚持独立自主的和平外交政策,团结带领人民坚定不移走和平发展道路,积极推动构建人类命运共同体,既争取和平的国际环境发展自己,又以自身的发展维护世界和平、促进共同发展,为全面建成小康社会创造了有利外部环境。

The CPC has strengthened strategic planning and policy design. Keeping in mind key factors involved, such as objectives, driving forces, pathways, opportunities, challenges, and internal and external conditions, the CPC has pressed ahead in a holistic manner by adopting forward thinking, planning the big picture, organizing its strategies and implementing them as a whole.

After the reform and opening-up initiative was introduced in the late 1970s, confronted by the challenges of a large population, complex national conditions, and imbalances in development, the CPC addressed the relationships between the coastal areas and interior provinces, between the eastern and western regions, and between partial and common prosperity, encouraging some regions and some people to create wealth as a first step to prosperity for all. This approach has resulted in remarkable improvements in people’s living standards and in the level of shared development across society.

In the new era, based on a sound understanding of the current situation in China and an accurate assessment that China is in the final stages of achieving moderate prosperity in all respects, the CPC has rolled out the Five-sphere Integrated Plan and implemented the Four-pronged Comprehensive Strategy. Achieving a moderately prosperous society in all respects became the strategic goal; underpinned by deeper reform, the rule of law, and stricter Party self-governance as the supporting measures; and ending absolute poverty as the key task. It has furthered supply-side structural reform, promoted high-standard opening up, expedited the formation of a new economic dynamic, improved development quality, and finally achieved the great goal with the support and efforts of all the people.

The CPC has kept pace with global trends. Based on its belief that peace and development are the themes of our times, it has maintained an independent foreign policy of peace, and followed the path of peaceful development. It has actively contributed to building a global community of shared future, and has always been firm in its commitment to foster a peaceful international environment for China’s development, which in turn promotes world peace and common development. These elements combined create a favorable external environment for building a moderately prosperous society in all respects.

制定和实现阶段性目标。为了实现小康目标,党采取渐进策略,提出一个时期内可以实现的目标和任务,一步一步推进,积小胜为大胜。上世纪60年代,党提出在20世纪内实现“四个现代化”的奋斗目标和“两步走”的设想。改革开放初期,党提出到20世纪末人民生活达到小康水平的目标。上世纪80年代中期,党制定“三步走”发展战略;90年代中期,制定新的“三步走”发展战略。进入新世纪,党提出在21世纪头20年,全面建设惠及十几亿人口的更高水平的小康社会。进入新时代,党提出到建党100年时全面建成小康社会。为了实现阶段性目标,以五年为一个周期,制定和实施国民经济和社会发展计划(规划),使小康社会建设能够分阶段、稳定连贯地持续推进,以此推动发展、实现发展。党领导人民,锚定全面小康目标,一步一个脚印,久久为功,持续用力,使全面小康目标一步步成为现实。

The CPC has formulated time-phased objectives. To meet the goal of moderate prosperity, the CPC has adopted progressive tactics, defining time-phased goals and tasks and achieving its successes in a series of steps.

• In the 1960s, the CPC set the goal of achieving the Four Modernizations – industry, agriculture, national defense, and science and technology – by the end of the 20th century, and devised a two-stage development plan  to this end.

• In the early stages of reform and opening up, the CPC set the goal of delivering a xiaokang life for the people by the end of the 20th century.

• In the mid-1980s, the CPC formulated a three-step strategic plan for modernization.

• In the mid-1990s, it proposed a new three-step strategic plan for economic development and social progress.

• Entering the new century, the CPC proposed to build a moderately prosperous society of a higher standard to the benefit of the whole population in the first two decades.

• In the new era, the CPC set the goal of achieving a moderately prosperous society in all respects by 2021, when the Party would celebrate its centenary.

In order to achieve the phased goals, five-year plans for national economic and social development have been formulated and implemented, guaranteeing continuity and consistency in policymaking. With this approach, and after decades of pragmatic and sustained efforts, China has realized the goal of building a moderately prosperous society in all respects.

不断总结经验、探索规律。在小康社会建设进程中,党领导人民边探索边实践,注重总结经验,对为什么建设小康、建设什么样的小康、怎样建成小康的认识不断深化。从“贫穷不是社会主义,发展太慢也不是社会主义”,到“实现共同富裕是社会主义的本质要求”,再到“不断推进人的全面发展、实现全体人民共同富裕”,党对社会主义本质的认识不断深化,对小康社会建设的目的不断清晰。从富强民主,到富强民主文明和谐,再到富强民主文明和谐美丽,党对社会主义现代化建设目标的认识不断拓展,对小康社会建设内涵的把握更加全面。从“经济增长方式”到“经济发展方式”,从全面、协调、可持续的发展观到创新、协调、绿色、开放、共享的新发展理念,从高速增长到高质量发展,党对全面建成小康方式路径的认识不断深化。在长期实践中,党注重研究规律、把握规律、遵循规律、运用规律,在经济、政治、文化、社会、生态文明建设等方面探索形成一系列行之有效的路子,提升了小康社会建设的成效。

The CPC has reviewed experience and summarized its findings. The CPC continuously expands its understanding of such questions as what constitutes a moderately prosperous society, and how we can achieve it. Through the resulting judgments – that neither poverty nor slow development is socialism, that achieving common prosperity is an essential requirement of socialism, and that the Party will promote well-rounded human development and common prosperity – it has gained a deeper understanding of the essence of socialism, and achieved a clearer picture of the goal of a moderately prosperous society. Meanwhile, its understanding of the attributes of a socialist society has expanded from “prosperous, strong and democratic”, to also include “culturally advanced, and harmonious”, and then “beautiful”, providing a more comprehensive grasp of what is necessary to create a moderately prosperous society. It has shifted its focus from economic growth to economic development, from comprehensive, coordinated and sustainable development to innovative, coordinated, green, open and shared development, and from high-speed growth to high-quality development.

Over the years, the CPC has attached great importance to understanding and applying the basic principles of development, and has worked out a series of economic, political, cultural, social, and eco-environmental measures, which have led to greater progress in building a moderately prosperous society.

在解决矛盾问题、化解风险挑战中推动发展。党始终坚持问题导向,不断发现问题、善于解决问题,每解决一个问题,就把小康社会建设向前推进一步。从人民日益增长的物质文化需要同落后的社会生产之间的矛盾,到人民日益增长的美好生活需要和不平衡不充分的发展之间的矛盾,党科学分析、准确把握不同历史时期中国社会的主要矛盾,有针对性地制定政策措施,不断解决发展中的突出矛盾和问题。面对国内和国际的、传统和非传统的、人类社会和自然界的、可预测和不可预测的多种复杂严峻的风险挑战,党领导人民迎接挑战、从容应对,敢于斗争、敢于胜利,保持了发展的连续性和稳定性。党的十八大以来,党紧紧扭住关系人民群众切身利益的突出矛盾和问题,着力破除阻碍束缚实现公平正义、实现共同富裕的桎梏和顽疾,不断补齐全面建成小康社会的短板和弱项,从防止资本无序扩张到让人民群众在每一个司法案件中感受到公平正义,从坚持“房子是用来住的、不是用来炒的”到实施“双减”解决教育领域突出问题,从推动高质量发展到统筹发展与安全,一系列开创性举措,不仅确保了全面建成小康社会如期实现,也为长远发展奠定了坚实基础。

The CPC has expedited development by resolving problems and defusing risks. The CPC employs a problem-oriented approach – steadily moving China towards its goal of moderate prosperity by identifying and addressing problems one after another. The principal challenge facing the country at first was the gap between the low level of production and the growing material and cultural needs of the people; it is now the gap between unbalanced and inadequate development and the growing expectation of the people for a better life. To tackle these challenges, the CPC has formulated targeted policies and measures based on an accurate analysis of the nature of the principal problems at different stages of development.

Facing multiple conventional and unconventional risks and challenges, either predictable or unforeseen, from both within China and abroad, and from both human society and nature, the CPC has done what is required to ensure continuous and consistent development.

Since its 18th National Congress, the CPC has addressed itself to solving the problems that concern the people most and affect their vital interests. Special attention is being directed to removing obstacles hampering fairness, justice, and common prosperity.

The CPC has also worked to address shortcomings in achieving all-round moderate prosperity. A series of pioneering measures have been rolled out, such as preventing the disorderly expansion of capital, and ensuring fairness and justice in every judicial case. Determined that housing is for living in, not for speculation, the CPC has taken clear steps to keep the housing market under control. To ease the pressure on students, a “double reduction” policy has been implemented to reduce homework and after-school tutoring.

All these measures – focusing on high-quality growth and coordinating development and security – have guaranteed that the goal of building a moderately prosperous society in all respects has been realized on schedule, and laid a solid foundation for China’s longer-term development.

(三)在改革开放中推进发展

3. Development Through Reform and Opening Up

改革开放是全面建成小康社会的必由之路,是决定当代中国命运的关键一招,也是决定实现“两个一百年”奋斗目标、实现中华民族伟大复兴的关键一招。党领导人民顺应历史潮流、把握历史机遇,准确识变、科学应变、主动求变,不断深化改革、坚持扩大开放,实现了当代人类社会最伟大的经济和社会转型。

Reform and opening up is essential for achieving moderate prosperity in all respects. It was a critical move in raising China to its current level, and will be a key step in realizing the Two Centenary Goals and national rejuvenation. Together, the CPC and the Chinese people have seized historic opportunities and properly managed enormous change. By staying committed to deeper reform and broader opening to the world, China has realized the greatest economic and social transformation in contemporary history.

改革为全面小康注入动力、释放活力。面对小康社会建设进程中出现的新情况新问题,党领导人民解放思想、实事求是,与时俱进、改革创新,不断破除阻碍发展的矛盾和束缚。从家庭联产承包责任制到兴办经济特区,从单一公有制到公有制为主体、多种所有制经济共同发展和坚持“两个毫不动摇”,从传统的计划经济体制到社会主义市场经济体制再到使市场在资源配置中起决定性作用、更好发挥政府作用,从以经济体制改革为主到全面深化经济、政治、文化、社会、生态文明体制改革和党的建设制度改革,改革开放成为当代中国最显著的特征、最壮丽的气象。党的十八大以来,面对改革进入攻坚期和深水区,党领导人民以巨大政治勇气推进全面深化改革,革除制约和束缚发展的深层次弊端,推出2400多项改革举措,在重要领域和关键环节取得决定性成果,改革呈现全面发力、多点突破、蹄疾步稳、纵深推进局面,若干领域实现了历史性变革、系统性重塑、整体性重构。在推进改革实践中,党领导人民既大胆试、大胆闯,又实事求是、善作善成,坚持“摸着石头过河”和顶层设计相结合,坚持问题导向和目标导向相统一,坚持试点先行和全面推进相促进,实现了改革、发展、稳定的有机统一,使小康社会建设积极向前推进。

Reform has created momentum for achieving moderate prosperity in all respects. Faced with new situations and problems, the CPC has succeeded in leading the Chinese people to free their minds, seek truth from facts, and advance with the times through reform and innovation, so as to remove the barriers that hinder development. The household contract responsibility system was introduced in rural areas, and special economic zones were set up. Shifting from a model of pure public ownership to a model where public ownership plays the dominant role while economic entities operate under diverse forms of ownership, China consolidated and developed the public sector of the economy, and encouraged, supported, and guided the non-public sector. The economic system has been reformed, evolving from a planned economy to a socialist market economy, so that the market can play a decisive role in resource allocation, while the government can better perform its roles. The focus has shifted from economic structural reform to comprehensive reform of the economic, political, cultural, social and eco-environmental systems, as well as strengthening governance of the Party.

Since the 18th National Congress of the CPC, China’s reform has entered uncharted waters and faced new challenges. The CPC has shown great political courage, enacting more than 2,400 measures to remove deep-rooted obstacles, and promoting further reform in all respects in a swift yet steady manner. Breakthroughs and decisive results have been achieved in key areas. Some fields have even experienced a total and systemic restructuring. Through exploration by trial and error and top-level design, China stays focused on solving problems and achieving goals, and expands all-round reform on the back of successful pilot programs. Through this approach, the Party has been able to advance reform and development while maintaining stability, ensuring that building moderate prosperity in all respects has continued in an active manner.

小康社会建设在中国与世界联系互动中推进。中国是世界的中国,中国的发展离不开世界。党领导人民坚定不移走开放道路,打开国门搞建设,拥抱世界、学习世界、融入世界,大规模“请进来”,大踏步“走出去”,以开放促改革、促发展、促创新,实现了从封闭半封闭到全方位开放的历史性转变。进入新时代,党领导人民实施更大范围、更宽领域、更深层次的全面开放,从推动高质量共建“一带一路”到打造中国国际进口博览会等一系列重要平台,从设立自由贸易试验区到不断优化营商环境,中国对外开放的大门越开越大。越来越多的外国企业来中国投资兴业,越来越多的外国人士来中国学习工作、观光旅游,越来越多的中国企业到国外投资,越来越多的中国人赴国外留学、工作、旅游。对外开放为中国带来了资金、先进技术和管理经验,转变了中国人民的思想观念,激发了中国人民的创造热情,显著提升了中国的现代化建设水平。中国在发展自己的同时贡献世界、造福世界,中国的开放发展,为其他国家提供了广阔市场;中国开展对外投资合作,促进了当地经济增长和就业;中国积极参与国际分工,推动全球资源配置更加合理;中国出口产品品质优良,满足了国际市场需求;中国人足迹遍布全球,促进了中外交流互鉴。

Building a moderately prosperous society in all respects has progressed in parallel with China’s interaction with the rest of the world. In the process, China has kept its doors wide open. China cannot develop in isolation from the rest of the world. The Chinese people have embraced the world with open arms, learned from the world, and integrated with the rest of the world. China has engaged in “welcoming in” and “going global” on a large scale. By making opening up a catalyst for reform, development and innovation, China has achieved a great transition from seclusion and semi-seclusion to comprehensive openness. In the new era, China is furthering its opening up on a larger scale, in more fields, and to a deeper level. It has opened its doors wider to the world through a series of measures, including high-quality cooperation under the Belt and Road Initiative, key platforms such as the China International Import Expo, pilot free trade zones, and optimizing the business environment. More foreign companies invest in China and start businesses here, with ever more of foreigners coming to China to study, work and travel. At the same time, more Chinese companies are investing abroad, and the number of Chinese people going abroad to study, work and travel is also on the increase.

Opening up has brought China capital, advanced technology, and management expertise. It has changed the mindset of the Chinese people, stimulated their creative enthusiasm, and contributed to the country’s modernization. China’s development has also brought benefits to the world: its opening up has created vast business possibilities for other countries; its outbound investment and cooperation has promoted local growth and employment; its active participation in the international division of labor has contributed to a more rational allocation of global resources; and its exports have satisfied the needs of the international market with their high quality. The Chinese people have made their mark, promoting exchanges and mutual learning all around the world.

(四)几代人苦干实干、接续奋斗

4. Perseverance over Generations

中国的全面小康是辛辛苦苦干出来的。对于中国这样一个有着14亿多人口的大国,好日子等不来、要不来,唯有奋斗,别无他路。中国共产党领导人民,锚定目标、顽强拼搏,驰而不息、接续奋斗,付出难以想象的辛劳和汗水,铺展开一幅山河锦绣、国泰民安的时代画卷,走上了全面建成小康、迈向共同富裕的康庄大道。

A moderately prosperous society in all respects has been achieved in China through much hard work by many people. In a country with 1.4 billion people, a better life can only materialize through hard work rather than waiting and wanting. Under the leadership of the CPC, the Chinese people have focused on their goals and persevered with their efforts. They have transformed China into a beautiful country where people can enjoy peace and stability. They have achieved moderate prosperity and embarked on the road to common prosperity.

坚持独立自主,坚定不移走自己的路。在中国这样一个人口众多和发展落后的大国,建设全面惠及十几亿人口的更高水平的小康社会,道路问题是最根本的问题。在长期探索实践中,党领导人民把马克思主义基本原理同中国具体实际相结合、同中华优秀传统文化相结合,坚持独立自主,坚持中国的事情按照中国的特点、中国的实际来办,走出一条中国特色社会主义道路。这条道路,既以经济建设为中心,又全面推进经济、政治、文化、社会、生态文明以及其他各方面建设;既坚持四项基本原则,又坚持改革开放;既不断解放和发展生产力,又促进人的全面发展、逐步实现全体人民共同富裕。在科技领域,党领导人民自立自强,坚持独立自主的科技创新,依靠中国人自己的力量,实现了科技实力的跨越式提升。党领导人民始终坚持自力更生为主的方针,把发展的主动权牢牢掌握在自己手中,在几十年时间里走完发达国家几百年的现代化历程,创造了世所罕见的经济快速发展奇迹和社会长期稳定奇迹。

China has adhered to an independent and self-reliant path. To build a moderately prosperous society to the benefit of the whole population in a large developing country, it is essential to choose the right path. Through long-term experimentation and practice, the Chinese people have adapted the basic tenets of Marxism to China’s realities and its traditional culture. In choosing a path with Chinese characteristics, they have always respected the principles of independence and self-reliance, managing China’s affairs in accordance with the country’s actual conditions.

By following this path, they have made progress in economic, political, cultural, social, eco-environmental and other respects while keeping economic development as the central task. They have furthered reform and opening up while upholding the Four Cardinal Principles . They have promoted well-rounded human development and worked to achieve common prosperity, and continued to unleash and develop the productive forces. In the field of science and technology, the CPC has maintained its policy of self-reliance. Through endogenous innovations and its own strengths, China has seen science and technology advance in leaps and bounds.

In just a few decades, it has gone through a process of modernization that took developed countries centuries to complete, and has maintained rapid economic growth and lasting social stability, an achievement remarkable by all standards.

亿万人民不懈奋斗,把小康的美好愿景变成现实。中国人民勤劳勇敢,吃苦耐劳。新中国成立后,面对满目疮痍、一穷二白的烂摊子,从城市到农村,从工业农业战线到科技战线,中国人民在物质技术极其匮乏的条件下,发扬革命加拼命的优良传统和一不怕苦二不怕死的革命精神,吃大苦、耐大劳,自力更生、艰苦创业,用双手和双肩战天斗地,用鲜血和汗水改天换地,新中国从废墟上迅速站起。改革开放新时期,中国人民以“杀出一条血路”的胆魄和勇气,敢闯敢试、敢为人先,在中国大地上掀起前所未有的改革热潮,用自己的辛劳和汗水一砖一瓦建造起中国现代化的高楼大厦。进入新时代,中国人民弘扬伟大创造精神、伟大奋斗精神、伟大团结精神、伟大梦想精神,撸起袖子加油干,一张蓝图绘到底,攻克一个个难关,战胜一个个困难,创造了让世界刮目相看的奇迹。在全面建成小康社会的伟大征程中,每个人都拼搏奋斗、追梦圆梦,努力成为最好的自己,把平凡做成了不起,在发展自己的同时奉献社会、贡献国家。全面建成小康社会的伟大成就,是中国人民用自己的双手创造的,是一代又一代中国人民接力奋斗创造的。

China has achieved moderate prosperity through the joint efforts of its hardworking people. The Chinese people are inured to hardships. In the early years of the PRC, they carried forward the revolutionary traditions of fearing neither hardship nor death and worked hard to rebuild a war-torn country from scratch. They brought tremendous changes to China in every field, from rural to urban areas and from agriculture and industry to science and technology. Thanks to their efforts, a new China soon rose from the ruins.

After the launch of reform and opening up, the Chinese people were bold in breaking new ground, and every successful step in modernization was gained through their resolute efforts.

In the new era they have carried forward the spirit of innovation, hard work and unity in pursuit of their shared dreams, and overcome challenges one after another, amazing the world with their successes. Their perseverance has made it possible for China to turn its blueprint for development into reality.

Moderate prosperity in China has been achieved through the unremitting efforts of generations. In this process, every individual has chased their dreams, striven to make the best of themselves, and made their own contribution to the country.

海外侨胞积极支持、热情参与小康社会建设。广大海外侨胞不忘祖籍、心系祖国,为小康社会建设,为中华民族发展壮大作出了重要贡献。国家的强盛、民族的复兴,极大增强了海外侨胞的民族自豪感和向心力。海内外中华儿女,共享小康美好,同享民族荣光。

Overseas Chinese have actively participated in building China into a moderately prosperous society. With the motherland and their “ancestor’s” homeland in their hearts, Chinese living abroad have made a huge contribution to China’s success. China’s growing prosperity and national rejuvenation have given a great boost to their pride in the nation and their sense of identity. All the Chinese people at home and abroad now share the happiness that prosperity has brought.

中国共产党的领导是中国全面建成小康社会的根本保证。在不同历史时期,党洞察时代大势,科学分析形势,把握发展规律,作出正确决策,确保了小康社会建设不断推进。党充分发挥总揽全局、协调各方的作用,充分发挥中国特色社会主义制度优势,把亿万人民团结和凝聚起来,汇聚起小康社会建设的磅礴力量。一代又一代中国共产党人,弘扬伟大建党精神,顽强拼搏、不懈奋斗,为实现全面小康付出巨大牺牲。没有中国共产党的领导,就没有全面建成小康。中国共产党是中国人民过上好日子的领路人,党和人民同心同德、苦干实干,中国人民的日子越过越好。

CPC leadership has provided the fundamental guarantee for realizing moderate prosperity. At different historical stages, the Party has accurately assessed the underlying trends of the times, analyzed the situation, and grasped the process of development. It has made the right decisions and ensured continuous progress towards its goal.

The Party exercises overall leadership, coordinates the efforts of all, and exploits the institutional strengths of Chinese socialism. It has united the Chinese people and rallied a mighty force for building a moderately prosperous society.

Generations of Chinese Communists have upheld the Party’s founding spirit, fought hard and prevailed. Numerous individuals have made enormous sacrifices for the realization of all-round moderate prosperity.

Without CPC leadership, there would be no moderate prosperity. The Party shares the people’s aspirations, works hard together with them, and acts as their guide. Under the leadership of the CPC, the Chinese people can look forward to a better and happier life.

五、中国全面小康的世界意义

V. The World Benefits from China’s Prosperity

世界好,中国才能更好;中国好,世界才会更好。中国始终把自身发展置于人类发展的坐标系中,始终把中国人民利益同各国人民共同利益结合起来,始终做世界和平的建设者、全球发展的贡献者、国际秩序的维护者、公共产品的提供者。中国全面建成小康社会,为构建人类命运共同体贡献了中国智慧和中国力量。

China cannot develop in isolation from the rest of the world, nor can the world achieve prosperity without China. The country always considers its own growth in the context of the common development of all humanity and binds the interests of its people to the common interests of all peoples across the world. It will continue its efforts to safeguard world peace, contribute to global prosperity, uphold the international order, and provide public goods to the whole world. Building a moderately prosperous society in all respects is China’s contribution to building a global community of shared future.

作为全球人口最多的国家和世界上最大的发展中国家,中国全面建成小康社会,让国家更富强、人民更幸福、社会更稳定,本身就是对世界和平与发展的巨大贡献。1979年至2020年,中国国内生产总值年均增长9.2%,远高于同期世界经济增长2.7%左右的水平,增长速度和持续时间在世界范围内名列前茅,成为世界经济增长的重要引擎。自2006年起,中国连续15年成为世界经济增长的最大贡献国,对世界经济增长的平均贡献率超过30%。2008年,全球遭遇严重金融危机,世界经济受到重创,中国采取一系列有效措施成功应对危机,经济迅速回升向好,并持续保持中高速增长,成为世界经济增长的主要稳定器和动力源。新冠肺炎疫情发生后,中国率先控制疫情,率先实现复工复产,率先实现经济增长由负转正,再次成为拉动全球贸易和经济复苏的重要引擎。中国科技创新为其他国家人民生产生活带来更多便利,为世界经济增长提供了新动能。中国用占全球9%的耕地养活了占世界近20%的人口,而且满足了高质量、多样化的农产品消费需求。中国大力加强生态环境治理,是世界生态文明建设的重要力量,近20年来,中国新增植被覆盖面积约占全球新增总量的25%,中国贡献占比居全球首位,成为全球增加森林资源最多的国家。中国积极推进绿色低碳发展,承诺力争2030年前实现碳达峰、2060年前实现碳中和,意味着中国将完成全球最大碳排放强度降幅,用全球历史上最短的时间实现从碳达峰到碳中和。新中国成立以来,中国持续保持社会大局稳定,这既是中国人民的福祉,也是中国为世界和平稳定作出的贡献。

Achieving moderate prosperity in all respects has made China more prosperous, the people happier, and society more stable. This is how China – the world’s most populous and largest developing country – is contributing to world peace and development in its own right.

From 1979 to 2020, China’s compound annual GDP growth was 9.2 percent, much higher than the world average of 2.7 percent. Leading the world in both scale and extent, China has been the largest contributor since 2006, making an average annual contribution of more than 30 percent of world economic growth. In 2008, when the world economy was struck by the global financial crisis, China took effective measures in response, and quickly restored its economic growth back to a relatively high rate. It became a major stabilizer and driver of the global economy.

After the outbreak of Covid-19, it was the first country to contain the virus, reopen its economy, and achieve economic expansion, and again it led the recovery of international trade and economic activity.

China’s innovative achievements in science and technology have brought greater convenience to work and daily life around the world, and injected further impetus into the global economy.

China succeeds in feeding almost 20 percent of world population and satisfying their diverse demands for high-quality agricultural products with only 9 percent of the planet’s arable land.

It is making great efforts to strengthen eco-environmental governance and has become a major force in global eco-environmental progress. One fourth of the world’s new vegetation areas over the past two decades have been added by China, by far the largest share of any individual country. It is the country with the greatest expanse of new forest resources.

China takes active steps to advance green and low-carbon development, and has pledged to peak carbon emissions before 2030 and reach carbon neutrality by 2060. No other country will have achieved so much in such a short time. When these targets are met, China will have achieved the world’s largest ever decrease in carbon emission intensity.

China has maintained long-term overall social stability since the founding of the PRC in 1949. While benefitting the Chinese people, it also contributes to world peace and stability.

中国全面建成小康社会,显著缩小了世界贫困人口版图。摆脱贫困是困扰全球发展和治理的突出难题。中国立足本国国情,把握减贫规律,以坚定不移、顽强不屈的信念和意志与贫困作斗争,通过自身发展为人类反贫困作出贡献。改革开放以来,按照现行贫困标准计算,中国7.7亿农村贫困人口摆脱贫困;按照世界银行标准,中国减贫人口占同期全球减贫人口70%以上,提前10年实现《联合国2030年可持续发展议程》减贫目标。中国全面建成小康社会,占世界近20%人口的14亿多中国人民踏上全面建设社会主义现代化国家新征程,这是人类历史上前所未有的大变革、大事件。在近年来世界贫困人口不降反增、全球减贫事业遭遇瓶颈的背景下,中国减贫取得的成就,为全球减贫事业作出重要贡献、注入信心和力量。

In achieving a moderately prosperous society, China has helped to dramatically reduce the world’s poverty-stricken population. Poverty elimination is an enormous challenge in global governance and development. Through a realistic assessment of its own prevailing conditions and a profound understanding of the fundamental causes of the problem, China has fought against poverty with an unswerving faith and dauntless will, leading to a massive reduction in the number of the world’s poor. Since China launched reform and opening up, 770 million rural Chinese have crossed China’s current poverty line and moved out of poverty. According to the World Bank’s poverty line, poverty reduction in China represents 70 percent of the global total, achieving the target set by the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development 10 years ahead of schedule. This transformation is unprecedented in human history. In recent years, global poverty reduction had been regressing, with more and more people falling under the poverty line. Against this backdrop, China’s historic success in poverty reduction has boosted the confidence and strength of other peoples who are fighting to eliminate poverty.

Now that a moderately prosperous society in all respects has been realized, the Chinese people are embarking on a new journey towards socialist modernization.

中国全方位对外开放促进合作共赢。中国开放的大门不会关闭,只会越开越大。面对逆全球化思潮,中国坚定不移奉行互利共赢的开放战略,坚持发展更高层次的开放型经济,推动形成全面开放新格局,为各国提供更多市场机遇、投资机遇、增长机遇。自由贸易试验区不断扩容、海南自由贸易港建设加快推动,不断打造对外开放新高地。中国持续优化营商环境,为外国投资者提供更广阔的空间、更优质的营商环境,在全球190个经济体中,中国营商环境排名由2012年的第91位跃升至2020年的第31位。中国实行高水平的贸易和投资自由化便利化政策,制定外商投资法,全面实施准入前国民待遇加负面清单管理制度,持续放宽市场准入。2020年,中国实际使用外商直接投资金额10342.8亿元人民币,规模再创历史新高。中国是50多个国家和地区的最大贸易伙伴、120多个国家和地区的前三大贸易伙伴,在国际大循环中的地位日益突出。中国经济持续健康发展,消费结构持续优化,消费需求不断升级,超大规模消费市场优势十分明显。今天,“中国制造”和“中国服务”共同发展,“世界工厂”和“世界市场”互促共进,中国为世界各国企业提供更广阔的市场、更宝贵的合作契机和更大的发展空间。

China’s all-round opening up promotes win-win cooperation. China will not close its doors in the face of spreading opposition to globalization; it will only open them wider. It will remain committed to its mutually beneficial opening-up policy and build an even more open economy, so as to provide other countries with more opportunities in markets, investment and growth. China is increasing the number of pilot free trade zones and accelerating work on the Hainan Free Trade Port.

It is steadily improving its business environment and providing foreign investors with larger markets. In 2020, China took 31st place among 190 economies in the World Bank’s ease of doing business ranking, rising from 91st place in 2012. China has formulated high-standard policies to facilitate free trade and investment. It enacted the Foreign Investment Law, implemented pre-establishment national treatment, and expanded market access by reducing the number of items on the negative list. It received a new high of more than RMB1 trillion of FDI in 2020.

China is playing a more significant role in the dynamics of the international economy. It is the largest trading partner of more than 50 countries and regions, and one of the top three partners of over 120 in total. China’s consistent and healthy economic growth has optimized its consumption structure and moved its consumer demand up market. With a supersized consumer market, its potential is increasingly apparent. Today, China’s manufacturing and service industries are developing in parallel, and China’s roles as “factory of the world” and as “market for the world” are mutually reinforcing. China is offering bigger markets, better cooperation opportunities, and greater development space to businesses from all over the world.

中国全面建成小康社会,为人类走向现代化探索了新路径。当今世界,仍面临着严重的发展困境。中国共产党立足中国国情,把握经济社会发展规律,在中国大地上探寻适合自己的道路和方法,全面建成小康社会,走出了一条中国式现代化新道路,创造了人类文明新形态。这个现代化是人口规模巨大的现代化,是全体人民共同富裕的现代化,是物质文明和精神文明相协调的现代化,是人与自然和谐共生的现代化,是走和平发展道路的现代化。中国全面建成小康社会,为世界上那些既希望加快发展又希望保持自身独立性的国家和民族提供了全新选择,为各国发展提供了机遇。未来之中国,将以更加开放包容的姿态拥抱世界,同世界形成更加良性的互动,为推动构建人类命运共同体、建设更加美好的世界作出新的更大贡献。

In achieving a moderately prosperous society, China has gained new experience of modernization for humanity. The global path to development is a rocky one. By building a moderately prosperous society in all respects, the CPC has opened a new and distinctive path to modernization suited to China’s actual conditions, and created a new model for human progress. China’s modernization – featuring common prosperity, balanced material and cultural progress, harmonious coexistence between humans and nature, and peaceful development – will be shared by a huge population.

China’s experience offers a new option for those countries and peoples who are looking for both rapid growth and independence, and its success provides them with considerable opportunities for development. In the future, China will continue to embrace and interact with the rest of the world, adopt a more open and inclusive mindset, and contribute even more to building a global community of shared future and a better world.

结束语

Conclusion

全面建成小康社会,实现了中国现代化建设的阶段性目标,中华民族伟大复兴迈出了关键一步。站在新的历史起点上,中国共产党团结带领中国人民,意气风发地踏上了全面建设社会主义现代化国家、实现中华民族伟大复兴的新征程。

China’s realization of moderate prosperity in all respects represents the fulfillment of an intermediate target on the way to modernization and national rejuvenation. Invigorated, the CPC and the Chinese people, have embarked on the new journey forward.

中国全面建成了小康社会,但发展不平衡不充分问题仍然突出。重点领域关键环节改革任务仍然艰巨,创新能力不适应高质量发展要求,农业基础还不稳固,城乡区域发展和收入分配差距较大,生态环保任重道远,民生保障存在短板,社会治理还有弱项。中国共产党将团结带领人民继续奋斗,付出更加艰巨、更加艰苦的努力,不断把为人民造福事业推向前进。

China still faces tough challenges in spite of this achievement. Unbalanced and inadequate development still poses a stern challenge. Reform tasks in key areas are incomplete; the capacity for innovation is insufficient to underpin high-quality development; the foundations for agricultural development need further consolidation; income disparities and the gap in development between urban and rural areas and between regions remain a severe problem; eco-environmental protection requires more effort; and weak links still exist in safeguarding people’s welfare and in social governance. The CPC will continue its endeavors to work for the benefit of the people.

当今世界正经历百年未有之大变局,新一轮科技革命和产业变革深入发展,国际力量对比深刻调整,和平与发展仍是时代主题。百年变局与世纪疫情交织叠加,经济全球化遭遇逆流,全球深层次矛盾突出,不稳定性不确定性增加,维护世界和平、促进共同发展面临更多挑战。

The world today is experiencing a level of change unseen in a century. A new technological and industrial revolution is building momentum. While peace and development remain the common aspiration of the majority, the international balance of power is undergoing fundamental shifts. Now, these radical changes are mingling with the impact of an exceptional pandemic, and opposition to economic globalization is growing. Deep-rooted conflicts are surfacing around the world, bringing greater instability and uncertainty. It is becoming more difficult to safeguard world peace and promote common development.

经过长期奋斗,中国发展取得巨大成就,积累了坚实基础,完全有能力、有信心、有底气实现第二个百年奋斗目标,创造让世界刮目相看的新的更大奇迹。面向未来,中国将把握新发展阶段、贯彻新发展理念、构建新发展格局,深入推进中国式现代化,在实现高质量发展中推动人的全面发展、全体人民共同富裕不断取得实质性进展。

Through perseverance, China has achieved tremendous progress, laying solid foundations for future development. The nation is brimming with confidence that it has the capabilities and resources to realize the Second Centenary Goal, and make more impressive progress. With its gaze turned towards the future, China will acquire a better understanding of the new development stage, act on the new development philosophy, create a new economic dynamic, and propel its unique modernization forward. On these foundations, it will make substantial progress in well-rounded human development and common prosperity.

到2035年,中国将基本实现社会主义现代化。到那时,中国经济实力、科技实力、综合国力将大幅跃升,经济总量和城乡居民人均收入将再迈上新的大台阶,关键核心技术实现重大突破,进入创新型国家前列;基本实现新型工业化、信息化、城镇化、农业现代化,建成现代化经济体系;基本实现国家治理体系和治理能力现代化,人民平等参与、平等发展权利得到充分保障,基本建成法治国家、法治政府、法治社会;建成文化强国、教育强国、人才强国、体育强国、健康中国,国民素质和社会文明程度达到新高度,国家文化软实力显著增强;广泛形成绿色生产生活方式,碳排放达峰后稳中有降,生态环境根本好转,美丽中国建设目标基本实现;形成对外开放新格局,参与国际经济合作和竞争新优势明显增强;人均国内生产总值达到中等发达国家水平,中等收入群体显著扩大,基本公共服务实现均等化,城乡区域发展差距和居民生活水平差距显著缩小;平安中国建设达到更高水平,基本实现国防和军队现代化;人民生活更加美好,人的全面发展、全体人民共同富裕取得更为明显的实质性进展。

By 2035, China will achieve basic socialist modernization:

• Its economic, scientific and technological capabilities, as well as its composite national strength, will increase substantially. It will significantly increase its economic aggregate and the per capita income of urban and rural residents. Major breakthroughs in core technologies in key areas will give China global leadership in innovation, and there will also be new industrialization, wider IT application, urbanization, agricultural modernization, and a modern economic system.

• The national governance system and capacity will be modernized, and the rights of the people to participate in managing public affairs and to develop as equals will be adequately protected. As the rule of law will have been established throughout the country, both the government and individual citizens will act within the realm of the law.

• China will be a leader in culture, education, human resources, sports, and health. Well-rounded individual development, dignity and civility will be features of the new society. China’s cultural soft power will be much stronger.

• Eco-friendly work and lifestyles will permeate all areas of society. Carbon emissions will peak and steadily decline, and there will be a fundamental improvement in the eco-environment after the goal of building a Beautiful China is met.

• Opening up will reach a new stage with substantial growth in the country’s ability to participate in international economic cooperation and competition.

• Per capita GDP will reach the level of moderately developed countries, and the middle-income group in China will expand significantly in size. Equitable access to basic public services will be ensured. Disparities in development between urban and rural areas and between regions, and in individual living standards will be significantly reduced.

• The Peaceful China initiative will be pursued at a higher level. The modernization of national defense and the military will be achieved.

• The people will lead a better and happier life, and visible and substantial progress will be made in the pursuit of well-rounded human development and common prosperity.

到21世纪中叶,中国将建成富强民主文明和谐美丽的社会主义现代化强国。到那时,中国物质文明、政治文明、精神文明、社会文明、生态文明将全面提升,实现国家治理体系和治理能力现代化,成为综合国力和国际影响力领先的国家,全体人民共同富裕基本实现,中国人民将享有更加幸福安康的生活,中华民族将以更加昂扬的姿态屹立于世界民族之林。

By the middle of the 21st century, China will become a modern socialist country that is prosperous, strong, democratic, culturally advanced, harmonious, and beautiful. By that time, the following goals will have been met:

• New heights will be reached in every dimension of material, political, cultural, ethical, social, and eco-environmental progress.

• China’s system and capacity for governance will be fully modernized.

• China will be a global leader in terms of composite national strength and international influence.

• Common prosperity will be realized.

• The Chinese people will enjoy a happier, safer, and healthier life.

• The Chinese nation will be a proud and active member of the international community.

实现共同富裕,让全体人民享有现代化生活,不是一件轻轻松松的事情。中国共产党将始终坚持以人民为中心的发展思想,着力解决发展不平衡不充分问题和人民急难愁盼问题,坚决破除实现共同富裕、实现公平正义的阻碍和束缚,脚踏实地,久久为功,团结带领人民朝着共同富裕目标扎实迈进。

It will not be an easy task to achieve common prosperity and enable everyone in China to enjoy a modern way of life. The CPC will uphold the principle of people-centered development, address unbalanced and inadequate development, and tackle all the tough issues affecting people’s immediate interests. With pragmatic and steady efforts, the CPC is determined to remove all the obstacles on its way to promoting equity and justice and realizing common prosperity.

前路不会平坦,前景光明辽阔。有中国共产党的坚强领导,有全国人民的紧密团结,有海内外中华儿女的同心奋斗,中国一定能够全面建成社会主义现代化强国,中国人民一定能够过上更加幸福美好的生活,中华民族一定能够为人类社会发展进步作出新的更大贡献。

The way forward will not be smooth, but the prospects are bright and broad. With the firm leadership of the CPC, and the united efforts of all Chinese people both at home and abroad, China will certainly build itself into a strong modern socialist country, the Chinese people will certainly achieve a better and happier life, and the Chinese nation will certainly make a greater contribution to the progress of human society.


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