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双语&同传:国新办举行《中国的生物多样性保护》白皮书新闻发布会

国新办 2021-10-08 36次

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国务院新闻办新闻局局长、新闻发言人陈文俊:

Chen Wenjun:

女士们、先生们,上午好。欢迎出席国务院新闻办新闻发布会。今天,国务院新闻办公室发布《中国的生物多样性保护》白皮书,同时举行新闻发布会,介绍和解读白皮书的主要内容。

Ladies and gentlemen, good morning. Welcome to this press conference being held by the State Council Information Office (SCIO). The SCIO is holding this press conference today to issue, introduce and interpret a new white paper titled "Biodiversity Conservation in China."

这是中国政府发布的第一部生物多样性保护白皮书。白皮书以习近平生态文明思想为指导,介绍中国生物多样性保护的政策理念、重要举措和进展成效,介绍中国践行多边主义、深化全球生物多样性合作的倡议行动和世界贡献。

This is the first white paper on biodiversity conservation issued by the Chinese government. Under the guidance of Xi Jinping Thought on Ecological Civilization, the white paper introduces the policy ideas, important measures and progress of biodiversity conservation in China, as well as China's initiatives in practicing multilateralism and deepening global biodiversity cooperation, and its contributions to the world.

这部白皮书全文约1.4万字,由前言、正文和结束语三部分组成。其中,正文包括四个部分,分别是:秉持人与自然和谐共生理念、提高生物多样性保护成效、提升生物多样性治理能力、深化全球生物多样性保护合作。这部白皮书以中、英、法、俄、德、西、阿、日等8个语种发表,由人民出版社、外文出版社分别出版,在全国新华书店发行。

At about 14,000 Chinese characters, the white paper consists of three parts: preface, main body and conclusion. Among them, the main body includes four parts: Harmony Between Humanity and Nature, Increasing the Efficiency of Biodiversity Conservation, Improving Biodiversity Governance, and Further Global Cooperation on Biodiversity Conservation. The paper is published in eight languages: Chinese, English, French, Russian, German, Spanish, Arabic and Japanese. These versions have been published by the People's Publishing House and Foreign Languages Press respectively, and will be distributed in Xinhua bookstores across the country.

为了帮助大家准确、深入了解白皮书内容,我们今天邀请到:生态环境部副部长赵英民先生,自然资源部总工程师、新闻发言人张占海先生,国家林业和草原局副局长李春良先生出席发布会,介绍有关情况,并回答各位关心的问题。

In order to help everyone accurately and deeply understand the content of the white paper, we have invited Mr. Zhao Yingmin, vice minister of ecology and environment; Mr. Zhang Zhanhai, chief engineer and spokesperson of the Ministry of Natural Resources; and Mr. Li Chunliang, deputy administrator of the National Forestry and Grassland Administration, to attend today's press conference. They will introduce relevant information and answer your questions.

现在,先请生态环境部副部长赵英民先生介绍情况。

Now, I will give the floor to Mr. Zhao Yingmin, vice minister of ecology and environment.

生态环境部副部长赵英民:

Zhao Yingmin:

谢谢主持人。女士们,先生们,新闻界的朋友们,大家上午好!很高兴有机会向大家介绍刚刚发布的《中国的生物多样性保护》白皮书相关情况。借此机会,真诚感谢新闻界的媒体朋友长期以来对中国生物多样性保护工作的关心和支持!

Thank you. Ladies and gentlemen, friends from the media, good morning. I am very glad to have the opportunity to introduce to you the newly released white paper "Biodiversity Conservation in China." I would like to take this opportunity to sincerely thank you, friends from the media, for your long-term care and support for China's biodiversity conservation work.

生物多样性为人类提供了丰富多样的生产生活必需品、健康安全的生态环境和独特别致的自然景观文化等,是人类赖以生存和发展的重要基础,关系人类的福祉。国际生物多样性日有一年的主题就是“生物多样性是生命,生物多样性是我们的生命”。这句话非常形象地说明了我们和生物多样性之间的关系,说明了保护生物多样性的重要意义。

Biodiversity provides humanity with rich and diverse production and life necessities, a healthy and safe ecological environment, and unique natural landscape culture. It is a significant foundation for the survival and development of mankind, and is related to the well-being of mankind. We once had a slogan for the International Year of Biodiversity: "Biodiversity is life. Biodiversity is our life." This sentence vividly illustrates the relationship between us and biodiversity, and the importance of conserving biodiversity.

随着人口增长和人类经济活动的扩张,全球生物多样性正面临严重威胁。2019年5月联合国公布的全球评估报告指出,人类活动已经改变了75%的陆地环境,66%的海洋环境受到影响,全球四分之一的物种正遭受灭绝的威胁。2020年9月18日,《生物多样性公约》秘书处发布了第五版《全球生物多样性展望》(GBO-5),报告指出,尽管在多个领域生物多样性保护取得积极进展,但自然界仍遭受着沉重打击,全球生物多样性情况仍日益恶化。

With population growth and expansion of human economic activities, global biodiversity is facing serious threats. According to a global assessment report released by the United Nations in May 2019, human activities have altered 75% of terrestrial environment and 66% of marine environment, and a quarter of the world's species are at threat of extinction. On Sept. 18, 2020, the Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity launched the fifth edition of the Global Biodiversity Outlook (GBO-5). The report stated that despite the progress in many areas of biodiversity conservation, nature is still suffering heavy blows, and the global biodiversity situation is still deteriorating.

中国幅员辽阔,陆海兼备,地貌和气候复杂多样,孕育了丰富而又独特的生态系统、物种和遗传多样性,是世界上生物多样性最丰富的国家之一,中国的传统文化积淀了丰富的保护和利用生物多样性智慧。作为最早签署和批准《生物多样性公约》的缔约方之一,中国一贯高度重视生物多样性保护,不断推进生物多样性保护与时俱进,创新发展,取得显著成效,走出了一条中国特色生物多样性保护之路。《中国的生物多样性保护》白皮书全面总结了我国在习近平生态文明思想指引下,以建设美丽中国为目标,积极适应新形势新要求,不断加强和创新生物多样性保护举措。从四个方面系统阐述了努力促进人与自然、人与人、人与社会和谐共生、良性循环、全面发展、持续繁荣的中国生物多样性保护理念、行动和成效。

China has a vast territory, in terms of both land and seas. Its geomorphology and climate are complex and diverse, nurturing a rich and unique ecosystem, and species and genetic diversity. It is one of the most biodiverse countries in the world. China's traditional culture has accumulated abundant wisdom in the protection and utilization of biodiversity. As one of the first parties to sign and ratify the Convention on Biological Diversity, China has always attached great importance to biodiversity conservation, and continuously promoted the conservation of biodiversity with creative and up-to-date measures. It has achieved remarkable progress on a distinctively Chinese path of biodiversity conservation. The white paper "Biodiversity Conservation in China" comprehensively summarizes that, under the guidance of Xi Jinping Thought on Ecological Civilization and with the goal of building a Beautiful China, the country actively adapts to the new situation and new requirements, and has been continuously improving the measures for biodiversity conservation and making innovative ways in this regard. It systematically expounds, from four aspects, on the ideas, actions and effects of China's biodiversity conservation that aims to promote harmonious coexistence between humanity and nature, between individuals, and between individuals and society, and create a virtuous circle for all-round development and sustained prosperity for all.

联合国《生物多样性公约》缔约方大会第十五次会议即将召开。《联合国2030年可持续发展议程》也已迈入实现全球目标的“行动十年”。与此同时,中国全面建成小康社会,开启全面建设社会主义现代化国家新征程。国际社会正站在保护生物多样性、实现全球可持续发展的历史性节点,在这个时刻,发布《中国的生物多样性保护》白皮书,旨在向国际社会介绍我国在生物多样性保护领域的理念与实践,增进国际社会对中国生物多样性保护的了解,为全球生物多样性保护贡献中国智慧,具有重要的现实意义。

The 15th meeting of the Parties to the UN Convention on Biological Diversity (COP-15) will be held soon. The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development has also entered its "Decade of Action" to achieve global goals. At the same time, China has built a moderately prosperous society in all respects and embarked on a new journey of building a modern socialist country in all respects. The international community is standing at the historic juncture of protecting biodiversity and realizing global sustainable development. At this time, it is of important practical significance to release the white paper "Biodiversity Conservation in China" and introduce China's ideas, plans and actions in the field of biodiversity conservation to the international community. It aims to enhance the international community's understanding of China's biodiversity conservation, and contribute Chinese wisdom to global biodiversity conservation.

回顾过去、展望未来,保护生物多样性,国际社会必须携手合作。中国将持续加大生物多样性保护力度,积极参与全球生物多样性治理进程,与国际社会一道,共商全球生物多样性治理新战略,开启更加公正合理、各尽所能的2020年后全球生物多样性治理新进程。

Looking back on the past and forward to the future, the international community must work together in biodiversity conservation. China will continue to increase its biodiversity conservation efforts and actively participate in global biodiversity governance. China will work with the international community to discuss new strategies for global biodiversity governance, and embark on a new course of the post-2020 global biodiversity governance that is more just and reasonable, and where each will do their best.

我先介绍这些。接下来,我们三位愿意回答大家提出的问题。

That's all for my introduction. Next, the three of us will answer your questions.

谢谢!

Thank you.

陈文俊:

Chen Wenjun:

下面欢迎各位提问,提问前请通报自己所在的新闻机构。

The floor is now open for questions. Please identify your media outlet before raising questions.

中央广播电视总台央视记者:

CCTV:

《中国的生物多样性保护》白皮书是我国第一份在生物多样性保护领域的白皮书,接下来马上要在云南举办联合国《生物多样性公约》缔约方大会第十五次会议,为什么选择在这个时间节点公布这份白皮书?白皮书的意义是什么?谢谢。

The white paper, titled "Biodiversity Conservation in China," is the first one issued by the country to focus on the field of biodiversity conservation. Given that the 15th meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the UN Convention on Biological Diversity – known as COP15 – is set to kick off in Yunnan province soon, why did you choose to issue the white paper now and what is its significance? Thank you.

赵英民:

Zhao Yingmin:

刚才我介绍中国是全球生物多样性最为丰富的国家之一,也是最早签署和批准联合国《生物多样性公约》的缔约方之一,中国高度重视生物多样性保护、不断推进这项工作与时俱进、创新发展。党的十八大以来,在习近平生态文明思想指引下,坚持生态优先、绿色发展,法律体系日臻完善、监管机制不断加强、基础能力大幅提升,生物多样性治理的新格局基本形成,生物多样性保护进入了新的历史时期,取得了显著成效,走出了一条中国特色的生物多样性保护之路。

I just explained that China is one of the most biodiverse countries in the world and also one of the first countries to sign and approve the UN Convention on Biological Diversity. China attaches great importance to biodiversity conservation and preserves biodiversity with creative and up-to-date measures. Since the 18th CPC National Congress, China has been prioritizing eco-environmental progress and pursuing green development under the guidance of Xi Jinping Thought on Ecological Civilization. A new pattern of biodiversity governance has largely taken shape, with improvements to the legal system, mechanisms for supervision as well as fundamental capabilities, marking the start of a new era for biodiversity conservation. China has achieved substantial progress on the path to biodiversity conservation with Chinese characteristics.

在COP15即将召开之际发布《中国的生物多样性保护》白皮书,向世界展示中国生物多样性保护的理念、举措和成效,为全球生物多样性保护贡献中国智慧,具有非常重要的现实意义。我想有以下四个方面:

There is a practical significance to issuing the white paper ahead of the upcoming COP15. It presents China's visions, measures and achievements on biodiversity conservation to the world, and also provides China's solutions to global biodiversity conservation. These are reflected in the following four aspects.

一是首次以白皮书形式,全面介绍了中国在生物多样性保护领域开展的工作。中国将生物多样性保护作为生态文明建设的重要内容和推动高质量发展的重要抓手,生物多样性保护的相关要求被纳入经济社会发展的各方面、各领域,而且动员全社会各方面的力量共同保护生物多样性。发布生物多样性领域的第一部白皮书,这件事本身就是中国全面深入推进生物多样性主流化的具体表现,因此具有标志性意义。

First, it is the first time that China has issued a white paper comprehensively introducing its efforts in the field of biodiversity conservation. China regards biodiversity conservation as a vital part of promoting ecological progress and an important starting point for promoting high-quality development. The requirements of biodiversity conservation have been incorporated into all aspects and fields of economic and social development, and all sectors of society have been mobilized to protect biodiversity. The release of the first white paper is a concrete manifestation of China's comprehensive and in-depth efforts to promote the mainstreaming of biodiversity, therefore it is of great significance.

二是集中展示了中国生物多样性保护的理念、行动和成效,表明中国对全球生物多样性保护的贡献。白皮书详细阐述了中国坚持人与自然和谐共生理念,全面提高生物多样性保护成效、提升生物多样性治理能力,以及深化全球生物多样性领域交流合作的创新举措和丰硕成果,向世界展现了中国在生物多样性保护领域的大国担当和决心。同时,也表达了为世界携手应对全球生物多样性挑战的信心和主张。

Second, the white paper showcases China's concept, action and achievements in biodiversity conservation, as well as China's contribution to global biodiversity conservation. By elaborating on China's commitment to the philosophy of harmonious coexistence between humanity and nature, the country's efforts in holistically enhancing the efficiency of biodiversity conservation and in improving biodiversity governance, as well as its innovative measures and fruitful achievements in deepening global biodiversity exchanges and cooperation, the white paper shows that China shoulders its responsibility and makes its contribution to biodiversity conservation as a major country. Meanwhile, it also expresses China's confidence in standing in solidarity with the rest of the world as we meet global biodiversity challenges.

三是总结提炼了中国生物多样性保护的实践和经验,为共建地球生命共同体提供中国智慧。作为万物和谐美丽家园的维护者、建设者、贡献者,中国积极探索、勇于实践,走出了一条中国特色的生物多样性保护之路。恰逢COP15召开之际,通过发布白皮书分享我国生物多样性治理经验,将为全球应对生物多样性丧失和生态系统退化风险挑战树立信心,对推动达成兼具雄心与务实的大会成果,推动形成更加公正合理、各尽所能的全球生物多样性治理体系发挥重要的作用。

Third, it summarizes the practice and experience of China's biodiversity conservation efforts and provides solutions for building a shared future for all life on Earth. China always stands guard for our harmonious and beautiful planet for all life and has been contributing to its wellbeing with action. With proactive explorations and bold practices, China has embarked on a road to biodiversity conservation with Chinese characteristics. On the occasion of COP15, the white paper will enable us to share China's experience in biodiversity governance. This will help build confidence in the global response to the challenges and risks of biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation. It will play an important role in promoting the achievement of ambitious and pragmatic outcomes at the meeting and the formation of a more fair and equitable global biodiversity governance system where each country can make contribution to the best of its ability.

四是激发全社会生物多样性保护积极性,加快推进人人有责、人人尽责、人人享有的生物多样性治理进程。生物多样性为人类提供了赖以生存和发展的重要物质基础,保护生物多样性是每个国家、每个组织、每一个人的责任和义务。中国将以白皮书发布为契机,认真履行国际公约,持续广泛推进生物多样性保护各项工作,动员和凝聚全社会力量参与生物多样性保护,为生物多样性保护提供强大而持久的动力。

Fourth, the white paper will inspire enthusiasm across society for biodiversity conservation and accelerate biodiversity governance process, in which everyone is responsible to undertake his or her due obligations, while also enjoying all of the benefits. Biodiversity provides an important material basis for the survival and development of humanity, therefore protecting biodiversity is the responsibility and obligation of every country, organization and individual. China sees the release of the white paper as an opportunity to earnestly implement international conventions, continue to widely promote various biodiversity protection efforts, and mobilize and pool the strengths of the whole society to participate in biodiversity protection, providing a strong and enduring driving force for biodiversity conservation.

谢谢大家。

Thank you.

中央广播电视总台国广记者:

CRI:

生物多样性关系到人类福祉,是人类赖以生存和发展的重要基础。请问,中国近年来在生物多样性保护方面做了哪些努力?取得了哪些成效?后续还将采取哪些措施和行动,进一步巩固和发展生物多样性的保护成果?谢谢。

Biodiversity has a direct bearing on people's wellbeing and is an important basis for human survival and development. What efforts and achievements has China made in biodiversity conservation in recent years? What measures and actions will be taken to further consolidate and develop the achievements made in biodiversity conservation? Thank you.

赵英民:

Zhao Yingmin:

谢谢你的提问。在习近平生态文明思想的指引下,中国秉持人与自然和谐共生的理念,我们积极推进生态文明建设,生态环境保护法律体系日臻完善,监管机制不断加强,基础能力大幅提升。中国的生物多样性保护以建设美丽中国为目标,积极适应新形势、新要求,不断加强和创新生物多样性保护举措,持续完善生物多样性保护体系,形成了政府主导、全民参与、多边治理、合作共赢的机制,推动生物多样性保护取得了显著成效。白皮书从四个方面进行了系统阐述,概括起来有十个领域的成效。

Thank you for your questions. Under the guidance of Xi Jinping Thought on Ecological Civilization, China has upheld the philosophy of harmonious coexistence between humanity and nature and has actively promoted the construction of its ecological civilization. Improvements have been made to the legal system, supervision mechanisms and fundamental capabilities of ecological protection. With the goal of building a beautiful China, the country has actively adapted to new situations and requirements, strengthened and innovated biodiversity protection measures, and improved its overall biodiversity conservation system. It has established conservation mechanisms led by the government and featuring multilateral governance and win-win cooperation, in which all citizens participate. This way, it has made remarkable progress in biodiversity conservation. The white paper systematically expounds these efforts on four aspects, and the achievements can be summarized in ten areas.

一是优化就地保护体系。构建以国家公园为主体的自然保护地体系,率先在国际上提出并实施生态保护红线制度,明确了生物多样性保护优先区域,在维护重要物种栖息地方面发挥了积极作用。目前,中国90%的陆地生态系统和71%的国家重点保护野生动植物物种得到有效保护,大家熟知的大熊猫、朱鹮、亚洲象等濒危物种种群数量都在不断增加。

First, optimizing in-situ conservation. We are creating a protected area framework with a focus on national parks. China was the first in the world to propose and implement the red line strategy for ecological conservation. It has designated priority areas in biodiversity conservation, contributing to the conservation of habitats for key species. At present, China has brought 90% of terrestrial ecosystem types and 71% of key state-protected wildlife species under effective protection. The populations of well-known endangered species such as the giant panda, crested ibis and Asian elephant are constantly increasing.

二是完善迁地保护体系。持续加大迁地保护力度。系统实施濒危物种拯救工程,生物遗产资源收集保存水平显著提高,迁地保护体系日趋完善,成为就地保护的有效补充,多种濒危野生动植物得到保护和恢复。

Second, improving ex-situ conservation. China continues to step up ex-situ conservation, and has launched systematic campaigns to save endangered species. More biological genetic resources are collected and better preserved, and the ex-situ conservation system is improving as an effective complement to in-situ conservation, helping to protect and restore many species of endangered wildlife.

三是加强生物安全管理。将生物安全纳入国家安全体系,颁布实施《生物安全法》,系统规划国家生物安全风险防控和治理体系建设。外来物种入侵防控机制逐渐完善,生物技术健康发展、生物遗传资源保护和监管力度不断增强,国家生物安全管理能力持续提高。

Third, improving biosecurity governance. China has included biosecurity in the national security system. The Biosecurity Law was promulgated and came into force in 2021. Systematic planning has been carried out for biosecurity risk control and governance. Efforts have been made to improve the mechanism for preventing invasive alien species, promote the sound development of biotechnologies, and strengthen the protection, supervision and regulation of biogenetic resources. The aim is to constantly improve national biosecurity governance.

四是改善生态环境质量。实施系列生态保护修复工程,不断加大生态修复力度,一体推进山水林田湖草沙冰系统保护和治理。生态恶化趋势基本得到遏制,自然生态系统总体稳定向好,服务功能逐步增强。坚决打赢污染防治攻坚战,极大缓解了生物多样性保护压力,生态环境质量持续改善,国家生态安全屏障骨架基本构建。

Fourth, improving the eco-environment. China has launched a series of projects for the integrated conservation and restoration of mountains, rivers, forests, farmland, lakes, grasslands, deserts, glaciers and snow mountains. As a result, ecological deterioration has been contained, and ecosystems are generally stable, with a greater capacity to serve development. China has been fighting a tough battle against pollution; the pressure on biodiversity conservation has been greatly eased, the eco-environment continues to improve, and a framework of "shields" for ecological security has been largely completed.

五是协同推进绿色发展。注重以自然承载力为基础,加快转变经济发展方式,倡导绿色低碳生产生活方式。协同推进高水平生物多样性保护和高质量发展,加快行业产业绿色转型,推进城乡建设绿色发展进程,探索生态产品价值实现路径。

Fifth, promoting green development with coordinated efforts. China endeavors to advance social and economic development within the carrying capacity of supporting ecosystems. Measures have been taken to transform the economic growth model, encourage green and low-carbon ways of life, and coordinate efforts in biodiversity conservation and high-quality development. We have accelerated the green transformation of all sectors and industries, promoted green urban and rural development, and explored methods to realize the market value of green products.

六是完善政策法规。中国将生物多样性保护上升为国家战略,纳入各地区、各领域中长期规划,强化组织领导,完善生物多样性政策法规体系,颁布和修订野生动物保护法、环境保护法等20余部与生物多样性相关的法律,我们还调整了国家重点保护野生动物名录。

Sixth, improving relevant policies, laws and regulations. Biodiversity conservation has been elevated to a national strategy in China, and incorporated into mid- and long-term plans of all regions and fields. We have strengthened organization and leadership. There has been a drive to improve the legal and policy framework. China has promulgated and revised more than 20 laws and regulations related to biodiversity conservation, including laws on the protection of wild animals and the environment. China has also revised the list of key wild animals under state protection.

七是强化能力保障。组织开展全国生物多样性调查和评估,建立完善生物多样性监测观测网络,不断加大资金投入和科技研发力度,推进生物多样性保护重大工程。

Seventh, extending guarantees. China has organized nationwide biodiversity surveys, and put in place sound biodiversity monitoring and observation networks. It has increased financial input and effort in technology research and development and launched major biodiversity conservation projects.

八是加强执法监督。开展中央生态环境保护督察,组织“绿盾”自然保护地强化监督,“碧海”海洋生态环境保护,打击野生动植物非法贸易等专项执法行动,持续加大涉及生物多样性违法犯罪问题的打击整治力度,始终保持高压态势。

Eighth, strengthening law enforcement and supervision. China has conducted central environmental protection inspections, and launched special law enforcement campaigns including the Green Shield inspections of nature reserves, the Blue Sea initiative for marine environmental protection and the crackdown on illegal wildlife trade. China has always been tough against illegal and criminal activities related to biodiversity with constantly increased efforts.

九是倡导全民行动。不断加强生物多样性保护宣传教育和科学知识普及,基本形成政府加强引导、企业积极行动、公众广泛参与的行动体系,公众参与保护生物多样性方式更加多元,参与度不断提高。

Ninth, encouraging public engagement. China continues to strengthen publicity and education on biodiversity conservation. An action system involving stronger government guidance, corporate action and extensive public participation is taking shape. Public participation in biodiversity conservation has grown and become more diversified.

十是深化全球生物多样性保护合作。认真履行国际公约,促进生物多样性相关公约协同增效。坚定践行多边主义,积极开展国际合作,为发展中国家保护生物多样性提供力所能及的支持和帮助,努力构建地球生命共同体。

Tenth, further global cooperation on biodiversity conservation. China has actively implemented international conventions and worked to enhance synergies among biodiversity-related conventions. China has firmly practiced multilateralism and actively carried out international cooperation. It has provided help and support to other developing countries within its abilities regarding biodiversity conservation, and is striving to build a shared future for all life on Earth.

下一步,我们将系统谋划、持续推进。在政策法规方面,还要更新《中国生物多样性保护战略与行动计划》(2011-2030年),完善政策制度保障;推进生物多样性领域法律法规制修订,完善法律体系。在行动措施方面,制定和实施《生物多样性保护重大工程十年规划(2021-2030年)》,推进生物多样性保护优先区域本底调查,完善观测网络。优化完善生物多样性保护监管数据和信息平台等,全面提升生物多样性保护能力和治理水平。

Going forward, we will make systematic plans and continue our efforts. As for policies, laws and regulations, we will revise the China National Biodiversity Conservation Strategy and Action Plan (2011-2030) to improve relevant policies and systems. We will push forward the formulating and revising of biodiversity-related laws and regulations to improve the legal system. As for measures, we will formulate and implement the Ten-Year Plan of Major Biodiversity Conservation Projects (2021-2030), promote background surveys of the priority areas in biodiversity conservation, and improve observation networks. Monitoring data and information platforms on biodiversity conservation will be improved and capacity for biodiversity protection and governance will be enhanced in an all-round manner.

谢谢。

Thank you.

北京青年报记者:

Beijing Youth Daily:

2020年9月发布的第五版《全球生物多样性展望》显示,2010年定下的20个“爱知目标”实现情况并不理想,想请问主要原因是什么?另外一个问题,中国在20项“爱知生物多样性目标”上的执行和完成情况如何?有哪些成果和不足?谢谢。

According to the Global Biodiversity Outlook 5 (GBO-5) released in September 2020, progress on the 20 Aichi Biodiversity Targets set in 2010 was insufficient. What were the main reasons for that? How well did China meet the 20 Aichi Biodiversity Targets? What were the achievements and shortcomings?

赵英民:

Zhao Yingmin:

谢谢你的提问。“爱知目标”是2010年《公约》第十次缔约方大会上,国际社会为了应对生物多样性丧失的严峻形势,制定的2011-2020年全球生物多样性保护目标。2020年9月,《公约》秘书处发布的第五版《全球生物多样性展望》指出,虽然大多数缔约方都积极地制定了本国的生物多样性保护政策和行动目标,在生物多样性主流化进程等方面也取得了显著进展。但遗憾的是,“爱知目标”全球实现情况总体不够理想,全球生物多样性丧失趋势还没有根本扭转,生物多样性面临的压力仍在加剧。回顾以往,一些经验和教训也是值得我们汲取的。

Thank you for your questions. At the 10th meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity in 2010, the international community adopted the global biodiversity conservation targets for the 2011-2020 period to deal with severe biodiversity loss. According to the GBO-5 released by the Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity in September 2020, although most parties actively formulated their own national policies and targets to protect biodiversity, and made significant progress in the mainstreaming of biodiversity, the Aichi Targets were not sufficiently met around the globe. The trend of biodiversity loss is not being reversed fundamentally and the pressure on biodiversity is still increasing. Looking back, there are several experiences and lessons that we should learn.

一是全球目标设定既需要雄心,更需要务实可行。二是执行机制和保障条件需要完善,特别是要重视发展中国家在履约过程中的资金、技术和人才需求等。三是各缔约方都需要重视和执行,也就是在进一步重视生物多样性保护和执行方面要加强。

First, global targets should be both ambitious and practical and feasible. Second, implementation mechanisms and supportive conditions should be improved. Special importance should be attached to the needs of developing countries in capital, technologies and talents. Third, all parties should further emphasize biodiversity conservation and take greater measures to ensure it.

即将召开的COP15将讨论“2020年后全球生物多样性框架”,总结过去十年全球生物多样性目标实施进展和经验,为转型变革带来契机。因此,在商定新目标战略时,我们应该充分地吸取“爱知目标”执行过程中的经验、教训,既要提振全球生物多样性保护的雄心和信心,更要脚踏实地、实事求是,充分考虑目标的可达性、可操作性以及世界各国的发展差异,制定兼具雄心和务实的未来十年全球生物多样性的保护目标和指标,提出切实可行的实现路径。“框架”还应该坚持公正、透明、缔约方驱动原则,完善执行机制和保障条件,加强科学技术转让和能力建设,切实提升发展中国家的履约能力和水平,努力推动构建公平合理、合作共赢的全球生物多样性治理体系。全球肆虐的新冠肺炎疫情警示我们,人与自然是命运共同体。国际社会需要进一步加强合作,共同面对生物多样性丧失和生态系统退化的重大风险挑战。

The upcoming COP15 will discuss the "Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework," review the progress and lessons learned from the previous global biodiversity targets of the past decade, and find opportunities for future transformations and reforms. Therefore, when discussing the new targets and strategies, we should fully reflect on the lessons of the Aichi Biodiversity Targets (2021-2020). We must also boost confidence in protecting global biodiversity, take solid steps and seek truth from facts, take full consideration of the attainability and operation of the targets as well as the differences in each country's development, so as to introduce both ambitious and pragmatic targets and indicators for biodiversity protection and propose feasible roadmaps for meeting them. The framework should also follow the principle of fairness, transparency and signatory leadership; improve the implementation mechanisms and guarantee system; strengthen technological transfer and capacity building; improve developing countries' abilities to meet the agreement; and strive to build a global biodiversity governance system that is both fair and practical and based on cooperation and win-win resolution. The continuing COVID-19 pandemic teaches us a lesson that people and nature form a shared community. The international community should step up cooperation to meet the risks and challenges caused by the loss of biodiversity and the degradation of the ecosystem.

作为世界上生物多样性最丰富的国家之一,中国认真落实“爱知目标”,明确各项任务和责任,目标执行取得积极成效,20个“爱知目标”当中,3个目标进展超越了“爱知目标”预期,13个目标取得了关键性进展,4个目标取得阶段性成绩。“爱知目标”执行的总体情况好于全球平均水平。

As one of the countries with the richest biodiversity in the world, China has earnestly implemented the Aichi targets, clarified various tasks and responsibilities, and achieved positive results in the implementation of the targets. Among the 20 targets, China has over-fulfilled three, made major progress in 13 and achieved phased results in four. China's overall implementation of the Aichi targets is above the global average.

第五版的《全球生物多样性展望》中多次提到中国在生物多样性保护方面的宝贵经验。下一步,我们将进一步强化生物多样性保护顶层设计,完善法律法规和政策规划体系建设,持续深入实施生物多样性保护重大工程,健全外来入侵物种的预警和监测体系,以中央生态环境保护督察为抓手,推动各项生物多样性保护的责任落实,全面提升生物多样性治理的能力和水平。谢谢。

The Global Biodiversity Outlook 5 (GBO-5) have mentioned China's valuable experience in biodiversity conservation multiple times. Next, we will further strengthen the top-level design of biodiversity conservation. We will improve the construction of laws, regulations and the policy planning system. We will also continue to implement major biodiversity conservation projects, improve the early warning and monitoring system of alien invasive species, promote the implementation of various biodiversity conservation responsibilities through the central supervision system for ecological environment protection, and improve the ability of biodiversity governance in an all-round way. Thank you.

中国自然资源报记者:

China Natural Resources News:

开展生态修复是保护和提升生物多样性的重要手段。自然资源部负责统一行使国土空间生态修复职责,请问目前主要做了哪些工作?下一步还有哪些安排?谢谢。

Ecological restoration is an important means to protect and improve biodiversity. What has the Ministry of Natural Resources done to fulfill its responsibility to restore the ecology of our national territorial space? Are there any future plans? Thank you.

自然资源部总工程师、新闻发言人张占海:

Zhang Zhanhai:

谢谢你的提问。自然资源部自组建以来,认真贯彻习近平生态文明思想,坚持节约优先、保护优先、自然恢复为主的方针,加强国土空间生态修复,并把修复生态环境、保护和提升生物多样性作为生态修复的重要目标。主要开展了两个方面的工作:

Thanks for your question. Since its founding, the ministry has been earnestly implementing Xi Jinping Thought on Ecological Civilization, following the principles of prioritizing resource conservation and environmental protection and promoting the self-restoration of nature. It is strengthening the ecological restoration of the national territorial space, and has put ecological restoration and the protection and improvement of biodiversity as its major goals. The work we have done can be separated into the following two aspects.

一是在相关规划中突出生物多样性保护。2020年,国家发改委、自然资源部联合印发《全国重要生态系统保护和修复重大工程总体规划(2021-2035年)》,重点开展国家公园、自然保护区、自然公园的建设及濒危野生动植物保护等方面的工作。在这个总体规划中部署了9项重大工程、47项具体任务,其中23项涉及生物多样性保护,统筹考虑生态系统的完整性、地理单元的连续性和经济社会发展的可持续性,为生物多样性保护和重要生态系统的保护修复提供了重要保障。

First, we have prioritized biodiversity conservation in related plans. In 2020, the National Development and Reform Commission and the Ministry of Natural Resources published the Master Plan for Major National Ecological System Protection and Restoration Projects (2021-2035), with a major focus on the construction of national parks, natural reserves, natural parks as well as the protection of endangered wildlife. The plan laid out 9 major projects and 47 specific tasks, including 23 that are related to biodiversity conservation, taking into account the integrity of the ecosystem, the continuity of geographical units and the sustainability of socioeconomic development. It provides a major guarantee for biodiversity conservation and the protection and restoration of the major ecological system.

二是实施了一批生态保护修复重大工程。“十三五”期间,在陆域,中央财政投入500亿元,在祁连山、贺兰山、长白山、小兴安岭等重点生态功能区开展了25个山水林田湖草生态保护修复工程试点。在长江经济带、黄河流域、京津冀、汾渭平原等重要流域和区域开展历史遗留废弃矿山治理修复,全国治理矿山修复面积约400万亩。在海域主要实施了“蓝色海湾”整治行动、海岸带保护修复工程、红树林保护修复专项行动等,“十三五”期间,全国整治修复海岸线1200公里,滨海湿地34.5万亩。今年已经启动实施“十四五”期间第一批10个山水林田湖草沙一体化保护和修复工程,15个海洋生态修复工程。

Second, we have implemented a series of major ecological protection and restoration projects. During the 13th Five-Year Plan period (2016-2020), the central government invested 50 billion yuan (US$7.75 billion) in the land area to carry out 25 pilot projects for ecological protection and restoration of mountains, rivers, forests, lakes and grasslands in key national ecological function areas such as Qilian Mountains, Helan Mountain, Changbai Mountain and Lesser Khingan Mountains. In the Yangtze River Economic Belt, the Yellow River Basin, the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, the Fenwei Plain and other important river basins and regions, we have carried out restoration of abandoned mines left over from history, with the restoration area totaling 4 million mu (266,667 hectares). In the coastal areas, we carried out the "Blue Bay" project, the coastal zone protection and restoration project, and the mangrove protection and restoration project. During the 13th Five-Year Plan period (2016-2020), a total of 1,200 kilometers of coastal lines and 345,000 mu of coastal wetland were restored. This year, as part of the 14th Five-Year Plan, we have launched the first batch of 10 integrated protection and restoration projects for mountains, rivers, forests, farmlands, lakes, grasslands and deserts, as well as 15 marine ecological restoration projects.

下一步,自然资源部将以实施总体规划为主线,以全面提升国家生态安全屏障质量和生态系统良性循环为目标,开展青藏高原生态屏障区、黄河重点生态区、长江重点生态区、东北森林带、北方防沙带、南方丘陵山地带、海岸带生态保护和修复工作,科学实施各类生态保护修复工程,筑牢我国生态安全屏障,继续为保护和提升我国生物多样性作出贡献。

Next, my ministry will take the implementation of the master plan as the main line and aim to comprehensively improve the quality of the national ecological security barrier and the virtuous circle of the ecosystem. We will carry out ecological protection and restoration work in the protective barriers for eco-security in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, the important ecological areas along the Yellow River and the Yangtze River, the northeast forest belts, the sand control belts in the north, the hilly and mountainous areas in the south, and the coastal zones. We will carry out these projects in a scientific manner, build a stronger defense for ecological security and further contribute to the protection and improvement of China's biodiversity.

谢谢。

Thank you.

中国日报记者:

China Daily:

林草系统作为生物多样性保护的主责部门之一,请问在生物多样性保护方面开展了哪些工作?有什么进展?谢谢。

The National Forestry and Grassland Administration is one of the main departments responsible for conserving biodiversity. What efforts have you made to this end? And what progress has been made? Thank you.

国家林业和草原局副局长李春良:

Li Chunliang:

谢谢这位记者的提问。此次白皮书的发布,体现了多年来中国生物多样性保护的努力和成果。林草部门是生物多样性保护的主责部门之一,下面我从生态系统多样性、物种多样性和遗传资源多样性三个方面介绍一下林草系统的工作。

Thank you for your questions. The release of the white paper reflects the efforts and achievements China has made in biodiversity conservation over the years. The forestry and grassland sector is one of the main departments responsible for biodiversity conservation. I will brief you on the work we have done in protecting ecosystem diversity, species diversity and genetic resource diversity.

一是在生态系统多样性保护方面,我们主要是在四大生态系统上下功夫。在森林生态系统重点开展了保护与修复,组织实施了大规模国土绿化、天然林资源保护、退耕还林等多项工程,天然林面积蓄积量大幅度增加,森林总碳储量的78%来自天然林,我国森林面积和森林蓄积连续30年保持了双增长,森林生态系统的服务功能持续增加。

First, regarding the protection of ecosystem diversity, we have intensified efforts in improving the ecosystems of forests, grasslands, wetlands and deserts. As for forest ecosystems, we have focused on conservation and restoration and launched many projects including large-scale afforestation, protection of natural forests and turning marginal farmland into forests. As a result, the natural forest reserve has registered a significant increase, with 78% of total forest carbon storage coming from natural forests. China's forest coverage and forest reserve have both maintained growth for the last 30 years, and the forest ecosystem has a greater capacity to serve development.

在草原生态系统,扎实推进草原保护修复,实施了退牧还草,草原生态修复治理补助等措施。2020年全国草原综合植被盖度达到56%以上,草原质量稳中向好。

As for grassland ecosystems, we have made solid progress in the conservation and restoration of grasslands by turning grazing lands to grasslands and subsidizing the restoration of grassland eco-environments. In 2020, the vegetation coverage of China's grasslands stood at more than 56%, and the grass continued to improve.

在湿地生态系统,“十三五”期间实施了湿地保护与恢复项目53个,湿地生态效益补偿补助、退耕还湿等补助项目2000余个。新增国家湿地公园201处,新增湿地面积304万亩,修复退化湿地701万亩,湿地保护率达到了50%以上。湿地生态系统持续向好,水质改善,候鸟种群数量显著回升。

As for wetland ecosystems, during the 13th Five-year Plan period, we have implemented 53 wetland conservation and restoration programs as well as more than 2,000 programs including those that compensate for economic disadvantages associated with reducing damage to wetland eco-environments, and those that provide allowances for turning farmlands into wetlands, with 201 new national wetland parks and an increase of wetlands by 3.04 million mu (202,667 hectares). A total of 7.01 million mu of degraded wetlands have been restored, and more than 50% of wetlands have been protected. The wetland ecosystem continues to improve, with water quality improvements and the number of migratory bird populations picking up significantly.

在荒漠生态系统,持续开展了43年的“三北防护林”建设、21年的京津风沙源治理、15年的石漠化治理等重大工程。还采取了划建沙化土地封禁保护区,国家沙漠(石漠)公园等多种措施,我国在遏制荒漠化这一全球面临的重大生态问题上久久为功。据监测,我国沙化土地由上世纪末年均扩展3436平方公里转变为目前的年均缩减1980平方公里,创造了荒漠变绿洲、荒原变林海的人间奇迹,为全球生态治理贡献了中国方案。

As for desert ecosystems, we have implemented key projects with continual efforts to develop the Three-North (i.e., Northeast China, North China and Northwest China) Shelterbelt Forest Program for 43 years, facilitating sandstorm source control in Beijing and Tianjin for 21 years, and controlling stony desertification for 15 years. Moreover, we have mapped out protected regions for desertification lands and developed more national desert (stony desert) parks. China has been consolidating progress step by step to curb the global major ecological issue of desertification. Studies have shown that China's sandy lands have changed from an annual average expansion of 3,436 square kilometers at the end of the last century to a current annual average decrease of 1,980 square kilometers, creating a human miracle of turning desert into oasis and transforming wastelands into forests, all while advancing China's solutions for global ecological governance.

二是在物种多样性保护方面,我局从2001年开始实施全国野生动植物保护及自然保护区建设工程,将大熊猫、东北虎、金丝猴、朱鹮、苏铁等15个珍稀濒危野生动植物种类确定为重点工程。采取拯救措施,全国共建立各类自然保护地近万处,约占陆域国土面积的18%。90%的陆地生态系统类型,65%的高等植物群落和71%的国家重点保护野生动植物种类得到有效保护。旗舰物种的伞护效应显著发挥,国家重点保护物种主体稳中有升,麋鹿、普氏野马、朱鹮等野外种群从消失到恢复重建取得了全球瞩目的成效。

Second, regarding species diversity conservation, we have initialed since 2001 projects for wild animal and plant conservation and constructed nature reserves , and put 15 rare and endangered species of wild animals and plants including giant pandas, Manchurian tigers, golden monkeys, red ibises and cycads under conservation. Rescue measures have been adopted to establish nearly 10,000 nature reserves nationwide, accounting for roughly 18% of China's lands. A total of 90% of land ecosystems, 65% of higher plant communities, and 71% of wildlife species under state conservation have been protected. Conservation of flagship species has shown umbrella effects, benefiting other species in the same habitat. The number of species under state conservation continued to increase. China has rebuilt the wild population of the elk, Przewalski's horse and crested ibis, once nowhere to be found in the wild, winning global attention.

三是在遗传资源多样性保护方面,主要开展了三项工作来推进野生植物遗传资源的保护。一是开展植物园体系建设,已建成162个植物园,收集保存了野生植物两万多种,已基本完成苏铁、棕榈和原产我国的重点兰科、木兰科植物等珍稀野生植物的种质资源保存。二是开展林木种质资源库建设,建设国家林木种质资源原地、异地保存库161处,建成国家林草种质资源设施保存库山东分库和新疆分库,保存各类林木种质资源10万余份。三是开展草种资源库建设,建设完成草品种中心库一处,国家草种质资源资源圃11处,保存以牧草为主的草种质资源6万多份。

Third, regarding the preservation of genetic resources diversity, we have made the following efforts to promote the genetic resource preservation of wild plants. We have begun constructing a botanical garden system. A total of 162 botanical gardens have been established to collect and preserve more than 20,000 wild plants. China has completed basic preservation of germplasm resources of rare and wild plants including cycad, palm, and key orchidaceae and magnoliaceae plants native to the country. We have launched the construction of germplasm resources for trees. China has established 161 state-level germplasm resource in-situ and ex-situ banks for trees, and two state-level germplasm resource sub-centers for trees and grass in Xinjiang and Shandong, preserving more than 100,000 copies of germplasm resources for trees. We have launched the construction of germplasm resource centers for grass. China has set up one germplasm center for grass and 11 state-level germplasm resource gardens for grass, preserving more than 60,000 germplasm resources of grass, mainly herbage.

在野生动物遗传资源保护方面,构建和完善野生动物救护繁育机构和种质基因库。支持建设国家濒危野生动植物基因保护中心、猫科动物研究中心、亚洲象保护研究中心等,收集保存了我国珍稀濒危野生动物遗传材料和基因,共计超过800个物种22万份全基因组的DNA样本。

Regarding wildlife genetic resource preservation, we have set up and improved wildlife rescue and breeding centers and germplasm genetic banks, supported the establishment of a national center for genetic conservation of endangered wildlife, a feline research center, and an Asian elephant conservation and research center, collecting and preserving a total of 220,000 genome-wide DNA samples of more than 800 species of China's rare and endangered wildlife.

多年来,林草生物多样性保护取得了显著成效。我们将继续努力,从自然生态系统保护、濒危物种拯救繁育和遗传资源收集保存三个方面持续做好工作,为全国乃至全球生物多样性保护作出新的贡献。谢谢。

Over the years, we have made remarkable progress in preserving forest and grass biodiversity. We will continue to work on natural ecosystem conservation, endangered species rescue and breeding, and genetic resource collection and preservation, making more contributions to biodiversity conservation at home and abroad. Thank you.

凤凰卫视记者:

Phoenix TV:

我们关注到有不少研究表明,全球生物多样性正在以惊人的速度下降。中国作为生物多样性最为丰富的国家之一,请问在这方面可以为全球提供哪些经验?谢谢。

We have noticed that according to some research, global biodiversity is dramatically decreasing. What experience can China, as one of the most biodiverse countries in the world, offer to others?

赵英民:

Zhao Yingmin:

谢谢你的提问。面对全球生物多样性丧失的挑战,世界各国、全人类是同舟共济的命运共同体。作为全球保护生物多样性的重要力量,中国秉持人与自然和谐共生理念,不断加强和创新生物多样性保护举措,在经济快速发展的同时,生物多样性保护取得了令人瞩目的成绩,在这个过程中我们也积累了一些宝贵经验,概括起来有四个方面:

Thank you for your question. All of the world's countries and all human beings are a community with a shared future and share in the challenges brought by the loss of biodiversity. China, as an important force in biodiversity conservation, has always pursued harmony between humanity and nature, constantly strengthening and creating biodiversity conservation measures. It has also yielded outstanding achievements while maintaining fast economic development. The experience we accumulated can be condensed into the following four aspects:

一是坚持尊重自然、保护优先。坚持尊重自然、顺应自然和保护自然的理念,构建了以国家公园为主体的自然保护地体系,率先在国际上提出和实施生态保护红线制度,明确生物多样性保护优先区域,在保护重要生态系统、物种及其栖息地等方面发挥了重要作用。稳步实施天然林保护恢复、退耕还林还草还湿等一大批生态保护与修复工程。实施山水林田湖草沙冰生态保护修复工程试点,有效恢复了重点区域野生动植物生境,野生动物种群不断增加。坚决打赢污染防治攻坚战,生态环境质量显著改善,生物多样性丧失压力得到了缓解。

First: respecting nature and prioritizing biodiversity conservation. Following the principles of respecting and protecting nature and obeying nature's laws, China has built a nature reserves system centering on national parks and put forward "the ecological red-line" system by identifying the country's crucial ecological zones, thus playing an important role in protecting key ecosystems, species, and their habitats. A large number of ecological projects have also been launched, such as step-by-step protection and restoration of natural forests, and programs turning marginal farmland back into forests or grasslands or wetlands. China has advanced pilot projects for the conservation and restoration of mountains, rivers, forests, farmland, lakes, grasslands, deserts, and ice ecosystems, effectively restored the environment of the wild plants and animals in crucial areas, and increased the number of the species of wild animals. China has been fighting a tough battle of pollution prevention and control; the eco-environment has improved notably and the pressure on biodiversity conservation has been eased.

二是坚持绿色发展、持续利用。推动经济社会发展全面绿色转型,倡导绿色低碳生产生活方式,减少生产生活对生物多样性的压力。将生物多样性保护和扶贫开发、乡村振兴相结合,依托各地生态资源禀赋特点和传统文化特色,不断探索出生物多样性保护和脱贫攻坚双赢的新路子。开展“绿水青山就是金山银山”实践创新基地建设和生态产品价值实现基地试点,推动将自然生态优势转化为经济社会高质量发展优势,激发全社会生物多样性保护的内生动力。

Second, seeking green development and sustainable utilization of bio-resources. China has promoted green, low-carbon ways of life and work

so as to ease the burden on biodiversity. China has integrated biodiversity conservation with development-oriented poverty alleviation and rural revitalization based on different local characteristics and traditional cultural features and exploited new ways to achieve win-win results in both biodiversity conservation and high-quality development. Cherishing the principle that "lucid waters and lush mountains are invaluable assets," China has also launched a pilot innovation-based construction site and base site for realizing eco-products values and turned ecological strengths into high-quality social-economic driving forces of development, thus fueling the motivation of biodiversity conservation throughout the country.

三是坚持制度先行、统筹推进。牢固树立新发展理念,将生物多样性保护上升为国家战略,持续完善法律法规和政策制度,为生物多样性保护和管理提供制度保障。强化生物多样性保护顶层设计,将生物多样性保护纳入国民经济和社会发展五年规划进行统一部署,制定《中国生物多样性保护战略与行动计划》(2011-2030年)指导国家中长期生物多样性保护工作,将生物多样性保护任务纳入到各地区、各领域中长期规划。

Third, enhancing institutional guarantee and coordinating actions for biodiversity conservation. By implementing the new development philosophy, China has strengthened biodiversity conservation as a national strategy, improved laws, regulations, and policies to provide institutional guarantee for biodiversity protection and management. China has ramped up biodiversity conservation through top-level design. It has been included in the 14th Five-Year Plan (2021-2025) for National Social and Economic Development. The China Biodiversity Conservation Strategy and Action Plan (2011-2030) has been adopted as a guideline for mid- and long-term work. Biodiversity conservation tasks are incorporated into mid- and long-term plans of all regions and fields across China.

四是坚持多边主义、合作共赢。坚定支持生物多样性多边治理体系,积极参与全球生物多样性治理进程,切实履行《生物多样性公约》及其他相关条约义务。通过“一带一路”绿色发展多边合作机制,“南南合作”以及其他双多边合作,向其他发展中国家提供力所能及的援助,不断深化生物多样性领域国际合作交流,为推进实现人与自然和谐共生的美好愿景贡献中国力量和中国方案。


Fourth, upholding multilateralism and win-win cooperation. China firmly supports a multilateral biodiversity governance system, actively participates in its process, and fulfills its obligations prescribed in the Convention on Biological Diversity and other relating treaties. China has been providing assistance within its ability to other developing countries through many bilateral and multilateral cooperation mechanisms, such as the Belt and Road Initiative International Green Development Coalition and South-South cooperation, thus deepening international exchanges and cooperation on biodiversity and contributing China's strengths and proposals to the great vision of achieving harmony between humanity and nature.

谢谢。

Thank you!

封面新闻记者:

Cover News:

我们注意到,目前“多规合一”的国土空间规划正在编制过程中,一些城市出现了专门致力于生物多样性保护和生态修复的团队,请问如何在生物多样性保护过程中发挥国土空间规划的作用?我国现在有哪些实践经验?谢谢。

We have noticed that a territorial space plan on "rolling separate plans into one single plan" is currently being formulated. In some cities there are also teams dedicated to the conservation and restoration of biodiversity. How will the territorial space plan play a role in the biodiversity conservation process? What practical experience does China have at this moment? Thank you!

张占海:

Zhang Zhanhai:

谢谢这位记者的提问。按照党中央、国务院“多规合一”改革部署,当前各级各类国土空间规划正在加快编制,在这些国土空间规划中都高度重视并强调生物多样性保护工作,研究提出推动生物多样性保护的规划对策。

Thank you for your questions. In line with the reform arrangements of the CPC Central Committee and the State Council, the formulation of different kinds of territorial space plans is being accelerated at all levels. Biodiversity conservation is a particularly important field, and relevant regulations and policies are being discussed and proposed.

一是在国土空间规划中优化生态空间布局。统筹布局生态、农业、城镇功能空间,从生态系统、物种、遗传基因三个层面保护,综合利用就地、迁地两种保护方式,加强全球和国家生物多样性关键地区的保护,建设国际候鸟和珍稀野生动物迁徙通道,完善物种迁地保护和基因保存体系格局,建设面向全球的生物多样性保护网络。加快构建自然保护地体系,规划建设数十个国家公园、一千多个自然保护区、几千个自然公园,有效保护我国重要自然生态系统和生物多样性的富集区域。加强城市生态保护和建设,推动形成连续、完整、系统的生态保护格局,促进维护和恢复生物多样性。例如,上海市在全市重点的生态节点布局了21个郊野公园,成都等城市大力创建公园城市,构建人与自然相和谐的城市布局。

First, optimizing the layout of ecological space in territorial planning. We will make overall plans for ecological, agricultural and urban spaces, and protect biodiversity on three levels: ecosystems, species and genes. Through in-situ and ex-situ conservation, we will strengthen the protection of global and national key biodiversity areas, develop global migration routes for migratory birds and rare wildlife, improve the systems of species' ex-situ conservation and genes preservation, and build a global biodiversity protection network. We will build the protected areas system, which includes dozens of national parks, 1,000-plus natural reserves and thousands of natural parks, to effectively protect important natural ecosystems and biodiversity-rich areas. Efforts will also be made to strengthen the protection and construction of urban ecological systems, promote the formation of a continuous, complete and systematic ecological protection pattern, and promote the conservation and restoration of biodiversity. For example, Shanghai has constructed 21 parks at key ecological points on its outskirts, and Chengdu and other cities are transforming themselves into green cities, in order to form an urban layout that strikes a harmonious balance between humanity and nature.

二是在国土空间规划中统筹划定生态保护红线。按照永久基本农田、生态保护红线、城镇开发边界的优先次序,统筹划定三条控制线,将生态功能极重要区域、自然保护地、生态极敏感脆弱区域以及具有潜在重要生态价值的区域划入生态保护红线,进行严格用途管控。例如,南昌等城市针对鄱阳湖鸟类迁徙路线问题,成立了多专业的技术团队加强研究,将这些候鸟迁徙路线所经过的地区全部划入生态保护红线进行严格管控。目前全国初步划定的生态保护红线,已经覆盖我国生物多样性分布的关键区域,保护绝大多数珍稀濒危物种及其栖息地。

Second, setting ecological conservation red lines (ECRLs) in territorial planning. China has established three control lines in order of priority: boundary lines for permanent basic cropland, ECRLs and boundary lines for urban development. The ECRLs include essential ecological functional areas, natural reserves, the most ecologically fragile regions, and areas with a potentially important ecological value, where stringent measures are applied to control their utilization. For example, Nanchang and other cities set up multidisciplinary teams to research the migration patterns of birds around the Poyang Lake and included the areas that migratory birds fly over into the ECRLs for strict control. At present, the ECRLs initially mapped in China have covered various important ecosystems and bring most of the rare and endangered species and their habitats under protection.

三是加快建设国土空间基础信息平台和国土空间规划“一张图”实施监督信息系统,将生物多样性保护作为规划实施监督的重要内容。落实“统一底图、统一标准、统一规划、统一平台”的要求,建设全国统一的国土空间基础信息平台,形成统一的国土空间规划“一张图”;加强规划全生命周期管理,定期对规划实施情况进行体检评估,将本地指示性物种等指标纳入规划实施评估体系;健全资源环境承载能力监测预警长效机制,加强对生物多样性保护相关指标的监测和预警,不断完善规划内容和政策措施,促进生物多样性保护工作。谢谢。

Third, accelerating the building of a basic information platform for territorial space and an implementation and supervision information system for "one-map" territorial planning. Biodiversity conservation is regarded as an important part of the implementation and supervision. We will comply with the requirements of "unified base map, unified standard, unified planning and unified platform" to build a unified basic information platform for territorial space and draw a unified map for territorial planning. Efforts will be made to plan for complete life cycles while conducting periodic surveys and assessments of how plans are being implemented, and include local indicator species and other indexes into the implementation assessment system. We will also improve the long-term monitoring and early warning mechanism for the carrying capacity of resources and the environment, and strengthen the monitoring and early warning of indicators related to biodiversity conservation, so as to constantly refine plans and policies, and boost biodiversity conservation. Thank you.

红星新闻记者:

Red Star News:

近期,北移象群的妥善处置反映出中国生态系统整体向好,保护成效明显。保护好野生动物需要长期努力,请详细介绍一下“十三五”以来在野生动物保护方面开展的工作?有哪些成效?下一步工作计划是什么?谢谢。

Recently, the proper response to a herd of wild Asian elephants roaming northward reflects the overall improvements of China's ecosystem and the remarkable achievements in ecological conservation. Wildlife protection requires long-term efforts. Could you give us more details on the work you have done in this regard during the 13th Five-Year Plan (2016-2020) period? What achievements have you made? What are your plans for the future? Thank you.

李春良:

Li Chunliang:

谢谢这位记者对野生动物保护的关注。野生动物保护是全社会各界非常关心的问题。党中央、国务院高度重视野生动物保护事业,习近平总书记多次作出重要指示批示,亲自关心和推动野生动物保护工作。我们主要开展六个方面的工作:

Thank you for your concern about wildlife protection, which is of great concern to all sectors of society. The CPC Central Committee and the State Council have paid close attention to wildlife conservation. General Secretary Xi Jinping has given many important instructions on the issue, and showed great concerns and personal commitment to its development. We have carried out our work in the following six areas.

一是推进依法行政,不断完善法律法规和相关配套制度。两次修订《野生动物保护法》,科学系统调整《国家重点保护野生动物名录》。大家可能知道,今年2月1日国务院批准发布了新调整的《国家重点保护野生动物名录》,名录中共列入980种、8类野生动物,其中686种陆生野生动物中,189种列为一级、497种列为二级。

First, we have promoted law-based administration and continuously improved legislation, regulations and related support systems. China has revised the Law on the Protection of Wildlife twice, and systematically adjusted the list of key wild animals under state protection. On Feb. 1 this year, the State Council announced a revised version of the list. The new list includes 980 species and eight categories of wild animals, among which 686 are terrestrial wildlife with 189 under first-level and 497 under second-level protection.

二是组织实施全国第二次陆生野生动物资源调查,并且对东北虎豹、亚洲象等重要物种逐步实现实时监测。

Second, we have carried out the second national survey on terrestrial wildlife, and have made plans to gradually achieve real-time monitoring for key species, including the Siberian tiger, the Amur leopard and the Asian elephant.

三是实施极度濒危野生动物成就保护,确保物种不灭绝,推进人工繁育技术进步,实现多个物种野外放归以及野外种群的恢复和重建。

Third, we have protected critically endangered wildlife to prevent them from going extinct. We made advances in artificial breeding technologies, released several species into the wild, and restored and reconstructed the wild populations.

四是严厉打击非法贸易。中国政府敢于担当、主动作为,坚持保护优先、规范利用、严格监管的基本原则,不断加大执法监管力度。林草局会同27个中央和国家机关等部门单位成立了打击野生动物非法贸易部际联席会议机制,在全国范围内开展打击非法猎杀、经营利用和网络交易珍稀濒危野生动物违法犯罪活动等行动,近期专项部署了春秋季迁徙候鸟保护工作,组织开展了系列打击专项行动,摧毁犯罪团伙,斩断非法贸易链条,有效遏制了破坏野生动物资源违法犯罪的高发势头。

Fourth, we have taken firm actions against illegal trade. Under the principle of "prioritizing conservation, standardizing utilization and strict supervision," the Chinese government has fulfilled its responsibilities, acted proactively, and constantly strengthened law enforcement. The National Forestry and Grassland Administration has worked with 27 other central and state departments to set up a ministerial joint meeting for cracking down on illegal wildlife trade. We organized nationwide actions against illegal hunting, utilization and online trading of rare and endangered wild animals. Recently, we deployed special measures to protect migratory birds in spring and autumn, eradicate criminal gangs, cut off illegal trade chains, and effectively curb the high frequency of crimes against wildlife resources.

五是初步构建和完善野生动物疫源疫病监测防控体系,有效防控疫情扩散。

Fifth, we initially established and improved a monitoring and control system for epidemic diseases within wild animal communities, and have effectively prevented and controlled epidemic spread.

六是积极参与国际履约事务,加强国际交流合作,推进野生动物跨境保护,切实履行国际义务,对亚非等国家野生动物保护予以积极援助。我国已成为全球生态保护的重要力量。特别是我国停止虎、犀牛及其制品和象牙经营利用等交易活动,妥善处置北移亚洲象群,充分展现了中国负责任大国的良好形象。

Six, we have actively participated in international compliance affairs, strengthened international cooperation, promoted cross-border wildlife protection, fulfilled international obligations, and assisted other Asian and African countries with wildlife protection. China has become an important contributor to global ecological conservation. In particular, China has banned all activities related to using or trading tigers, rhinos, their products and ivories. It has also properly handled wild Asian elephants migrating northward. These actions have demonstrated China's image as a responsible major country.

我这里有一组具体的数据,在我们发布的白皮书里也有,我还想跟各位记者再说一下。总的说,通过以上这些措施,大熊猫、朱鹮、亚洲象、藏羚羊等多种濒危野生动物持续下降态势基本扭转并实现恢复。其中,大熊猫野外种群从80年代的1114只增至现在的1864只,亚洲象野外种群从1985年的约180只增加到现在的300只左右。高原精灵藏羚羊野外种群由上世纪90年代末的6万-7万只恢复到现在的30万只。我上个月去了西藏羌塘国家级自然保护区,在保护区我看到了大群的藏羚羊、藏原羚、藏野驴、岩羊奔驰在保护区内,我特别感到欣慰。海南长臂猿野外种群数量从40年前的仅存2群不到10只,增长到现在的5群35只。朱鹮从1981年发现时仅存的7只增加到现在种群总数超过5000只。白鹤由80年代初的210只增加到现在的4500余只。黑脸琵鹭由本世纪初的1000余只增加到现在的4000余只,已在野外灭绝的普氏野马、麋鹿重新建立了野外种群,大熊猫、朱鹮、扬子鳄、林麝、白颈长尾雉、黑叶猴等一大批野生动物放归自然。

I would like to share some statistics with you, which can also be found in the white paper. Generally speaking, the above-mentioned measures have basically reversed the loss of endangered wild animals, including giant pandas, crested ibises, Asian elephants and Tibetan antelopes. Their numbers are now on the rise. Specifically, the population of giant pandas in the wild has grown from 1,114 in the 1980s to 1,864 at present. The Asian elephant population in the wild has grown from 180 in 1985 to about 300 today. The Tibetan antelope population has grown from 60,000 to 70,000 in the late 1990s to 300,000 now. I visited the Qiangtang National Nature Reserve in Tibet last month, where I was delighted to see large herds of Tibetan antelopes, Tibetan gazelles, Tibetan wild donkeys, and blue sheep. In addition, the wild population of the Hainan Gibbon has increased from no more than 10 in two groups 40 years ago to 35 in 5 groups. The crested ibis population has increased from only 7 in 1981, when it was first discovered, to over 5,000 at present, when both wild species and artificial breeds are counted. The number of white cranes has climbed from 210 in the early 1980s to more than 4,500 today. The population of black-faced spoonbill has grown from more than 1,000 in the early 2000s to more than 4,000 now. China has rebuilt the wild population of the Przewalski's horse and elk, which were extinct in the wild. We have also released a large group of wild animals, such as giant pandas, crested ibises, Chinese alligators, forest musk deer, Elliot's pheasants, and Francois' leaf monkeys.

下一步,我局将认真落实党中央、国务院决策部署,有序抢救性保护珍稀濒危野生动物,完善生物多样性保护制度,严格进出口管理与执法,强化疫源疫病监测预警与防控,加强外来物种管控,采取主动引导和调控措施科学处理人与野生动物冲突,维护生物多样性和生物安全,不断开创野生动物保护新局面,实现人与野生动物和谐共处。谢谢。

In the next step, we will continue to implement the decisions and plans of the CPC Central Committee and the State Council, rescue rare and endangered wildlife in order, and improve the system for biodiversity conservation. We will tighten import and export management and law enforcement, strengthen the monitoring, early warning, prevention, and control of epidemic diseases, and take stricter control measures over invasive alien species. We will actively provide guidance and adopt regulatory measures in handling conflicts between humans and wild animals, and preserve biodiversity and biosafety to make new advances in wildlife protection and achieve harmonious coexistence between humanity and wild animals.

陈文俊:

Chen Wenjun:

最后一个问题。

The last question, please.

中国新闻社记者:

China News Service:

政府在生物多样性保护中发挥了引导作用,同时,社会公众也是生物多样性保护的重要力量,请问在培养普通群众生物多样性保护意识、提高公众参与度方面我们都做了哪些工作?谢谢。

While the government plays a leading role in biodiversity protection, the public have also been a big part in this endeavor. What measures have been taken to raise public awareness of biodiversity conservation and encourage their engagement? Thank you.

赵英民:

Zhao Yingmin:

谢谢你的提问。这个问题涉及我们每一个人。生物多样性与我们每一个人息息相关,因为生物多样性维系着我们的生存和发展,它是我们重要的物质基础。根据统计,全球GDP总量一半以上要部分或者高度依赖自然资源的贡献。面对全球生物多样性丧失和生态系统退化,中国秉持人与自然和谐共生理念,坚持保护优先、绿色发展,形成了政府主导、全民参与、多边治理、合作共赢的机制。在积极引导社会各界力量广泛参与生物多样性保护工作方面,发布了《公民生态环境行为规范(试行)》《关于推进环境保护公众参与的指导意见》等政策,组织开展“联合国生物多样性十年中国行动”系列活动,大力宣传生物多样性保护理念和法律法规措施等。充分利用“国际生物多样性日”“世界环境日”“世界地球日”等重要时间节点,宣传生物多样性保护的重要性,取得的成效和参与的途径等,并指导各地开展系列宣传教育以及科普活动。同时,积极和新闻媒体合作,借助新媒体拓展宣传平台、创新宣传模式。

Thank you for your question. Biodiversity is closely related to everyone, as it sustains human life and provides essential material foundation for us to survive and thrive. Statistics show that more than half of the global GDP is moderately or highly dependent on natural resources. Facing global biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation, China values harmony between man and nature, prioritizes ecological protection and green development, and has built a government-led mechanism featuring public participation, multilateral governance, and win-win cooperation. To facilitate the broad participation of all sectors of society in biodiversity protection, we promulgated the code of conduct for Chinese citizens in ecological protection (trial) and the guidelines for promoting public participation in environmental protection, organized a series of events under the framework of "United Nations Decade on Biodiversity, China in Action," and vigorously publicized the ideas, laws, regulations, and measures related to biodiversity conservation. On important occasions such as the International Day for Biological Diversity, World Environment Day, and World Earth Day, we publicized the importance of biodiversity conservation, the outcomes, and ways of participation. We also provided guidance for local departments to hold a series of publicity, education, and science popularization activities. At the same time, we actively cooperated with news organizations to expand publicity platforms and innovate publicity models with the help of new media.

企业、社会组织是生物多样性保护的重要力量,目前越来越多的机构也加入到生物多样性保护的宣传、教育行列中来,向公众提供更多便于参与、寓教于乐、形式新颖的环保公益产品和活动,让更多人了解生物多样性保护的知识和理念,使更多人可以参与到生物多样性保护当中来。

Enterprises and social organizations are also important forces for biodiversity conservation. More and more organizations are playing their part in promoting publicity and education on biodiversity conservation. Through entertaining and innovative products and activities, they are helping the public gain more knowledge about biodiversity conservation and facilitate broader participation.

应该说保护生物多样性,每一个人都可以从身边的小事做起,以实际行动保护生物多样性,为这个宏大目标贡献自己的力量。比如说践行绿色低碳循环的生活方式,倡导“光盘行动”,选择环境友好的服饰,拒绝购买和食用非法野生动物及其制品,共同防止外来物种入侵等。随着新媒体、AI技术、智能手机、高质量在线数据库的普及和应用,公众参与生物多样性保护的形式也越来越多样化。在COP15召开之际,我们也倡导社会各界、社会公众积极参与到生物多样性保护的行动中来,无论是亲身参与生物多样性保护项目,还是和家人、朋友分享生物多样性的小知识,都是为生物多样性保护做贡献。贡献不分大小,汇聚起来的都是力量。谢谢大家。

Everyone can contribute to biodiversity conservation by taking specific and practical actions in our daily lives. These include living a green and low-carbon lifestyle, carrying out the "Clear Your Plate" campaign against wasting food, buying environmentally friendly clothing, refusing to purchase and eat wild animals and their products, and jointly preventing the invasion of alien species. The popularization and application of new media, AI, smart phones, and high-quality online databases has increasingly diversified the forms of public participation in biodiversity conservation. On the occasion of the upcoming COP15 meeting, we encourage public engagement in biodiversity conservation. You can make contributions in various forms, such as participating in relevant projects and sharing knowledge about biodiversity conservation with your family and friends. No matter how big or small, every contribution counts tremendously, and together they will make a huge difference. Thank you.

陈文俊:

Chen Wenjun:

今天的新闻发布会就到这里,谢谢各位,再见!

Today's press conference is hereby concluded. Thank you. Goodbye!

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