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双语:乐玉成在“中外学者谈民主”高端对话会上的致辞

外交部 2021-12-03 49次

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民主好不好,人民最知道

On Democracy, the People Know the Best

——外交部副部长乐玉成在“中外学者谈民主”高端对话会上的致辞

– Remarks by Vice Foreign Minister Le Yucheng at “A Dialogue on Democracy”

2021年12月2日,北京国际俱乐部

Beijing International Club, 2 December 2021

各位朋友,

Distinguished Friends,

大家下午好!很高兴再次参加临甲7号沙龙。

Good afternoon! I’m very glad to join you again in this dialogue.

最近,民主在国际上成为热门话题。本来这是一件好事,但个别国家打着“民主”旗号,歪曲民主要义,乱设民主标准,甚至把民主当成服务一己之私的政治工具,在世界上搞各种小圈子,制造分裂和对抗。这显然同民主背道而驰。所以,今天我们开这个民主对话会很有必要,就是要通过讨论和交流,激浊扬清,明辨是非,探讨真正的民主之道。我愿借此机会和各位分享一点自己的思考。

Recently, democracy is being widely discussed around the world. This should have been a good thing. But a very few countries are using democracy as a cover: they twist its essence, and willfully set its standards. They even take democracy as a political tool for selfish gains, and build small blocs to create division and confrontation in the world. This obviously runs against the spirit of democracy.

Therefore, today’s dialogue on democracy is very necessary. Through our interaction, we hope to clear up confusion, promote right conceptions, and look for the right way of democracy. I wish to share with you a few of my thoughts.

首先我要回答一个问题,中国是不是民主国家?在一些西方人的中国叙事里,中国似乎没有民主,中国共产党等同于威权和专制,即使你创造了长期稳定、快速发展、脱贫攻坚等一系列人间奇迹,即使你得到了绝大多数中国民众的支持拥护,你仍然被视为不讲民主、没有人权的国家。这恰恰暴露了某些人阴暗的心理和不可告人的图谋,那就是把民主当作打压异己的工具、遏制别国发展的幌子。

The first question I’d like to answer is: Is China a democracy or not? Some in the West claim that there seems to be no democracy in China, and that the Communist Party of China is just authoritarian and autocratic. In their eyes, although China has created many miracles of long-term stability, rapid development and poverty reduction, and the government has the universal support of the Chinese people, yet China is still a country without democracy and without human rights.

This actually reveals their hostile mindsets and intentions, namely, democracy is just a tool to repress anyone who disagrees with them and to contain the development of other countries.

今年是中国共产党成立100周年。百年来,中国追求民主、发展民主的脚步从未停止。不少人应该看过最近热播的电视剧《觉醒年代》,其中有个镜头给我留下深刻印象:上个世纪初,中国共产党的创始人陈独秀、李大钊等人反复穿行在一条泥泞小路上,为中国的民主、自由而上下求索。

This year marks the 100th birthday of the CPC. For 100 years, China has never stopped its efforts to pursue and advance democracy. Many people have watched The Age of Awakening, a popular TV series. I was deeply impressed by one of the scenes – Chen Duxiu, Li Dazhao and other CPC founders walking back and forth on a muddy path in the early 20th century, looking for ways to democracy and freedom.

正是从这条泥泞小路出发,中国共产党带领中国人民开启了百年奋斗的伟大征程。早在上世纪30年代初瑞金中央苏区时期,中国共产党就探索建立了苏维埃工农兵代表大会。延安时期,不识字的农民用黄豆代替选票选出他们心目中最满意的好干部。美国著名记者斯诺访问延安后盛赞,这是“人类历史本身的丰富而灿烂的精华”,是一种“东方魔力”“兴国之光”。

Starting from that muddy path, the CPC led the Chinese people on a great journey of the century. In the early 1930s, the CPC established the congress of workers, peasants and soldiers in Ruijin, capital of the Chinese Soviet Republic. While in Yan’an, peasants, who could not read, would vote for their ideal candidates by casting beans as ballots. U.S. journalist Edgar Snow was deeply impressed by his visit to Yan’an. He said what he saw there was the best of human history, and a light of rejuvenation in the East.

新中国成立后,中国民主开启了新纪元,不断取得历史性成就。特别是党的十八大以来,以习近平同志为核心的党中央进一步深化对民主政治发展规律的认识,提出了全过程人民民主的重大理念,实现了对人民民主制度的重大创新。中国特色社会主义民主迈入了新时代。

After the founding of the People’s Republic, China’s democracy has stepped into a new stage, and made steady and historic progress. In particular, since the 18th CPC National Congress, the Party Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core has deepened the knowledge on the laws of democracy, and proposed the important concept of “whole-process people’s democracy”. This is a major innovation on the people’s democratic system. Socialist democracy with Chinese characteristics is now in a new era.

我身边不少同事和朋友说很希望《觉醒年代》拍续集,我告诉他们,今天欣欣向荣、蓬勃发展的自由民主中国不就是最好的“续集”吗?的确,中共先驱者的中国民主之梦今天全都变成了现实。全过程人民民主就是他们当年孜孜以求的最好答案。

Many of my colleagues and friends hope to see sequels to The Age of Awakening. I would ask them: Don’t you think the prosperous, dynamic, free and democratic China today is the best sequel? Our forefathers’ dream of democracy is now a reality, and the whole-process people’s democracy is the best answer to their life-long struggle.

中国的全过程人民民主,不是少数人、利益集团的民主,而是多数人、全体人民的民主。当前,中国从中央到省区市县乡有五级人大代表共262万多名,都是由选民选举出来,人民广泛参加国家事务特别是基层的管理,行使宪法赋予公民的权利。特别是十三届全国人大代表中,一线工人、农民、专业技术人员代表所占比例明显提升,凸显了人大代表的广泛性和人民群众政治参与的广泛性。

China’s whole-process people’s democracy is not for the few or an interest group. It is for the majority and the whole Chinese people. All the 2.62 million deputies in the five levels of people’s congresses, from the National People’s Congress down to provinces, cities, counties, and townships, are elected by the people. The people in China participate extensively in state affairs, especially local-level governance, to exercise their constitutional rights. Among the deputies to the 13th National People’s Congress, frontline workers, farmers and people with special skills take up a much bigger share. This shows the broadness of the NPC deputies and the extensive political participation by the people.

中国的全过程人民民主,不是搞“花架子”、形式上的民主,而是真正让老百姓得幸福、惠民生的民主。过去数十年,中国让8亿多人彻底摆脱绝对贫困,创造了世界前所未有的减贫奇迹。中国建起了世界规模最大的社会保障体系和全民医疗保障网,覆盖13亿多人口。就业是最大的民生,中国每年新增就业连续15年保持在1000万人以上,相当于每年增加一个中等国家的全部人口。目前中国已有10.8亿人完成新冠疫苗全程接种,全国60多万个基层社区关心着每一位居民的接种进度。

China’s whole-process people’s democracy is not a show, or a formality. It truly makes the people happy, and improves their well-being. In the past decades, more than 800 million Chinese have been lifted out of extreme poverty, a miracle unseen anywhere in the world. China has also built the world’s largest social security system and healthcare system, covering more than 1.3 billion people.

Jobs are the most important part of people’s well-being. More than 10 million new jobs were created each year for 15 consecutive years, a number equivalent to the population of a mid-sized country. So far, 1.08 billion Chinese have been fully vaccinated against COVID. And community workers in the 600,000 communities across China are keeping up to speed everyone’s vaccination.

中国的全过程人民民主,也不是那种在投票时被唤醒、投票后就休眠的民主,而是人民充分享有知情权、表达权、监督权,全链条参与的民主。“从群众中来,到群众中去”是中国民主实践的重要方法。当前,中国所有重大立法决策都经民主酝酿产生,党的十八大以来,共有187次法律草案向社会征求意见,共约110万人次提出300多万条意见建议。中国政府在制定“十四五”规划过程中,广泛问计于民,仅通过网上征求意见方式,就收集到100多万条意见建议。

China’s whole-process people’s democracy is not the kind that wakes up at the time of voting and goes back to dormant afterwards. Instead, it ensures that the people have the full right to know, to express, and to supervise. It means that the people participate in every part of democracy. “From the people, to the people” – this is an important way of China’s democratic practices. All major law-making decisions in China are the result of a democratic process. Since the 18th CPC National Congress, the public has been called on to comment on 187 draft laws. Around 1.1 million comments were collected, with more than 3 million suggestions. When drafting the 14th Five-Year Plan, the Chinese government also asked the public for advice. On the Internet alone, the government received more than one million proposals.

历史和现实充分证明,中国的民主模式符合本国国情,受到人民拥护,是真正的民主、管用的民主、成功的民主。中国是当之无愧的民主国家。当年那条泥泞的小路,如今已建成14亿中国人民不断迈向民主、自由、繁荣、富强的康庄大道!

Both history and reality have fully proved that China’s model of democracy fits in well with its national conditions. It enjoys the support of the people. It is real, effective, and successful democracy. China is indeed a true democratic country. That muddy path in the early 20th century has become a broad, straight road leading the 1.4 billion Chinese people to greater democracy, freedom, prosperity and better lives.

从中国成功的民主实践中,我们可以得到一个重要启示:民主制度不能是“飞来峰”,民主建设不需要“教师爷”。换句话说,民主要想成功,必须深深根植于本国的土壤,让本国人民满意和幸福。

China’s success in democracy highlights an important lesson: transplanted democracy does not work, and countries should not be lectured about how to build their own democracy. In other words, for democracy to succeed in a country, it must take deep roots in that country, and make its own people happy and satisfied.

中国人常说“十里不同音,百里不同俗”,即使在同一片中华大地上,也有东北黑土地、西北黄土地之分,还有江南水乡、塞北草原之别,土质不同,出产不同,文化也各具特色,更不用说世界各国千差万别、多姿多彩了。“一方水土养一方人”,同样的道理,“一方水土有一方民主”。就如同世界上找不到两片完全相同的叶子,在这个世界上,从来不存在适用于一切国家的民主模式,更没有十全十美、高人一等的民主制度。

We in China often say that “language dialects change every ten miles, and folk customs differ every 100 miles”. Even on the Chinese territory, there are many different features— the rich plains in the northeast and the dry yellow northwest, the wet south and the immense grasslands north. Different soils produce different crops and cultures. And that is also true with the diverse world with so many countries. As the saying goes that personality is shaped by the environment, democracy should also be moulded by the conditions on the ground. No two leaves in the world are completely the same. Likewise, a one-size-fits-all model of democracy for the whole world does not exist, and there is no democratic system that can claim to be perfect or superior to others.

回顾中国近代以来探索民主的历程,就曾因为简单照搬外来模式而吃了不少苦头,付出惨痛代价。放眼世界,无论阿富汗还是利比亚、伊拉克,被“颜色革命”强行移植的民主,结果都是灾难性的,最终遭殃的还是无辜的人民。

If you look at China’s path to democracy in modern times, you will see that we suffered a lot and paid a heavy price by simply copying the models from other countries. If you look at the world, be it in Afghanistan, Libya or Iraq, democracy imposed through color revolutions all ended in catastrophe. And at the end of the day, it is the innocent people that bear the brunt.

各位朋友,

Friends,

当前,全球疫情与百年变局交织叠加,人类发展正面临前所未有的风险和挑战,迫切需要国际社会齐心协力,合作应对。个别国家以“民主领袖”自居,召集什么“民主峰会”,人为把世界各国分成三六九等,贴上“民主”和“非民主”标签,对各国民主制度说三道四,指手画脚,这是假民主之名、行反民主之实。这种做法对国际社会团结合作没有任何好处,对世界发展也不会有任何裨益。

Our world is going through a pandemic and changes unseen in a century. Humanity faces unprecedented risks and challenges. Now more than ever, the world needs to come together and respond collectively. A certain country is putting together the so-called democracy summit as self-styled leader of democracy. It divides countries into different levels of a hierarchy, labels them as democratic or undemocratic, and points fingers at other countries’ democratic systems. It claims it is doing this for democracy. But this is in fact the very opposite of democracy. It will do no good to global solidarity and cooperation or promote global development.

民主说到底就是要食人间烟火,时刻问政于民、问需于民、造福于民,而不是高居庙堂、高谈阔论、远离人民。面对动荡不定的世界,国际社会当务之急仍是继续抗击新冠疫情。全球被新冠病毒夺去生命的人数已超过520万,其中美国一国就有80万之多,我们对此深感痛心,绝不能允许这样的人间悲剧再继续下去。据世卫组织预计,世界上仍有80多个国家在年底前无法实现40%成年人接种疫苗的目标,其中许多是非洲国家,而来势汹汹的“奥密克戎”新冠毒株正在严重威胁非洲人民的生命安全。中国一直在向非洲人民伸出援手,日前习近平主席在出席中非合作论坛第八届部长级会议上宣布了中国援助非洲的一系列重大举措,其中包括再向非州国家提供10亿剂疫苗,援助实施10个医疗卫生项目,派遣1500名医疗队员和公共卫生专家,等等。除了新冠疫情,气候变化、经济通胀、能源安全、难民移民等一系列挑战也十分严峻,迫切需要各国团结合作,共谋对策。让我们还是回归民主的本质,多接地气,多关心民生,多造福人民吧。

In essence, democracy needs to be in touch with the people. It needs to keep in mind what policies people want; what their needs are; and how to make their lives better. Democracy is not to be put on a pedestal. It is not about grandstanding. And it should not be out of touch with the general public. In today’s world of uncertainties, fighting COVID-19 remains a top priority. The coronavirus has claimed over 5.2 million lives worldwide. The U.S. alone lost over 800,000 lives to COVID. This is heart-wrenching. This tragedy must not continue. According to the WHO, more than 80 countries are still unable to vaccinate 40 percent of their adults by the end of this year. Many of them are African countries. What is worse, the new and formidable variant Omicron is now posing a severe threat to the African people. To help address these challenges, China has been providing assistance to people in Africa. At the recent Ministerial Conference of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation, or FOCAC, President Xi Jinping announced major steps in support of Africa, including another one billion doses of vaccines to African countries, 10 medical and health projects, and 1,500 medical personnel and public health experts.

In addition to COVID-19, we also face many other challenges including climate change, inflation, energy security, and refugees and migrants. The clock is ticking for all countries to work together to find a solution. Let us return to what democracy is really about, get in touch with the people, and do more to improve their lives.

以上就是我的致辞。希望对大家接下来的讨论有所助益和启发。最后,预祝本次对话会取得圆满成功!谢谢大家!

With that, I conclude my remarks, which I hope would be useful and meaningful for your discussions. I wish this dialogue a full success. Thank you.

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