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双语:国新办举行《中国的民主》白皮书新闻发布会

国新办 2022-01-07 74次

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国务院新闻办新闻局局长、新闻发言人陈文俊:

Chen Wenjun:

女士们、先生们,上午好!今天国务院新闻办公室举行新闻发布会,发布《中国的民主》白皮书,解读这部白皮书,并回答各位关心的问题。出席今天发布会的是:中央宣传部副部长、国务院新闻办公室主任徐麟先生,中央统战部副部长许又声先生,中央政策研究室副主任田培炎先生,全国人大常委会副秘书长郭振华先生,全国政协办公厅研究室主任胡衡庐先生,民政部副部长王爱文先生。

Ladies and gentlemen, good morning. The State Council Information Office (SCIO) is holding a press conference today to issue and introduce a white paper titled "China: Democracy That Works," and then take your questions. Present at today's press conference are Mr. Xu Lin, deputy director of the Publicity Department of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (CPC) and minister of the SCIO; Mr. Xu Yousheng, deputy director of the United Front Work Department of the CPC Central Committee; Mr. Tian Peiyan, deputy director of the Policy Research Office of the CPC Central Committee; Mr. Guo Zhenhua, deputy secretary general of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC); Mr. Hu Henglu, head of the Research Department of the General Office of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC); and Mr. Wang Aiwen, vice minister of civil affairs.

下面,请徐麟先生作发布。

Next, I will give the floor to Mr. Xu Lin.

中央宣传部副部长、国务院新闻办公室主任徐麟:

Xu Lin:

女士们、先生们,记者朋友们:大家上午好!

Ladies and gentlemen, friends from the media, good morning.

民主是全人类共同价值,是中国共产党和中国人民始终不渝坚持的重要理念。

Democracy is a common value of humanity and an ideal that has always been cherished by the CPC and the Chinese people.

今年是中国共产党成立100周年。100年来,我们党高举人民民主旗帜,领导人民实现人民当家作主,人民真正成为国家、社会、自己命运的主人。

This year marks the centenary of the CPC. Over the past hundred years, the Party has upheld people's democracy and led the people in realizing their status as masters of the country. The Chinese people now truly hold in their hands their own future and that of society and the country.

党的十八大以来,以习近平同志为核心的党中央提出全过程人民民主重大理念并大力推进,民主价值理念进一步转化为科学有效的制度安排和具体现实的民主实践。全过程人民民主在中华大地展示出勃勃生机和强大生命力。

Since the Party's 18th National Congress, the CPC Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core has developed whole-process people's democracy as a key concept and strived to implement it, further translating democratic values into science-based and effective institutions and concrete actions. The viability and strength of whole-process people's democracy can be seen across China.

今天,中国国务院新闻办公室发布《中国的民主》白皮书。这部白皮书,是一部系统介绍中国民主价值理念、发展历程、制度体系、参与实践和成就贡献的重要文献。白皮书指出,全过程人民民主,实现了过程民主和成果民主、程序民主和实质民主、直接民主和间接民主、人民民主和国家意志相统一,是全链条、全方位、全覆盖的民主,是最广泛、最真实、最管用的社会主义民主。

Today, the SCIO issued a white paper titled "China: Democracy That Works." This important document is a systematic introduction to China's democratic values, their course of development, institutional arrangements and systems, actions, as well as relevant achievements and contributions. The document notes that whole-process people's democracy integrates process-oriented democracy with results-oriented democracy, procedural democracy with substantive democracy, direct democracy with indirect democracy, and people's democracy with the will of the state. It is a model of socialist democracy that covers all aspects of the democratic process and all sectors of society. It is true democracy that works.

白皮书分为前言、正文、结束语三个部分。正文分为“中国共产党领导人民实现全过程人民民主”“具有科学有效的制度安排”“具有具体现实的民主实践”“广泛真实管用的民主”“丰富人类政治文明形态”等五个部分。从这五个方面内容,我们可以清晰地看出,中国的全过程人民民主,既有鲜明理念,也有现实体现;既有制度程序,也有参与实践;既促进了中国发展,也丰富了人类政治文明,是历史逻辑、理论逻辑、实践逻辑有机统一的民主体系。

The white paper consists of three parts: preamble, main body and conclusion. The main body is divided into five sections: "Whole-Process People's Democracy Under CPC Leadership," "A Sound Institutional Framework," "Concrete and Pragmatic Practices," "Democracy That Works" and "A New Model of Democracy." From these five aspects, it is clear that China's whole-process people's democracy has both distinctive ideals and pragmatic actions as well as both institutional procedures and participating practices. It not only promotes China's development, but also increases the diversity of the political progress of humanity. It is a democratic system that integrates the logics of history, theory and practice.

第一,中国的民主,是人民当家作主的民主。中国的民主是人民民主,人民当家作主是中国民主的本质和核心。白皮书介绍了新民主主义革命时期、社会主义革命和建设时期、改革开放和社会主义现代化建设新时期,党领导人民发展民主的历程,介绍了党的十八大以来,党领导人民积极发展全过程人民民主,中国的民主发展进入历史新时期,中国人民的民主自信更加坚定,中国的民主之路越走越宽广。白皮书指出,全过程人民民主,是中国共产党团结带领人民追求民主、发展民主、实现民主的伟大创造,是党不断推进中国民主理论创新、制度创新、实践创新的经验结晶。白皮书强调,中国共产党的奋斗史,是团结带领人民探索、形成、发展全过程人民民主的奋斗史。

First, China's democracy puts the people as the country's masters. The people's status as masters of the country is the essence of people's democracy in China. The white paper reviewed the process in which the Party led the people in developing democracy during the New Democratic Revolution period (1919-1949), socialist revolution and reconstruction period (1949-1978), and the years of reforms, opening-up and socialist modernization after 1978. It notes that since the 18th CPC National Congress, the Party has led the people in proactively developing whole-process people's democracy, and China's democracy has entered a new historical stage with its people having greater confidence in the country's democratic course and the future of China's democracy getting brighter. The white paper points out that whole-process people's democracy is a creation of the CPC in leading the people to pursue, develop and realize democracy, embodying the Party's innovation in advancing China's democratic theories, systems and practices. The white paper stresses that the Party's history of struggle is a course of rallying the people and leading them to explore, establish and develop whole-process people's democracy.

第二,中国的民主,具有科学有效的制度安排。在中国,国家各项制度都是围绕人民当家作主构建的,国家治理体系都是围绕实现人民当家作主运转的,全过程人民民主具有完整的制度程序。

Second, democracy in China has achieved a sound institutional framework. In China, the people's status as masters of the country is the bedrock of all the systems of the country, and underlies the operation of all the systems for state governance. Whole-process people's democracy involves complete institutional procedures.

中国实行人民民主专政的国体,坚持民主与专政有机统一,保证了人民当家作主;实行人民代表大会制度的政体,人民通过人民代表大会有效行使国家权力;坚持和完善中国共产党领导的多党合作和政治协商制度,有效避免了议而不决、决而不行的弊端和一党缺乏监督、多党恶性竞争的弊端;巩固和发展最广泛的爱国统一战线,不断促进政党关系、民族关系、宗教关系、阶层关系、海内外同胞关系和谐;坚持和完善民族区域自治制度,既保证国家团结统一,又实现各民族共同当家作主;坚持和完善基层群众自治制度,发展基层民主,实现人民群众自我管理、自我服务、自我教育和自我监督。

China has adopted the governing system of the people's democratic dictatorship, upholding the unity of democracy and dictatorship to ensure the people's status as masters of the country. The system of people's congresses has been adopted as the governing structure, through which the people exercise state power effectively. China has upheld and improved the system of multiparty cooperation and political consultation under CPC leadership. The system is able to avoid situations where there is discussion without decision and there is decision without action. It also effectively mitigates the risks of inadequate oversight in one-party rule, and the problems of destructive competition in multiparty political systems. China has consolidated and developed the broad patriotic united front, systematically promoting harmonious relations between political parties, between ethnic groups, between religions, between social groups, and between Chinese people at home and overseas. China has upheld and improved the system of regional ethnic autonomy, making the people of all ethnic groups the masters of the country on the principle of ensuring the solidarity and unity of the country. China has also upheld and improved the system of community-level self-governance. Democracy at the primary level has been expanded so that local residents can manage their own affairs by serving the community, undertaking self-education, and exercising public scrutiny.

白皮书指出,这些制度程序,形成了全面、广泛、有机衔接的人民当家作主制度体系,构建了多样、畅通、有序的民主渠道,有效保证了党的主张、国家意志、人民意愿相统一,有效保证了人民当家作主。

According to the white paper, these well-coordinated and comprehensive institutional procedures serve to put into place diverse, open, and well-organized democratic channels to ensure that the Party's policies and the state will are integrated with the people's aspirations and that the people are masters of the country.

第三,中国的民主,具有具体现实的民主实践。白皮书指出,如果人民只有在投票时被唤醒,投票后就进入休眠期;只有竞选时聆听天花乱坠的口号,竞选后就毫无发言权;只有拉票时受宠,选举后就被冷落,这样的民主不是真正的民主。

Third, democracy in China has been tested through concrete and pragmatic practices. According to the white paper, if the people are awakened only to cast a vote but become dormant afterwards, that is no true democracy. If the people are offered great hopes during electoral campaigning but have no say afterwards, that is no true democracy. If the people are offered fulsome promises during electoral canvassing but are left empty-handed afterwards, that is no true democracy.

中国发展全过程人民民主,既有完整的制度程序,也有完整的参与实践。全过程人民民主,坚持选举民主与协商民主相结合,贯通民主选举、民主协商、民主决策、民主管理、民主监督等各个环节,涵盖经济、政治、文化、社会、生态文明等各个方面,关注国家发展大事、社会治理难事、百姓日常琐事,使国家政治生活和社会生活各环节、各方面都体现人民意愿、听到人民声音,有效防止了选举时漫天许诺、选举后无人过问的现象。

Whole-process people's democracy in China is a complete system with supporting mechanisms and procedures, and has been fully tested through wide participation. China's whole-process people's democracy is a combination of electoral democracy and consultative democracy, and is applied through a combination of elections, consultations, decision-making, management, and oversight. It covers the economic, political, cultural, social, eco-environmental, and other fields, with a focus on national development, social governance, and people's lives. Whole-process people's democracy ensures that the people's voices are heard and their wishes are represented in every aspect of China's political and social life. It prevents individuals from manipulating the political process to win elections, and leaves no room for politicians to shower promises while campaigning and break them all once elected.

第四,中国的民主,是广泛、真实、管用的民主。白皮书指出,民主不是装饰品,不是用来做摆设的,而是要用来解决人民需要解决的问题的。

Fourth, democracy in China is an extensive and true democracy that works. According to the white paper, democracy is not a decorative ornament, but an instrument for addressing the issues that concern the people.

完整的制度程序和完整的参与实践,使全过程人民民主从价值理念成为扎根中国大地的制度形态、治理机制和人民的生活方式。在中国,国家的一切权力属于人民,人民享有广泛权利;在中国,人民的获得感、幸福感、安全感不断提升,人权得到充分尊重和有效保障;在中国,人民民主参与不断扩大,人民利益要求既能畅通表达也能有效实现。

With complete institutions and extensive participation, whole-process people's democracy has evolved from an idea into a system and mechanism of governance that has taken root in the soil of Chinese society and become part of people's lives. In China, all power belongs to the people, and the people enjoy extensive rights. In China, the people have gained a stronger sense of fulfillment, happiness, and security, and human rights are fully respected and protected. In China, democratic participation has kept expanding, and the people's demands can be freely expressed and effectively fulfilled.

白皮书指出,好的民主,一定是实现良政善治、推动国家发展的,绝无国家治理“失灵”“失效”,国内问题成堆,民主却是“世界样板”的荒谬现象;好的民主,应凝聚社会共识而不是造成社会撕裂和冲突,应维护社会公平正义而不是导致社会阶层和利益固化,应保持社会稳定有序而不是带来混乱和动荡,应让社会充满向善向美向上的正能量而不是充斥假恶丑的负能量。

The white paper points out that "One essential feature of a good model of democracy is that it will promote sound governance and boost national development," and "It is hard to see how a country can serve as a good example for the rest of the world if its own model of democracy is unsuccessful or inefficient in national governance." In addition, it states, "A good model of democracy should build consensus rather than creating social rifts and conflicts, safeguard social equity and justice rather than widening social disparities in favor of vested interests, maintain social order and stability rather than causing chaos and turmoil, and inspire positivity and appreciation of the good and the beautiful rather than instigating negativity and promoting the false and the evil."

中国的民主,推动了国家发展,促进了社会进步,实现了人民幸福,是高质量的民主。

China's democracy has boosted national development and social progress, and ensured the wellbeing of the people. It is high-quality democracy.

白皮书强调,评判一种民主形式好不好,实践最有说服力,人民最有发言权。

The white paper emphasizes that "Whether a model of democracy works should be tested in actual practice and judged by the people."

第五,中国的民主,丰富了人类政治文明形态。占世界人口近五分之一的14亿多中国人民真正实现当家作主,享有广泛权利和自由,为人类民主事业发展探索了新的路径,为人类政治文明发展贡献了中国智慧。

Fifth, China's democracy has contributed a new model to the international political spectrum. Representing nearly one-fifth of the world's population, the more-than-1.4 billion Chinese people enjoy the status as masters of the country and extensive rights and freedoms. China has explored a new path to democracy and contributed its experience to global political progress.

白皮书指出,中国基于本国国情发展全过程人民民主,既有着鲜明的中国特色,也体现了全人类对民主的共同追求。实现民主有多种方式,不可能千篇一律。

The white paper points out that, "China has created and developed whole-process people's democracy in line with its national conditions. This is a form of democracy with distinctive Chinese features which at the same time reflects humanity's universal desire for democracy." It also says "There is no single road to democracy."

人类政治文明的百花园之所以绚烂多彩,正是由于不同文明各有千秋。以自己的尺度评判他国,甚至迫使他国照搬自己的政治制度、民主模式,这是反民主的,是不得人心的,是注定要失败的。

"Political systems vary from civilization to civilization, and each has its own strengths." "To judge other countries by one's own yardstick, or force them to duplicate one's own political system or democratic model … are undemocratic in themselves." Therefore, such deeds earn no one's heart and are doomed to fail.

白皮书强调,各国应坚持平等非歧视原则,相互尊重彼此的民主模式,既致力于本国探索,又加强交流互鉴;既各美其美,又美美与共,共同推动人类文明向前发展。

The white paper highlights that "All countries should uphold the principle of nondiscrimination, respect others' models of democracy, share experience with others, explore their own paths, and contribute their due share to human progress."

民主没有最好,只有更好。中国的民主发展取得了显著成就,同时,还需要不断发展完善。在全面建设社会主义现代化国家新征程上,中国共产党将继续高举人民民主旗帜,始终坚持以人民为中心的发展思想,坚定不移推进全过程人民民主,在不断推动人的全面发展、全体人民共同富裕中实现民主新发展,让民主之树枝繁叶茂、永远常青。

"There is always scope for improving the system of democracy." "China has achieved considerable progress in developing democracy; … China still needs to make further improvements. On the path towards comprehensive socialist modernization, the CPC will continue to uphold people's democracy, embrace the people-centered development philosophy, promote whole-process people's democracy, ensure the sound development of democracy, and pursue well-rounded human development and common prosperity for everyone."

中国人民愿同世界各国人民一道,弘扬和平、发展、公平、正义、民主、自由的全人类共同价值,本着相互尊重、求同存异的精神,共同丰富发展人类政治文明,共同推动构建人类命运共同体。

"The Chinese people are willing to work together with all other peoples around the world to carry forward the common values of humanity – peace, development, fairness, justice, democracy and freedom. In a spirit of mutual respect and following the principle of seeking common ground while setting aside differences, we will add new elements to the world's political structure and advance towards a global community of shared future together."

我就介绍这些,谢谢大家!

That's all I have to introduce. Thank you!

陈文俊:

Chen Wenjun:

谢谢徐麟先生。下面进入提问环节,请各位记者提问前通报自己所在的新闻机构。现场有不少外国媒体朋友,如果用英文提问,我们现场交传成中文。现在开始提问。

Thank you, Mr. Xu. The Q&A session starts now. Please identify the news outlet you work for before raising a question. We have many journalists from other countries here, and questions asked in English will be interpreted into Chinese on the spot. Please start your questions now.

人民日报记者:

People's Daily:

中国坚持党的全面领导,特别是党中央的集中统一领导。请问坚持党的领导与全过程人民民主之间是一个什么样的关系?谢谢。

China upholds the CPC's overall leadership, especially the centralized and unified leadership of the CPC Central Committee. What is the relationship between upholding the leadership of the CPC and whole-process people's democracy? Thank you.

中央政策研究室副主任田培炎:

Tian Peiyan:

党的领导本质就是支持和保证人民当家作主。全过程人民民主是我们党团结带领人民追求民主、实现民主、发展民主的伟大创造,是我们党不断推进中国民主理论创新、实践创新、制度创新的经验结晶。发展全过程人民民主能够更加有效地实现党的领导。可以说,坚持党的领导与发展全过程人民民主是高度一致的,二者相互促进、相得益彰。

The essence of the leadership of the CPC is to uphold and ensure the people's status as masters of the country. "Whole-process people's democracy is a creation of the CPC in leading the people to pursue, develop and realize democracy, embodying the Party's innovation in advancing China's democratic theories, systems and practices." Developing whole-process people's democracy can ensure the CPC leadership more effectively. We can say that upholding the CPC leadership is highly consistent with developing whole-process people's democracy, with the two reinforcing and complementing each other.

一方面,坚持党的领导是发展全过程人民民主的根本保证。中国共产党始终代表中国最广大人民的根本利益,没有任何自己特殊的利益,从来不代表任何利益集团、任何权势团体、任何特权阶层的利益,始终坚定地站在人民的一边,始终坚持紧紧依靠人民创造历史伟业。在我们这样一个有着56个民族和14亿多人口的大国,如果没有党的领导特别是党中央集中统一领导,搞西方那一套所谓的“民主”,是很容易搞散、搞乱的,民主必然会走向它的反面。只有坚持党的领导,才能保证民主的正确方向,保证全体人民依法通过各种途径和形式管理国家事务、管理经济和文化事业、管理社会事务。

On the one hand, upholding the CPC leadership is the fundamental guarantee for whole-process people's democracy. The CPC represents the fundamental interests of the overwhelming majority of the Chinese people, without any special interests of its own, and never represents the interests of any interest groups, powerful groups, or privileged elites. It stands firmly with the people and relies closely on the people to create history. In such a vast country with a population of more than 1.4 billion from 56 ethnic groups, if we were without the CPC leadership, especially the centralized and unified leadership of the CPC Central Committee, or if we implemented the so-called "democracy" in the West, it would be easy to become destabilized and fall into chaos, and democracy would inevitably reverse. Only by upholding the CPC leadership can we guarantee the right direction of democracy and ensure that people administer state affairs and manage economic and cultural undertakings and social affairs through various channels and in various ways in accordance with the law.

另一方面,发展全过程人民民主是坚持党的领导的内在要求。发展全过程人民民主,可以把全体人民的智慧和力量凝聚到党和国家事业中来,厚植党的领导的民意基础,使党的决策更加科学,党的理论和路线方针政策贯彻得更加彻底、执行得更加有力。谢谢。

On the other hand, developing whole-process people's democracy is the intrinsic requirement of upholding the CPC leadership. Developing whole-process people's democracy can pool people's wisdoms and strengths into the cause of the CPC and the state, build stronger public support for the CPC leadership, make the policymaking of the CPC more reasonable, and implement the theories, lines, principles, and policies of the CPC in a more thorough and vigorous way. Thank you.

新加坡联合早报记者:

Lianhe Zaobao:

有两个问题。美国下周会召开民主峰会,中国近期也在强调全过程人民民主,今天也发布了《中国的民主》白皮书。有观点认为,中美正在陷入一场围绕着民主话语权之争。请问,您对此有什么样的看法?我们知道中国共产党将在明年下半年召开二十大,会有2300名代表名额,能否介绍一下二十大代表的构成,比如说领导干部和基层人员的比例以及男性和女性的比例等?谢谢。

I have two questions. The U.S. will convene a Summit for Democracy next week. Recently, China has also emphasized whole-process people's democracy, and it released a white paper titled "China: Democracy That Works" today. Some hold that China and the U.S. are now in a struggle to make their own voice heard about democracy. What's your opinion on this? My second question is, the CPC will convene its 20th national congress in the second half of next year, and a total of 2,300 delegates to the congress will be elected. Could you please brief on the composition of the delegates, such as the ratio of officials against grassroots representation or that of male versus female? Thank you.

徐麟:

Xu Lin:

谢谢你的提问,首先回答你第一个问题。我们始终认为民主是多样的,实现民主的道路并非只有一条,适合的才是最好的。刚才我也讲了,中国的全过程人民民主是全链条、全方位、全覆盖的民主。是最广泛、最真实、最管用的社会主义民主。中国的全过程人民民主植根中国历史文化,符合中国国情,借鉴人类文明优秀成果,既有鲜明的中国特色,也体现全人类共同价值,丰富了人类政治文明形态,为人类民主事业发展贡献了中国智慧和中国方案。

Thank you for your questions. First, we always hold that democracy comes in many forms. There are many ways to achieve it, and the model that suits best is always the most appropriate. As I have just mentioned, China's whole-process people's democracy is a model of socialist democracy that covers all aspects of the democratic process and all sectors of society. It is true democracy that works. It is rooted in China's history and culture, and suited to the country's national conditions. With distinctive Chinese characteristics, it draws on the achievements of human civilization, exemplifies common values of humanity, enriches international politics, and contributes China's ideas and solutions to the development of democracy.

我们始终坚持,对各国不同的民主形式,应开放包容、求同存异;对各国追求民主的探索和努力,应充分尊重、互学互鉴,这才是真正的民主。少数国家以同我即对、非我即错的霸道思维,把其他民主形式视为不民主甚至进行排斥打压,这本身就是不民主的。他们自身民主劣迹斑斑,国内治理一团糟,却对别国的民主指手画脚、横加指责,这难道就是他们标榜的民主吗?

We always uphold that we should be open and inclusive and seek common ground while setting aside differences for different forms of democracy in different countries. As for the explorations and efforts in pursuit of democracy in ifferent countries, we should respect them and draw on each other's experiences. That is true democracy. A handful of countries, adopting the hegemonic mindset that "whoever disagrees with me is wrong," treat other forms of democracy as undemocratic and even reject or suppress them. Those deeds are undemocratic themselves. Their models of democracy are notorious, and their own domestic governance is a mess, but they dictate to others and hurl abuses at others' models of democracy. Does this conform to their so-called democracy?

美国自诩“民主领袖”,组织和操弄所谓“民主峰会”,实为以民主为幌子,对与其社会制度不同、发展模式不同的国家进行打压遏制,这种假民主之名、行反民主之实的行径,将是人类民主发展史上的笑话,注定是不得人心的。

The U.S. proclaims itself "leader of democracy" and organizes and maneuvers a so-called "Summit for Democracy." But in fact, it just wants to suppress and contain countries with different social systems and development modes in the disguise of democracy. The deeds of being against democracy with the name of fake democracy are doomed to be a joke in the development of democracy and would not get any support.

回答你第二个问题。明年,中国共产党将召开第二十次全国代表大会。前不久,中共中央印发了《关于党的二十大代表选举工作的通知》,中央组织部负责人就做好二十大代表选举工作的有关问题,接受了新华社记者采访。在这里,我也很乐意向大家介绍一下有关情况。

As for your second question, next year, the CPC will convene its 20th national congress. Recently, the CPC Central Committee released a circular on the election of delegates to the Party's 20th national congress. Officials of the Organization Department of the CPC Central Committee were interviewed by Xinhua News Agency on the related issues. Here, I would like to give you a more detailed introduction.

党中央明确,二十大代表名额共2300名。代表名额的分配主要根据党组织的数量和党员人数确定,同时也考虑前几次党的全国代表大会代表名额等因素。

According to the CPC Central Committee, a total of 2,300 delegates will be elected to the Party's 20th national congress. The quota for the number of delegates is mainly determined by the number of Party organizations and the number of Party members, while taking into account such factors as the number of delegates to the previous national congresses.

党中央要求,保证生产和工作第一线代表比例。各省(区、市)、中央金融系统和中央企业系统(在京)代表中,生产和工作第一线党员所占比例一般不少于1/3,党员领导干部(领导人员)所占比例一般不超过2/3。代表中女党员代表应占一定比例,各省(区、市)女党员代表的比例一般应高于本地区党员总数中女党员所占的比例;中央和国家机关、中央金融系统、中央企业系统(在京)、解放军和武警部队代表中,应有一定数量的女党员。这些,充分体现党内民主,充分体现广泛代表性,使二十大代表能够更好代表和反映各行各业、各个方面的党员意愿。谢谢。

The CPC Central Committee stresses guaranteeing the proportion of delegates from frontline work and production. Among delegates representing provincial level regions, the central financial sector, and Beijing-based centrally-administered enterprises, Party members from the front line should account for at least one-third of the total while those at various leadership posts should not exceed two-thirds of the total. Female Party members should account for a certain proportion of the delegates. The proportion of female delegates from a provincial level region should be higher than that of female Party members in the total number of Party members in the region. There should be a certain number of female delegates from the central and state organs, the central financial sector, Beijing-based centrally-administered enterprises, the People's Liberation Army, and the People's Armed Police Force. These fully embody democracy within the Party and extensive representation, which will enable delegates to the Party's 20th national congress to better represent and reflect the will of Party members from all walks of life and sectors. Thank you.

日本共同社记者:

Kyodo News Agency:

什么样的人能当人大代表候选人?基层、地方、全国各个级别的人大代表怎么选?与西方国家制度比较,有什么样的区别和特点?谢谢。

What kind of people can be candidates for people's congress deputies? How to elect deputies to the NPC and the local people's congresses at all levels? Compared with the systems of Western countries, what are the differences and characteristics? Thank you.

全国人大常委会副秘书长郭振华:

Guo Zhenhua:

中国实行人民代表大会制度,作为国家的根本政治制度,它的初心和本质就是要实现中国人民当家作主。中国的宪法明确规定,国家的一切权力属于人民。作为人民代表大会制度基础的中国人大代表选举有两个显著特点:

The system of people's congresses is China's fundamental political system, whose original aspiration and essence is to ensure Chinese people's status as masters of the country. The Constitution stipulates that all power in China belongs to the people. The election of deputies to people's congresses, which is the basis of the system of people's congresses, has two notable characteristics:

第一,中国公民的选举权利具有最广泛的普遍性。根据宪法,年满18周岁的中国公民都享有选举权和被选举权,只有依法被剥夺政治权利的人除外。当前中国正在进行县乡两级人大的换届选举,有超过10亿选民参加选举。这是中国全过程人民民主最生动的实践,也是世界上规模最大的选举。

First, the rights to vote for Chinese citizens are the most extensive. According to the Constitution, all citizens of the PRC who have reached the age of 18 shall have the right to vote and stand for election; persons deprived of political rights in accordance with law shall be an exception. Currently, more than 1 billion voters are participating in the elections to people's congresses at the township and county levels. Elections at the grassroots level are the most dynamic form of China's whole-process people's democracy, and also the world's largest elections.

大家关注最近的新闻报道,在北京,习近平主席作为北京市西城区中南海选区的选民,在怀仁堂投票站郑重投下自己的一票;在四川,一位106岁的老人在家门口的流动票箱投下自己的一票;在上海,有一对耄耋老人,丈夫90岁、妻子78岁,投票以后展示了他们珍藏的31张选民证,这31张选民证都是夫妇二老的,跨度68年,最早的一张属于丈夫袁先生,是1953年新中国第一次全国范围选举人大代表。

The latest news reported that, in Beijing, Chinese President Xi Jinping, as a voter in Zhongnanhai electoral district in Xicheng district, cast his ballot at the Huairentang polling station. In Sichuan province, a 106-year-old woman cast her vote at a mobile ballot box outside her house. In Shanghai, a senior couple – a 90-year-old husband and his 78-year-old wife – displayed their collection of 31 voter's certificates after voting. These certificates are all owned by the couple, spanning 68 years. The oldest certificate belongs to Mr. Yuan, who participated in the first nationwide election of deputies to people's congresses in 1953 after the founding of the PRC.

第二,中国的人大代表具有最广泛的代表性。中国有五级人大代表,全国、省、市、县、乡五级人大一共有代表262.3万。其中,县乡两级人大代表247.8万,占代表总数的94.5%,县乡两级代表都是由选民一人一票直接选举产生的。全国、省、市三级人大代表间接选举,由下一级人大选举产生。中国的选举法规定,各个地区、各个民族、各个方面都要有适当数量的代表,对基层代表特别是工人、农民、专业技术人员代表、妇女代表、少数民族代表等,都有明确的要求。在中国,可以说每一个地区、每一个行业、每一个领域、每一个民族都有人大代表。

Second, the deputies to people's congresses are fully representative of the people. China has five-level deputies: national, provincial, city, county, and township. At the end of 2020, 2.623 million people were serving as deputies to people's congresses at all levels nationwide. Among them, 2.478 million are at the township and county levels, accounting for 94.5% of the total. Deputies at the township and county levels are directly elected by the public; one person has one vote. Deputies to people's congresses at the city, provincial, and national levels are elected by people's congresses at the next level below. China's Electoral Law stipulates that there shall be an appropriate number of deputies from all regions, ethnic groups, and sectors, and makes clear requirements for the proportion of deputies elected from the grassroots level, especially workers, farmers, professionals and technicians, women, and ethnic minorities. It can be said that in China, deputies to people's congresses come from every region, every industry, every field, and every ethnic group.

以十三届全国人大为例,在将近3000名代表中,妇女代表742名,占代表总数的24.9%;一线工人、农民代表468名,占代表总数的15.7%,在这当中还有45名农民工代表;专业技术人员代表613名,占代表总数的20.6%;少数民族代表438名,占代表总数的14.7%。全国55个少数民族都有全国人大代表,人口特少的民族也至少有一名全国人大代表,比如生活在西藏的门巴族,人口只有约1万人,也有一名全国人大代表,她是一位妇女代表,是当地小学的一位老师。

Take the 13th NPC as an example. Among the nearly 3,000 deputies to the 13th NPC, 742 are women deputies, accounting for 24.9% of the total; and 468 workers and farmers, accounting for 15.7% of the total, including 45 migrant workers. Moreover, 613 deputies are professionals, accounting for 20.6% of the total, and 438 deputies are from ethnic minority groups, accounting for 14.7% of the total. All 55 ethnic minorities in China have NPC deputy representation. Even those with a very small population would have at least one NPC deputy. For example, the Monba ethnic group in Tibet, which has a population of around 10,000, also has one NPC deputy, who is female. She is a teacher at a local elementary school.

讲到中国选举制度的特点,我想还可以再补充这样几个方面。比如,从选举权的普遍性看,新中国的第一部《选举法》,也就是1953年的选举法确立了选举权的普遍性。这与西方国家用了上百年甚至数百年时间才实现法律意义上的普选,中国是一步到位地实行了名副其实的普遍选举。又比如,选民参与的普遍性,也就是参选率,改革开放以来中国已经进行12次乡级人大代表的直接选举,11次县级人大代表直接选举,选民参选率都保持在90%左右。还比如,选举经费的来源,中国的人大代表选举经费由国库开支,这就从制度上有效保证了金钱不能染指选举。

In terms of the characteristics that define China's electoral system, I would like to add a few points. China's first Electoral Law in 1953 granted the universality of the right to vote. It took Western countries several hundred years to realize universal suffrage in the legal sense while China achieved true universal suffrage without all those twists and turns. On the increasing number of people participating in elections – which is also the voter turnout – since the initiation of reform and opening up, China has conducted 12 direct elections to people's congresses at the township level and 11 direct elections at the county level, with a current participation rate of around 90%. On election funding in China, finances for deputy elections come from the treasury, which provides an institutional guarantee that election integrity will not be compromised by financial interests.

谢谢。

Thanks.

凤凰卫视记者:

Phoenix TV:

民族区域自治制度是中国特色社会主义民主制度的重要组成部分。国外有些声音认为中国政府对少数民族的管理越来越严格了,少数民族没有实质的自治权,请问对此有何评论?谢谢。

The system of regional ethnic autonomy is an important part of socialist democracy with Chinese characteristics. Some voices from the international community believe that the Chinese government has tightened its management of ethnic minority groups, and that ethnic minorities don't have authentic autonomy. What's your comment on that? Thank you.

中央统战部副部长许又声:

Xu Yousheng:

谢谢你的提问。大家知道,民族区域自治制度是中国一项基本政治制度,是中国特色解决民族问题正确道路的一个重要的制度保证。民族区域自治制度是指在国家的统一领导下,各少数民族聚居的地方实行区域自治,设立自治机关,行使自治权。截至目前,中国共建立了155个民族自治地方,其中自治区5个、自治州30个、自治县或者自治旗120个。民族自治地方行政区域的面积占到了全国总面积的64%。

Thank you for your question. We know that the system of regional ethnic autonomy is a basic political system in China. It provides an important institutional guarantee for following the correct path of resolving ethnic problems according to Chinese principles. The system of regional ethnic autonomy means that areas with large ethnic minority populations can practice regional autonomy, establish autonomous organs and exercise the power of self-government under the unified leadership of the state. There are currently 155 ethnic autonomous areas in China, including five autonomous regions, 30 autonomous prefectures and 120 autonomous counties (banners). The area where regional ethnic autonomy is practiced accounts for 64% of the entire territory of China.

实施民族区域自治制度根本的目的是维护国家统一和民族团结。各民族自治地方的自治机关都是中央政府领导下的一级地方政权,都必须服从中央的统一领导,确保中央政令畅通,确保国家法律法规的实施。在这个基础上,依法保障各族群众享受平等权利、履行平等义务,支持各民族发展经济、改善民生,实现共同发展、共同富裕,充分行使自治权。民族自治地方的自治权主要包括:立法权、经济发展权、财政管理权、少数民族干部培养使用权、发展教育和文化权、语言文字使用权等。以少数民族干部培养使用权为例,中国共产党和中国政府高度重视少数民族干部的培养和使用,经过70多年的努力,我们已经造就了一支宏大的、德才兼备的少数民族干部队伍,为实施民族区域自治制度提供了重要的组织保障。目前,在155个民族自治地方的人民代表大会常务委员会中,均有实行民族区域自治民族的公民来担任主任或者副主任;民族自治地方政府的主席、州长、县长或者旗长,全部由实行民族区域自治民族的公民来担任。

The system of regional ethnic autonomy is fundamentally aimed at maintaining national unity and ethnic solidarity. All autonomous organs of these areas are local governments subject to the unified leadership of the central government. They must ensure that national policies and orders are implemented smoothly and that national laws and regulations are enforced. On that basis, they must guarantee the equal rights and obligations of various ethnic groups in accordance with the law, support their economic development and improve their citizens' quality of life, achieve common development and common prosperity, and ensure that the autonomy of ethnic groups is fully realized. The ethnic autonomous areas enjoy autonomous rights across a wide range of fields, including legislative power, the right of economic development, the right of financial management, the right to cultivate and appoint ethnic minority officials, the right to develop education and culture and the right to use their own spoken and written languages, among others. Take the training and appointment of ethnic minority officials, something the CPC and Chinese government prioritizes, as an example. After more than 70 years, we have built a sizable and qualified team of ethnic minority officials, which has laid an important organizational foundation for implementing the system of regional ethnic autonomy. On all standing committees of people's congresses of the 155 ethnic autonomous areas, there are citizens from the local ethnic groups assuming the office of chair or vice chair. Likewise, all governors, prefectural commissioners and heads of counties of ethnic autonomous areas are citizens from local ethnic groups.

实践证明,中国实行民族区域自治制度既有利于国家统一、民族团结和社会稳定,又有利于各少数民族的发展进步和国家的长治久安。2012年至2020年的9年间,内蒙古、广西、西藏、宁夏、新疆5个自治区以及云南、贵州、青海3个多民族省的地区生产总值从5.1万亿元增长到10.4万亿元;人均地区生产总值从2.7万元增长到5.2万元;城镇化率从43.1%提高到55.1%。民族地区3121万贫困人口全部脱贫,民族自治地方420个国家级贫困县全部摘帽,与全国一道实现了全面小康。

Practice has proved that China's implementation of the system of regional ethnic autonomy is not only conducive to national unity, ethnic solidarity, and social stability, but also conducive to the development and progress of ethnic minorities and the long-term stability of the country. In the nine years from 2012 to 2020, the regional GDP of the five autonomous regions of Inner Mongolia, Guangxi, Tibet, Ningxia, and Xinjiang and the three multi-ethnic provinces of Yunnan, Guizhou, and Qinghai increased from 5.1 trillion yuan to 10.4 trillion yuan; the per capita regional GDP increased from 27,000 yuan to 52,000 yuan; and the urbanization rate increased from 43.1% to 55.1%. All 31.21 million impoverished people in ethnic minority areas have been lifted out of poverty, 420 state-level impoverished counties in ethnic autonomous areas have all gotten rid of poverty, and together with the rest of the country, they have achieved moderately prosperity in all respects.

应该说,民族区域自治制度好不好、行不行,中国人民最有发言权。民族地区发展进步,各族群众过上好日子的实实在在的数据就是最好、最响亮的回答。谢谢。

As to whether the system of regional ethnic autonomy is good or not, whether it works or not, it should be judged by the Chinese people. The development and progress of ethnic minority areas, and the tangible data of people of all ethnic groups living a good life, are the best and most resounding answers. Thank you.

光明日报记者:

Guangming Daily:

我们知道人民政协制度诞生于1949年,经过70多年的发展实践,这一制度安排在中国式民主中有什么样的优势和特点?谢谢。

We know that the system of the CPPCC was born in 1949. After more than 70 years of development and practice, what are the advantages and characteristics of this political institution in China's model of democracy? Thank you.

全国政协办公厅研究室主任胡衡庐:

Hu Henglu:

谢谢你的提问。人民政协作为中国共产党领导各民主党派、无党派人士、人民团体和各族各界人士在政治制度上进行的伟大创造,深深植根于中国的历史文化土壤,是中国人民民主的重要实现形式。1949年9月,中国人民政治协商会议第一届全体会议召开,标志着人民政协制度正式确立。70多年来,在中国共产党领导下,人民政协坚持团结和民主两大主题,服务党和国家中心任务,在建立新中国、建设新中国、探索改革路、实践中国梦的伟大实践中发挥了重要作用。

Thank you for your question. The CPPCC originates from the political system created by the leading CPC and all non-communist parties, public figures without party affiliation, people's organizations, and public figures of all China's ethnic groups and sectors of society. It is deeply rooted in China's history and culture, and is an important means to achieve people's democracy in China. In September 1949, the first plenary session of the CPPCC was held, marking the formal establishment of the system of the CPPCC. For more than 70 years, under the leadership of the CPC, the CPPCC has adhered to the two themes of solidarity and democracy, served the central tasks of the CPC and the country, and played an important role in the great practice of establishing and developing the PRC, exploring paths of reforms, and realizing the Chinese Dream.

中国特色社会主义进入新时代,人民政协作为社会主义协商民主的重要渠道和专门协商机构,集协商、监督、参与、合作于一体,在协商中促进广泛团结、推进多党合作、实践人民民主,是中国国家治理体系的重要组成部分和具有中国特色的制度安排,在中国式民主、全过程人民民主中,具有多方面的特点和优势:

Socialism with Chinese characteristics has entered a new era. The CPPCC is an important channel and a specialized body for socialist consultative democracy. It integrates consultation, supervision, participation, and cooperation. It promotes broad unity, promotes multi-party cooperation, and practices people's democracy in consultations. It is an important part of China's national governance system and a political institution with Chinese characteristics. It has many characteristics and advantages in China's model of democracy and the whole-process people's democracy:

一是在协商中推动科学决策、民主决策。坚持协商于决策之前和决策实施之中,通过全体会议、常委会会议、主席会议、专门委员会会议、专题协商会议、协商座谈会议等形式,对有关国家的大政方针、经济社会各领域重要问题以及人民群众的关切,进行广泛深入的协商。比如,围绕“十四五”规划的制定和实施,在政协协商平台上积极建言资政,报送信息220余期,提出提案190余件,推动广大政协委员和社会各界意愿诉求和意见建议在决策中得到充分体现。

First, it promotes scientific and democratic decision-making in the process of political consultation. We insist on consultation before and during decision-making. Through plenary sessions, meetings of the standing committee, meetings of chairpersons, meetings of special committees, forums on specific subjects, and consultative seminars, we conduct extensive and in-depth consultations on the major policies of the country, important issues in various economic and social fields, and concerns of the people. For example, around the formulation and implementation of the 14th Five-Year Plan, we actively provided suggestions and political consultations on CPPCC's platform of consultation, submitted information for more than 220 rounds, put forward more than 190 proposals, and promoted the wishes, appeals, suggestions, and opinions of the CPPCC members and all walks of life in society to be fully reflected in the decision-making.

二是在协商中扩大共识、增进团结。参加人民政协的各党派团体和各族各界人士,通过政协平台,既深入协商议政,务实提出意见建议,也接受中国共产党的主张并且在界别群众中宣传阐释党的方针政策、增信释疑,实现建言资政和凝聚共识双向发力。比如,十三届全国政协落实中共中央决策部署,围绕坚决打赢脱贫攻坚战积极协商建言,同时通过委员讲堂、视察考察、主题读书群等形式,从政协角度讲好中国减贫故事,广大政协委员从中深刻感悟中国共产党的初心使命、全面建成小康社会的伟大历程、中国特色社会主义的制度优势。

Second, it expands consensus and enhances solidarity in the process of political consultation. Through the CPPCC platform, all parties and groups, as well as people from all ethnic groups and all walks of life that participate in the CPPCC, not only conduct in-depth consultations and discussions on state affairs, pragmatically put forward opinions and suggestions, but also accept the propositions of the CPC, and then help publicize and explain the Party's policies and guidelines among people of different circles, enhancing trust and dispelling doubts, realizing the two-way effort of contributing their suggestions to aid administration, and, building consensus. For example, the 13th National Committee of the CPPCC implemented the decisions and arrangements of the CPC Central Committee, and actively consulted and made suggestions on how to resolutely win the fight against poverty, meanwhile, it tells the story of China's poverty reduction from the perspective of the CPPCC through member lectures, inspections, and themed reading groups. The CPPCC members therefore have a deep understanding of the original aspiration and mission of the CPC, the great course of building a moderately prosperous society in all respects, and the institutional strengths of the socialism with Chinese characteristics.

三是在协商中保障人民内部各方面有序政治参与。全国政协设34个界别,涵盖了8个民主党派和无党派人士、各主要人民团体、56个民族、5大宗教。目前全国、省、市、县四级政协组织共3200多个,各级政协委员60多万人。这样的界别特点和委员构成,有效保障各党派、各团体、各民族、各阶层、各界人士参与国是。人民政协支持各民主党派和无党派人士在政协参与国家重大方针政策协商讨论,对各民主党派以本党派名义在政协发表意见、提出建议作出机制性安排,成为实行中国共产党领导的多党合作和政治协商制度的重要政治形式和组织形式。

Third, it guarantees the people's orderly political participation in the process of political consultation. The CPPCC is composed of representatives from 34 sectors, including the CPC, the other political parties, the non-affiliates, people's organizations, 56 ethnic groups, and five major religions. At present, there are more than 3,200 CPPCC organizations at the national, provincial, city, and county levels, with more than 600,000 CPPCC members at all levels. This effectively guarantees all parties, organizations, ethnic groups, social groups and people from all walks of life to participate in the state affairs. The CPPCC supports non-Communist parties and non-affiliates to participate in the consultation and discussion of major national policies on the CPPCC platform, and makes institutional arrangements for the non-Communist parties to express their opinions and make suggestions on the CPPCC platform in the name of their own party. It serves as an important political and organizational form for implementing the system of multiparty cooperation and political consultation under the leadership of the CPC.

谢谢。

Thank you.

路透社记者:

Reuters:

中国的全过程人民民主和美国的民主孰优孰劣。一个差别是美国政治人物当选后得接受选民的问责,选民如果认为他做得不好,可以在下届选举把他换掉,而中国的人民代表大会当选后,只需要做到令上级领导和党的满意,而选民即便对他的上级领导不满意也没法直接把领导投下台。请问对此有何评论?谢谢。

Comparing the whole-process people's democracy in China with democracy in the U.S., one difference is that voters in the U.S. can hold elected politicians accountable and vote them out in the next election if they think they didn't do a good job. Meanwhile, people's congresses in China only need to satisfy their superiors and the Party after being elected, and voters cannot vote out their superiors even if they are dissatisfied. What are your comments on this? Thank you.

田培炎:

Tian Peiyan:

民主是历史的、具体的、发展的。各国民主根植于本国的历史文化传统,成长于本国人民的实践探索和智慧创造。通向民主的道路不只一条,实现民主的方式丰富而多样。比较中国的民主与美国的民主孰优孰劣,实践最有说服力,人民最有发言权。

Democracy is a concrete phenomenon that is constantly evolving. Rooted in history, culture, and tradition, it can take different forms and develops along the paths chosen by different peoples based on their exploration and innovation. The forms of democracy in China and in the U.S. should be tested in real-world scenarios and judged by the peoples.

在美国的民主制度下,政治人物是利益集团的代理人,而不是代表大多数选民的利益和国家整体利益;为了选举他们可以随意许诺,当选后却很少能兑现承诺。他们表面上受选民的监督,但只要当选,选民就拿他们没有办法,只能等下一次选举。这种只有在投票时被唤醒,投票后就进入休眠期。只有竞选时聆听天花乱坠的口号,竞选后就毫无发言权,只有在拉票时受宠,选举后就被冷落的民主不是真正的民主,中国人民不喜欢更不需要这样的民主。

Under the American system of democracy, politicians are agents of interest groups, rather than representatives of the interests of the voter majority or the country as a whole. They can willfully make promises to get elected but seldom fulfill them after being elected. They appear to be overseen by voters, but once elected, there's nothing voters can do but wait for the next election. If the people only wake up to cast a vote but become dormant afterwards, that is not true democracy. If the people are offered great hopes during electoral campaigns but have no say afterwards, that is not true democracy. If the people are offered fulsome promises during electoral campaigns but are left empty-handed afterwards, that is not true democracy. The Chinese people dislike and have no need for this kind of democracy.

中国的民主,是中国共产党领导下的全过程人民民主,各级党员领导干部履行职责过程中必须接受党和人民全过程、全方位、全领域的监督,确保人民赋予的权力始终用于为人民谋利益。不管官多大、地位多高,一旦发现有违纪违法行为必将受到党纪国法的严肃惩处,任何人都不能例外。我们的人民代表来自人民、代表人民、服务人民,由人民选举产生、对人民负责。他们始终同人民群众保持密切联系,经常听取和反映人民群众的呼声和诉求,积极推动解决人民群众的急难愁盼问题,随时随地接受人民和各方面的监督,他们是真正接地气、察民情、聚民智、惠民生的人民代表,对不能依法履职、发生违法违纪行为的人大代表,选民或者选举单位可以依法取消代表资格或者进行罢免,不需要等到换届选举。这样的民主,比美国的民主更广泛、更真实、更管用。

Democracy in China is whole-process people's democracy under the leadership of the CPC. Party members and officials at all levels must accept oversight from the Party and the people throughout all aspects and sectors of the whole process, so as to ensure that public power, entrusted by the people, is and will always be exercised for the public good. No matter how high-level his or her position is, the person found to have violated Party discipline or state laws will be seriously punished, without exception. Deputies come from the people, represent the people, serve the people, are elected by the people, and are accountable to the people. They maintain close ties with the people at all times, always listen to and respond to the people's aspirations, actively advance solutions for the most pressing difficulties and problems that are of great concern to the people, and accept the oversight of the people and all social sectors. They are deputies who represent the people, reflect the will of the people, pool the wisdom of the people, and benefit the lives of the people. Voters and electoral units can disqualify or dismiss deputies who either cannot fulfill their duties or violate Party discipline or state laws, without having to wait until the next election. This kind of democracy is more broad-based, authentic, and effective.

对此,美国哈佛大学肯尼迪政府学院在中国进行了13年连续调研,他们的调查显示,中国人民对党领导下的中国政府满意度高达93%。我想,中国的民主制度和美国的民主制度孰优孰劣,公道自在人心。谢谢。

According to surveys conducted by Harvard Kennedy School in China for 13 consecutive years, the Chinese people satisfaction with the Chinese government under the leadership of the CPC runs as high as 93%. I think people will make fair judges when comparing the democratic system in China with that in the U.S. Thank you.

郭振华:

Guo Zhenhua:

我非常赞成刚才田培炎副主任所讲到的美国政治人物在选举时和选举后的这种反差。我想,究其原因很重要的一点是,在美国恰恰没有政治人物包括议员当选后接受选民监督的制度安排,从法律制度上就没有这种设计和安排。即便选民不满意,也要等到几年以后的下一次选举。再加上美国政治中特有的“旋转门”现象,所以美国议员为利益集团代言,被游说集团左右,也就见怪不怪。恰恰相反,在中国,宪法和选举法都规定全国人大代表和地方各级人大代表都要受选民和原选举单位的监督,选民或原选举单位都有权罢免自己选出的代表。《选举法》还明确规定了罢免程序,赋予原选区的选民或者原选举单位的人大代表联名提出罢免的权利。十三届全国人大成立近四年来,有10人被依法罢免全国人大代表职务。

I agree very much with what Mr. Tian said about the contrast between how politicians in the U.S. behave during and after their election campaigns. I think one of the most important reasons is that, in the U.S., there is no institutional design or arrangement in its legal system for politicians, including members of Congress, to be overseen by voters after being elected. Even if voters are dissatisfied, they have to wait until the next election years later. In addition to the "revolving door" unique in the U.S. politics, it is unsurprising that members of the U.S. Congress speak for interest groups and are swayed by lobbying groups. On the contrary, in China, both the Constitution and the Electoral Law of the National People's Congress and Local People's Congresses stipulate that deputies to the NPC and people's congresses at local levels are subject to the oversight of voters and electoral units that elected the deputies, and voters and the electoral units have the right to dismiss deputies they elected. The Electoral Law also clearly stipulates procedures of dismissing deputies, giving voters in deputies' home electoral districts or deputies to the people's congresses of electoral units the power to jointly propose dismissals. In the past nearly four years since the 13th NPC, 10 NPC deputies have been dismissed in accordance with the law.

总之,比较中国和美国,恰恰跟你提到的是相反的。中国的人大代表在任期内受到严格有效监督,而且法律规定了明确的罢免权以及罢免程序。而在美国,议员等当选后在任期内几乎没有罢免制度,也没有受选民监督的制度安排。所以我们说,中国的全过程人民民主有完备的制度、有具体的实践,能够保证选民或者选举单位有效地监督他们选出的代表,切实防止像美国这样选举时漫天许诺、选举以后无人过问的现象。

In all, comparing China with the U.S., the case is exactly the opposite of how you described. China's deputies to people's congresses are subject to strict and effective oversight during their terms of office, and the law stipulates clear dismissal rights and procedures. In the U.S., however, there is no institutional arrangement for those including members of Congress to be dismissed or supervised by voters during their terms of office. That is why we say that China's whole-process people's democracy has a sound institutional framework and concrete practices, which can ensure that voters and electoral units can effectively oversee the deputies they elect and leave no room for politicians to shower promises while campaigning and break them once elected.

谢谢。

Thank you.

中国新闻社记者:

China News Service:

中国实行的基层群众自治制度是一种什么样的自治制度?村民委员会、居民委员会是如何发挥自治功能的?谢谢。

What is the system of community-level self-governance in China? How do villagers committees and residents committees exercise self-governance? Thank you.

民政部副部长王爱文:

Wang Aiwen:

谢谢你对基层群众自治制度的关注。基层群众自治制度是中国的一项基本政治制度,宪法规定城市和农村按居民居住地区设立的居民委员会、村民委员会是基层群众性自治组织。基层群众自治就是城乡居民在基层党组织的领导下依法行使民主权利,对居民身边的社区治理、公共服务、公益事业实行自我管理、自我服务、自我教育、自我监督的一种方式。

Thank you for your concern about the system of community-level self-governance, which is a basic political system in China. It is specified in the country's Constitution that residents committees established in urban areas and villagers committees in rural areas according to people's residences are people's organizations for self-governance at the grassroots level. Under the leadership of community-level Party organizations, such self-governance is a way for urban and rural residents to exercise their democratic right in accordance with the law to manage their own affairs including community governance, public affairs and public services by serving the community, undertaking self-education and exercising public scrutiny.

中国有49.2万个村民委员会、11.6万个居民委员会,覆盖了城乡的全体居民。这些居民委员会、村民委员会都是居民群众自己选举产生的。村民委员会和居民委员会怎么样发挥自治功能呢?主要有几个方面:

China has 492,000 villagers committees and 116,000 residents committees, covering all residents in urban and rural areas. These committees are selected by residents. How do they exercise self-governance?

一是组织民主协商。居委会和村委会组织居民集思广益,广泛听取群众的意见,比如说居委会、村委会要办什么事,在社区公共环境卫生、困难群众帮扶方面,以及村集体经济收入如何支出等方面,听取群众意见,形成居委会、村委会办事清单或者要点。

First, they organize democratic consultation. They pool ideas and widely solicit public opinions from residents. For example, they solicit residents' opinions regarding such affairs as the handling of community sanitation, aiding people in difficulty and expending collective income of villages, and make a to-do or priority list for the committees.

二是在协商基础上进行民主决策。主要是通过居民会议、村民会议或者是居民代表会议、村民代表会议对所协商的事项,包括居委会、村委会的工作进行研究,形成最后的决议。

Second, they practice democratic decision-making on the basis of consultation. They review the affairs of consultation including the committee work to form final decisions through committee meetings and congresses.

三是组织居民制定或者修改自治章程、村规民约、居民公约,形成居民共同的行为规范。

Third, they organize residents to formulate or amend their own rules on self-governance and codes of conduct and self-regulation, which all residents need to obey.

四是组织居民对居委会、村委会的工作进行监督,对工作人员的表现进行评议,居委会、村委会的所有决议过程是公开的,结果也是公开的,都可以上墙、上栏,包括居民议事情况等在手机界面都是可以看到的,保证了对居委会、村委会工作的监督。

Fourth, they organize residents to oversee their work and review the performance of their staff. The entire decision-making process is made public, and so are the results of the decisions, which, together with residents' discussions, can be accessed via bulletins put on walls and bulletin boards or via cellphone. This practice ensures the supervision of the work of the committees.

基层群众自治这项制度不仅保证了群众民主权利的实现,也对我们应对重大风险挑战起到了重要作用。比如说在疫情防控中,中国人口多、密度大,社区防控压力比较大,但是我们很好地遏制了社区的疫情扩散,就是由于我们居委会、村委会有效组织群众实行了群防群控、联防联控,阻止了疫情在社区的传播扩散。所以说,在重大风险和考验面前,显示了中国制度的优势。谢谢。

The system of community-level self-governance not only ensures people's democratic rights, but also plays an important role in our responses to major risks and challenges. In the fight against the epidemic, communities face great pressure in epidemic control due to China's large population of density. However, we have effectively contained the epidemic in our communities, because our residents and villagers committees have effectively organized the people to carry out joint and society-wide prevention and control, and contained the epidemic in communities. In the face of major risks and tests, the advantages of the Chinese system have been demonstrated. Thank you.

香港中评社记者:

CRNTT:

民主意味着对公权力的监督。从中国近年来查处的腐败案件看,中国反腐败形势依然复杂严峻,请问对此怎么看?谢谢。

Democracy means supervision of public power. Judging from the corruption cases China has addressed in recent years, the country's anti-corruption situation is still complex and grave. What is your opinion on this matter? Thank you.

田培炎:

Tian Peiyan:

我很愿意回答这个问题。腐败是人类社会共有的一种历史现象和社会现象,世界各国都有。腐败同中国共产党的性质宗旨是水火不容的。我们党成立以来,就一直在同腐败现象作坚决斗争。党的十八大以前的一个时期,腐败问题一度在我国比较突出。党的十八大以来,我们党深刻认识到,腐败是党长期执政的最大威胁,反对腐败关系党和国家生死存亡,是一场输不起也决不能输的重大政治斗争。我们党以“得罪千百人、不负十四亿”的使命担当,坚持无禁区、全覆盖、零容忍,坚持重遏制、强高压、长震慑,强力惩治腐败,夺取了反腐败斗争的压倒性胜利。同时,也清醒地认识到,腐败现象并没有根绝,在一些领域还易发多发,反腐败形势依然严峻复杂,反腐败永远在路上。我们党坚持一体推进不敢腐、不能腐、不想腐,采取有力措施全面巩固反腐败斗争的压倒性胜利。

I'd like to take this question. Corruption is a common historical and social phenomenon in human society, which exists in all countries around the world. It is incompatible with the nature and principles of the CPC. Since its founding, our Party has been resolutely fighting against corruption. For a period before the Party's 18th National Congress, corruption was rather prominent in the country. Following the congress, our Party was deeply aware that corruption is the greatest threat to the Party's long-term governance. The fight against corruption is a matter of survival for the Party and the country, and therefore it is a major political battle that we cannot afford to lose, and also must not lose. Our Party is determined to honor its commitment to the 1.4 billion Chinese people by fighting corruption. No refuge has been excluded from the scope, no ground left unturned, and no tolerance shown in the fight against corruption. China has continued to impose tight constraints and maintain a tough stance and long-term deterrence, and has won a sweeping victory in the fight against corruption. Meanwhile, we are soberly aware that corruption has not been eradicated, and some areas are prone to corruption. The fight against corruption remains grave and complex, and will not stop. Our Party will continue to take integral and coordinated actions to raise the awareness, ability and resolve to resist corruption, and adopt effective measures to consolidate China's sweeping victory in the fight against corruption.

对公权力进行民主监督,防止公权力滥用和腐化,是民主的一项重要功能。党的十八大以来,我们党强调公权力姓公、只能公用不能私用,坚持依法设定权力、规范权力、制约权力、监督权力,把权力关进制度的笼子里,并强化对权力运行的监督,着力完善党和国家监督体系,推进重点领域监督机制改革和制度建设,形成了以党内监督为主导、各类监督贯通协调的监督体系,最大限度防止了权力失范、权力寻租。我们党把民主监督贯穿于权力运行全过程,充分发挥民主监督在防止腐败方面不可替代的重要作用,使腐败存量不断地减少,腐败增量得到有效遏制,很多腐败分子就是在信访举报、巡视巡察的个别访谈中发现的。大量腐败分子得到查处,并不意味着民主监督失灵,恰恰说明民主监督有效发挥了作用。我们坚信,随着我国民主政治的发展,民主监督会越来越有力,腐败分子在中国将没有任何藏身之地。谢谢。

It is an important function of democracy to practice democratic oversight of public power and prevent its abuse and corruption. Since the 18th CPC National Congress, the Party has emphasized that public power is, and will always be, exercised for the public good and that power is prescribed by law, and regulated, constrained, and supervised by legal means to restrain power in an institutional cage. The exercise of power has been brought under stricter supervision. The supervisory systems of the Party and the state have been improved, and the reform of supervision mechanism and system building in key sectors have been advanced. A supervision system has been established with intra-Party supervision playing the leading role and various kinds of supervision coordinating with each other, thus preventing the anomie of power and rent-seeking to the largest extent. The Party has upheld democratic oversight throughout the entire process of the exercise of power and given full play to the irreplaceable role of democratic oversight in preventing corruption, thus reducing existing corruption constantly and restraining the increase of corruption effectively. Many corrupt officials were exposed through tip-offs and complaint letters, and individual interviews during disciplinary inspections. The fact that a large number of corrupt officials were investigated and handled does not mean the malfunction of democracy but proves the effectiveness of democratic oversight. We firmly believe that with the development of China's democracy and political system, democratic oversight will be more powerful, and corrupt officials shall have nowhere to hide in China. Thank you.

红星新闻记者:

Red Star News:

我们知道,在中国基层人大是直接选举的,上级人大是间接选举的。这种制度安排会不会让普通老百姓特别是弱势群体的意见和声音无法反映到最高层、进入到国家的决策中呢?谢谢。

We all know that the deputies to community-level people's congresses are selected through direct election while those in the higher levels of people's congresses are elected indirectly. Will the current system mean that the suggestions and voices from ordinary people, especially vulnerable groups, will not be reflected in the highest level and be considered in the country's decision-making? Thank you.

郭振华:

Guo Zhenhua:

人民代表大会制度是实现全过程人民民主的重要制度载体。中国的人大代表,无论是全国人大代表还是基层人大代表,都来自人民、扎根人民,非常接地气。而且中国的人大代表当选以后,都不脱离原工作岗位,始终生活在人民群众当中。

The system of people's congresses is an important institutional support to whole-process people's democracy. The deputies to people's congresses in China, no matter at the national or community level, all come from the people and are rooted in the people. In addition, the deputies to people's congresses will stay in their original work positions after being elected so that they are in close contact with the people.

近些年来,全国各级人大建立了22万多个代表联系群众的站点,实现了全国所有乡镇、街道全覆盖,很多地方还延伸到社区、村组。各级人大代表都定期在这些站点接待群众,听取意见。这样的制度安排,决定了中国的人大代表不是职业政客,不代表任何特殊利益,他们能够真实、直接地感受人民群众的所思所盼,并且通过国家权力机关反映人民群众的意见建议。在每年的全国人大会议上,近3000名代表都会书面提出数千件意见和建议。今年的十三届全国人大四次会议期间,代表们提出了8993件建议。代表们的建议涉及最多的是民生问题,比如推进义务教育“双减”,完善农村养老服务体系,推进农村厕所革命,推进城市生活垃圾分类,完善外卖骑手等灵活就业人员的社会保障制度等。代表建议承载着人民群众对美好生活的向往,反映了人民群众的意愿呼声,也体现了代表察民情、聚民智、惠民生的履职担当。国家机关依法认真办理代表提出的建议,在决策和工作过程中,研究采纳代表提出的合理意见,积极回应社会关切,切实做到民有所呼、我有所应。

In recent years, the people's congresses at all levels have set up more than 220,000 stations for the deputies to be in contact with the people, covering all townships and subdistricts across the country, and even some communities and villages. Deputies to the people's congresses at all levels receive information from the people and listen to their opinions at the stations on a regular basis. Such a system determines that deputies to the people's congresses in China are not career politicians and do not represent any particular interests. Therefore, they can truly and directly understand the people's aspirations and wishes, and submit the people's suggestions and advice through agencies of state power. At the NPC session each year, nearly 3,000 deputies will submit thousands of documents providing suggestions and advice. In this year's fourth session of the 13th NPC, the deputies put forward 8,993 suggestions, among which, the people's well-being was the biggest topic of discussion. For example, they discussed easing the burden of excessive homework and off-campus tutoring for students undergoing compulsory education, improving rural elderly care service systems, advancing a "toilet revolution" in rural areas, promoting the sorting of urban household waste, and improving social security for flexible employees such as delivery personnel. The suggestions bear the people's pursuit for a better life, reflect their aspirations, and demonstrate the responsibilities that the deputies have shouldered to hear the people's voices, pool the people's wisdoms, and benefit the people's lives. State organs carefully review the suggestions proposed by the deputies in accordance with law, and research and adopt reasonable suggestions in their work, including in their decision-making. They respond actively to social concerns and each and every one of the people's aspirations.

谢谢。

Thank you.

环球时报记者:

Global Times:

有的国家号称是世界的“民主样板”,但在抗击新冠肺炎疫情中表现得十分糟糕,社会治理混乱无序,这看起来十分矛盾。想请问,民主的功能到底是什么?评判民主的标准到底是什么?谢谢。

Some countries claim to be models of democracy for the whole world, but their response to the pandemic was awful and their social governance disordered, which is contradictory to that message. What are the functions of democracy? What are the standards for evaluating democracy? Thank you.

田培炎:

Tian Peiyan:

民主不是装饰品,不是用来做摆设的,而是要用来解决人民需要解决的问题的。真正的民主,既能充分反映人民诉求,又能充分实现人民诉求;既能充分表达多元化的意见和建议,又能形成全体人民的统一意志;既能最大限度激发全社会创造活力,又能有效维护社会公平正义。

Democracy is not a decorative ornament, but an instrument for addressing issues that concern the people. True democracy should both take full cognizance of and fully realize the people's aspirations; give full expression to diversified opinions and advice, and form the united will of all the people; spur social creativity and vitality to the largest extent, and uphold social equity and justice effectively.

长期以来,美国自称世界“民主样板”,但面对世纪疫情,美国民主制度却暴露出种种弊端。在应对疫情过程中,由于政治极化严重、政党纷争不止、上下各自为政、社会监督失灵等,导致疫情防控不力,造成近五千万人感染、八十多万人死亡。这样的民主,带给选民的不是幸福而是灾难。

For a long time, America has claimed itself as a model of democracy for the whole world. However, in the face of a pandemic unseen in a century, the American democratic system has exposed numerous of its maladies. In responding to the pandemic, due to serious political polarization, endless disputes among political parties, lack of coordination in different levels of government, and malfunctions in social oversight, America has failed to prevent and control the pandemic, which resulted in infections of nearly 50 million people and a death toll of more than 800,000. Such democracy will only bring disasters rather than happiness to the electorate .

同样面对世纪疫情,我们党和国家坚持人民至上、生命至上,把人民生命安全和身体健康放在首位,果断决策、沉着应对,在最短时间内打响了疫情防控的人民战争、总体战、阻击战;我们发挥我国制度优势,举全国之力实施规模空前的生命大救援,做到了全国一盘棋、上下一条心;我们全力以赴救治患者,不遗漏一个感染者,不放弃每一位病患者,从刚出生的婴儿到年逾百岁的老人,都千方百计、想尽一切办法来救治,挽救了无数鲜活的生命。这充分体现了中国民主制度对每一个生命的尊重和保护。

In the face of COVID-19, the CPC and the state have prioritized the people by putting their lives and health first, confidently risen up to the challenges and made resolute decisions, waging an all-out people's war against the virus in the shortest possible time. We have leveraged our institutional strengths to mobilize the whole nation and carried out a campaign to save lives on an unprecedented scale, which have reflected the country's nationwide coordination and solidarity. We have done everything possible to treat all patients, ranging from new-born infants to centenarians, saving countless lives. This has fully demonstrated that China's democratic system respects and protects everyone's life.

评价一个国家政治制度是不是民主的、有效的,习近平总书记已经给出了明确的回答,那就是:主要看国家领导层能否依法有序更替,全体人民能否依法管理国家事务和社会事务、管理经济和文化事业,人民群众能否畅通表达利益要求,社会各方面能否有效参与国家政治生活,国家决策能否实现科学化、民主化,各方面人才能否通过公平竞争进入国家领导和管理体系,执政党能否依照宪法法律规定实现对国家事务的领导,权力运用能否得到有效制约和监督。历史已经证明,中国式民主在中国行得通、很管用;历史还将证明,中国共产党将领导中国人民不断丰富和发展中国式民主,让民主之树枝繁叶茂、生机勃勃。谢谢。

How do you evaluate whether or not a country's political system is democratic and efficient? General Secretary Xi Jinping has given a definitive answer: It mainly depends on whether the succession of its leaders is orderly and in line with the law; whether all the people can manage state and social affairs and economic and cultural undertakings in conformity with legal provisions; whether the public can express their requirements without hindrance; whether all sectors can efficiently participate in the country's political affairs; whether national decision-making can be conducted in a rational and democratic way; whether people of high caliber in all fields can be part of the national leadership and administrative systems through fair competition; whether the governing party is in charge of state affairs in accordance with the Constitution and the law; and whether the exercise of power can be kept under effective restraint and supervision. History has proven that the China's style democracy works well in China. History will prove that the CPC will lead the Chinese people to enrich and improve the Chinese way of democracy, so that the tree of democracy will flourish with vitality. Thank you.

CGTN记者:

CGTN:

有人认为中国凭借越来越强的实力对外输出中国模式,对“世界民主国家”构成了威胁和挑战?您怎么看这个问题?

Some people think that China is exporting its model by virtue of its growing strength, which poses threats and challenges to the "world's democracies." What's your take on this?

徐麟:

Xu Lin:  

谢谢您的提问。首先我想指出的是,所谓“世界民主国家”这个概念,是少数国家炮制的一个伪命题。民主是全人类共同价值,也是人类政治文明进步的共同财富。民主是各国人民的权利,而不是少数国家的专利。一个国家是不是民主,应该由这个国家的人民来作评判;国际社会哪个国家是不是民主的,应该由国际社会共同来评判。正像刚才田培炎先生所说的那样,个别国家抗击疫情失灵,国内治理失效,政治极化严重,对外搞霸权、霸凌、霸道,却以“世界民主样板”“民主灯塔”自居,岂不荒唐?当前,人类民主事业正处在前进还是倒退的十字路口,个别国家打着民主旗号在世界上煽动对抗与分裂,加剧国际紧张局势,成为世界的乱源。谁是人类民主事业的威胁,谁又是世界和平发展的挑战,世人有目共睹。

Thank you for your question. First of all, I would like to point out that the concept of "world's democracies" is a false proposition concocted by a few countries. Democracy is the common value of humanity and a shared wealth of global political progress. Democracy is the right of the people in every country, rather than the prerogative of a few nations. It is for its people to judge whether a country is democratic or not, and it is up to the international community to judge whether a country is democratic or not. As Mr. Tian Peiyan just said, certain countries pose as the "model of world democracy" and "beacon of democracy" while failing to combat the pandemic, suffering chaotic domestic governance and severe political polarization, and imposing hegemony and bullying other countries. Doesn't it sound absurd? At present, the cause of human democracy stands at a crossroad between progression and regression. Some countries are inciting confrontation and division globally in the name of democracy and aggravating international tensions, and became a source of chaos in the world. It is clear to all who is threatening the cause of human democracy and becoming an obstacle to world peace and development.

民主是中国共产党和中国人民始终不渝坚持的重要理念。刚才发布的白皮书,主要内容都作了介绍,几位发言人在回答问题时也都有这方面的表述。可以说,讲民主中国是有自信的,也是有底气的。中国积极回应人民对民主的要求和期盼,发展全过程人民民主,构建起了覆盖960多万平方公里土地、14亿多人民、56个民族的民主体系,实现了最广大人民的最广泛参与。

Democracy is an ideal that has always been cherished by the CPC and the Chinese people. This has been reflected in the main content of the white paper and in the statements made by other speakers in their answers. China is fully confident in our way of democracy. In active response to the people's needs and expectations for democracy, China has developed the whole-process people's democracy and established a democratic system covering a population of more than 1.4 billion from 56 ethnic groups living on 9.6 million square kilometers of land, making possible the widest participation of all its people.

刚才郭振华先生专门讲到,最近正在举行的县乡人民代表选举,就有10亿多选民参选。改革开放以来,中国先后举行了12次乡级人大代表的直接选举和11次县级人大代表的直接选举,选民参选率一直保持在90%左右,这方面有很多的数据和事实。这些都反映了中国民主的真实情况,也是人民当家作主的生动体现。

Just now, Mr. Guo Zhenhua said that more than 1 billion voters have participated in the ongoing elections for deputies to the people's congresses at the county and township levels. Since the initiation of reform and opening up, China has held 12 direct elections to people's congresses at the township level and 11 direct elections to those at the county level, with a current participation rate of about 90%. We have a host of data and records on this. These facts together reflect the real situation of China's democracy and vividly demonstrate that the people are masters of the country.

中国在本国发展全过程人民民主,在国际上推动国际关系民主化,坚持国家不论大小、强弱、贫富,在国际关系中一律平等。中国不照抄照搬他国的政治制度,也不会要求别国来“复制”中国的做法。中国始终认为,世界是多彩的,民主也是多样的,各国有权选择自己的民主发展道路。中国愿同各国加强交流、互学互鉴,共同推动人类政治文明发展进步。谢谢。

China has developed the whole-process people's democracy here in our country and promoted democratic relations between nations. China upholds the principle that all countries, large or small, strong or weak, rich or poor, are equals. China does not copy from another country's political systems, nor do we ask other countries to replicate our practices. We believe that democracy comes in many forms in the richly diverse world and each country has the right to choose its own path to democracy. We are ready to strengthen exchange and mutual learning with other countries to jointly advance the political progress of mankind. Thank you.

陈文俊:

Chen Wenjun:  

感谢各位发布人,谢谢各位媒体朋友们。今天的发布会就到这里!

Thank you to all the speakers and friends from the media. Today's press conference is hereby concluded.

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