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双语:国新办举行坚持“动态清零”做好疫情防控工作新闻发布会

国新办 2022-05-03 94次

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寿小丽:

Shou Xiaoli:

女士们、先生们,大家上午好。欢迎出席国务院新闻办新闻发布会。今天我们新闻发布会的主题是,坚持动态清零,做好疫情防控工作。今天我们邀请到国家卫生健康委副主任李斌先生,国家卫生健康委疾控局负责人雷正龙先生,国家卫生健康委疫情应对处置工作领导小组专家组组长梁万年先生,请他们为大家介绍相关情况,并回答大家感兴趣的问题。

Ladies and gentlemen, good morning. Welcome to this press conference held by the State Council Informational Office (SCIO). Today's press conference is about upholding the dynamic zero-COVID policy to prevent and control the pandemic. Today, we are joined by Mr. Li Bin, vice minister of the National Health Commission (NHC); Mr. Lei Zhenglong, deputy head of the disease control and prevention division of the NHC; and Mr. Liang Wannian, head of the Expert Group of the Epidemic Response and Disposal Leading Group of the NHC. They will brief you on relevant information and then take your questions.

下面,首先请李斌先生作介绍。 

Now, I'll give the floor to Mr. Li Bin.

李斌:

Li Bin:

各位媒体朋友们,大家上午好!疫情发生以来,以习近平同志为核心的党中央始终坚持“人民至上、生命至上”,着眼大局、基于科学、把握规律,一以贯之坚持“外防输入、内防反弹”的总策略和“动态清零”总方针。两年多的疫情防控实践证明,发现一起、扑灭一起的“动态清零”做法,最大限度保护了人民群众的生命安全和身体健康,最大限度减少了疫情对于国家整体经济社会发展的影响,路子是对的,效果是好的,是中国防控疫情的制胜“法宝”。

Friends from the media, good morning. Since the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (CPC) with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core has always put protecting the people and human life above everything else. By bearing in mind the big picture, taking science-based actions, and following objective laws, the CPC Central Committee has consistently adhered to the overall strategy of "preventing inbound cases and domestic resurgence" and carrying out the general policy of dynamic zero-COVID. Our practices on pandemic prevention and control over the past two years and more have proven that the dynamic zero-COVID approach, namely controlling and treating every confirmed case once detected, protected the health and safety of the people to the greatest extent possible and minimized the pandemic's impact on the national economic and social development. This is a correct approach with effective results and the best means to secure victory in China's anti-pandemic fight.

今年2月底以来,面对传播性和隐匿性显著增强的奥密克戎变异株流行,我国疫情呈现点多、面广、频发的特点,防控工作经历了武汉保卫战之后最为严峻的考验。对此,我们始终坚持“动态清零”不犹豫、不动摇,第一时间统筹调配检测、流调、转运、隔离、收治等力量,最大限度遏制疫情扩散蔓延。目前,吉林及其他多地聚集性疫情得到有效控制,上海清零攻坚战初见成效,全国疫情呈波动下降趋势。

Since the end of February this year, given the spread of highly contagious and stealthy Omicron sub-variant, China has seen frequent flare-ups of COVID-19 cases in multiple places, with a large swathe of areas affected. Pandemic prevention and control efforts have faced the most daunting challenge since the pandemic broke out in Wuhan. In response, we have been unswervingly carrying out the dynamic zero-COVID policy. We have immediately coordinated resources concerning nucleic acid tests, epidemiological investigation, case transfer, quarantine, and treatment and worked to contain the spread of the pandemic to the greatest extent possible. Cluster infections in Jilin province and many other places have been effectively contained, and the dynamic zero-COVID approach has achieved initial success in Shanghai. The number of confirmed COVID-19 cases in China has seen a fluctuating downward trend.

我们面对的是一场百年不遇的传染病疫情,当前全球疫情仍处于高位,病毒还在不断变异,我们对于新冠病毒和疾病的认识仍处在不断深化的过程中,疫情带来的风险和威胁仍然存在。我国是人口大国,地区发展不平衡,医疗资源总量不足,如果放松疫情防控,放任病毒传播,势必会在短期内造成大量人群被感染,进而出现大量重症和死亡病例,医疗卫生资源将面临严重挤兑风险,大量有基础性疾病患者、老年人、儿童和孕妇等脆弱人群的身体健康将首当其冲受到严重威胁,经济社会平稳发展将受到严重影响。

We are facing a pandemic of a scale unseen in a century. The baseline level of COVID-19 cases worldwide is still very high, and new COVID variants continue to develop. We are still trying to understand the coronavirus and the pandemic, and the risks and threats posed by COVID-19 still exist. China is a highly populous country with considerable regional differences and inadequate medical resources. Relaxing prevention and control measures will create surging COVID-19 infections in a short period of time, which can soon lead to a significant number of severe and death cases. This will put an overwhelming strain on our medical resources and pose a severe threat to the life and health of the vulnerable group, such as patients with underlying medical conditions, senior citizens, children, and pregnant women. The stable development of China's economy and society will also be severely affected.

新冠肺炎疫情发生以来,我国率先控制住疫情,率先复工复产,率先在世界主要经济体中实现经济正增长。稳定的疫情防控形势为我国保持经济发展和疫情防控全球领先地位,提供了最有利的环境。坚持“全国一盘棋”,在疫情地区采取局部的、严格的防疫措施,保证全国大部分地区和人群的正常生产生活,是符合成本效益的。

Since the pandemic broke out, China was one of the first countries to successfully contain the spread of COVID-19, resume work and production, and realize positive economic growth among major economies worldwide. A stable epidemic situation has offered China the most favorable environment to secure its world-leading economic growth and pandemic prevention position. Ensuring a coordinated national response and carrying out localized and stringent anti-pandemic measures is the most cost-efficient way. This makes sure that people in most regions in China can enjoy everyday life and work.

从武汉保卫战,到常态化疫情防控,再到迎战德尔塔、奥密克戎的全链条精准防控,我们始终坚持“动态清零”总方针,发现一起、扑灭一起。实践证明,“动态清零”是当前统筹疫情防控和经济社会发展的最优选择,是当前我国疫情防控务必守住的底线。

From the anti-pandemic fight in Wuhan and the nationwide routine COVID-19 control to the targeted and whole-process prevention and control of Delta and Omicron variants, China has always been upholding the general policy of dynamic zero-COVID approach and controlling and treating every confirmed case once detected. Our practices have proven that the dynamic zero-COVID approach is the best choice currently to coordinate pandemic prevention and control with social and economic development. This approach is a bottom line that China must safeguard for pandemic prevention and control.

“动态清零”不是绝对的“零感染”,面对奥密克戎等变异株的挑战,我们还没有能力保证不出现一例本土病例,但是我国已经在丰富的防控实践中积累了一套卓有成效的防控措施,并根据病毒的新变化、疫情的新情况,因时因势对防控措施不断优化升级。工作中,我们坚决把思想行动再统一,防控要求再落实,疫情防线再加固,能力水平再提升,“四方责任”再压紧。我们有能力、有信心在发现本土疫情时,快速反应、精准防控、以快制快,采取全方位综合措施,在最短时间内扑灭疫情,以最小的成本实现最大的防控效果。

The dynamic zero-COVID policy does not indicate absolute "zero infection." Facing the challenges posed by COVID-19 variants such as Omicron, we cannot eliminate domestic resurgence. However, China has summarized a set of effective prevention and control measures from our practices. We optimize these measures according to the emerging coronavirus variants and new pandemic conditions. We will firmly achieve unity in thinking and action to carry out anti-pandemic measures further, consolidate preventive efforts and enhance our implementation capacity. We will also ensure that local authorities, administrative bodies, employers, and individuals have taken their respective responsibilities in pandemic prevention and control. When domestic resurgence happens, we can confidently take swift actions and precise and comprehensive measures to clear all COVID-19 cases in the shortest period of time and realize the most effective containment with the most negligible costs.

以上是我要向大家介绍的基本情况。接下来我和我的同事愿意回答大家的提问。谢谢。

That is all the essential information I have for you. Now my colleagues and I are ready to take questions. Thank you.

寿小丽:

Shou Xiaoli:

谢谢李斌副主任的介绍。下面进入提问环节,提问前请通报一下所在的新闻机构。

Thank you, Mr. Li Bin. Now the floor is open. Please identify your media outlet before raising your questions.

CGTN记者:

CGTN:

有一些声音认为我国幅员辽阔,各地情况有所不同。因此“动态清零”政策的落实也应该因地制宜、适当变通。请问我们该如何看待这个观点?同时,能否实现在一些地方共存,而在另一些地方“动态清零”呢?谢谢。

Some people think that China is a large country with different situations in different places. Thus the dynamic zero-COVID policy should be flexible and adjusted to reflect local conditions. I wonder what your take on that is? Also, is it possible to co-exist with the coronavirus in some places and adopt the dynamic zero-COVID policy in other areas? Thank you.

李斌:

Li Bin:

首先谢谢您的提问,因为这个问题媒体很关注,也是公众非常关心的一个问题。疫情防控是一场总体战,必须增强大局意识、坚持全国一盘棋,只有疫情被有序地控制才能为人民生命健康提供坚实的保障,才能为正常的生产生活创造有利的条件。只有各地坚持“动态清零”不动摇,努力控制住本地的疫情,才能赢得全国疫情防控的全面胜利。如果个别地方“动态清零”不坚决果断,搞变通,病毒就可能在当地生根,导致当地疫情迅速扩散,导致疫情外溢,甚至出现跨区域的传播,成为疫情的“传播器”和“放大器”,造成人民生命财产的重大损失,严重影响经济社会的发展。

Thank you for your questions. This has drawn the attention of both the press and the general public. COVID-19 prevention and control is an all-out war, and therefore we need to think of the big picture and ensure a coordinated national response. Only when the pandemic is brought under control can we safeguard people's life and health and create favorable conditions for people's everyday life and work. Only when every city in China sticks to a dynamic zero-COVID policy and contains its local outbreak can the entire country win the fight against the pandemic. If certain areas do not resolutely uphold the dynamic zero-COVID policy, while trying to make an exception, the virus could spread and rapidly cause an outbreak. These places could even become an transmitter and amplifier of the outbreak, leading to spillover to other cities and regions, causing heavy loss of people's life and property, and severely affecting social and economic development.

在坚持“动态清零”总方针不动摇的前提下,我们鼓励地方根据当地的疫情形势和特点,探索总结一些好的经验和做法,进一步提高疫情防控的科学精准的水平,努力用最小的成本取得最大的防控效果。谢谢。

But under the general dynamic zero-COVID policy, we encourage local areas to explore good experiences and measures according to their particular situations in order to be more scientific and precise in COVID prevention and control and achieve maximum results with minimum costs. Thank you.

北京青年报记者:

Beijing Youth Daily:

有观点认为,奥密克戎传播很迅速,但是在感染者中轻症和无症状比例比较高,大家认为我国的防疫政策也可以选择躺平。请问,您对这种观点如何看待?谢谢。

Some people argue that though Omicron spreads quickly, many of the infected show mild or no symptoms, and thus China could choose to "lie flat" when responding to COVID. I wonder what your take on this is? Thank you.

李斌:

Li Bin:

这个观点也是当前大家比较关心的。下面,请我们专家组组长梁万年院长回答这个问题。

This argument has also drawn the attention of many people. I'll ask Mr. Liang Wannian to take it.

梁万年:

Liang Wannian:

谢谢。从全球来看,各国采取的新冠肺炎疫情防控策略和措施,首先是基于他的防控理念来决定的。中国的防控理念一直是坚持人民至上、生命至上,也就是说以人民为中心、以健康为中心的理念来进行疫情防控。在这个大的理念下,我们坚持动态清零总方针,同时随着疫情变化,在不断优化和完善各项防控措施。可以说,我们通过努力,有效保护了人民群众免受所谓群体免疫、自然免疫这种自然感染方式带来的遭受疾病的危害,保护了最广大人民群众的身体健康和生命安全,也维护了最广大地区的正常生产生活和经济发展。

Thank you. From a global perspective, countries choose their COVID prevention and control strategies and measures based on their prevention and control principle. China's principle has always been putting people first and putting life first. In other words, it is people-centered and health-centered. Under this principle, we adopted the general dynamic zero-COVID policy and have continuously optimized and improved our measures according to the changes in the pandemic. Through our efforts, we managed to protect our people from the harm brought by so-called herd immunity and natural immunity, protect the health and life of the overwhelming majority of our people, and protect the everyday life, work, and economic development of the largest areas of China.

从国际上看,一些国家选择了所谓的“躺平”,他们是两种免疫状况并存。一是通过自然免疫,也就是群体免疫,让他自然地感染,已经有比较多的民众感染了新冠病毒。另一个方面,他们也通过主动接种疫苗来获得主动免疫。我国主要是通过主动的疫苗免疫来增加抵抗力,建立免疫屏障。目前,我国已接种了33亿多剂新冠疫苗,90%的人口已完成疫苗接种,但还是不平衡,尤其是在不同年龄段的不同区域,还存在着接种率不平衡问题,如果我们再加一把力,特别是提高老年人、儿童等这些脆弱人群的疫苗接种率,实现可控的主动免疫屏障。相比不可控的被动免疫,我们认为主动免疫是更好的。

Some countries have two kinds of immunity. On is natural herd immunity, which, means that people get infected naturally by COVID-19, and then a large percentage of the population gets infected. The other is vaccination-induced immunity. China achieves its immunity through vaccination and build a safety net. Currently, more than 3.3 billion doses of COVID-19 vaccines have been administered on the Chinese mainland, covering 90% of its population. However, disparities remain. In particular, the gaps in vaccination rates in different ages and regions still exist. If we work harder to raise the vaccination rate for vulnerable groups like the elderly and children, we can set up proactive immunity barriers. Compared with uncontrollable passive immunity, we prefer proactive immunity.

我国是一个人口大国,地区发展不平衡,医疗资源总体不足,资源配置也不平衡。刚才我已经说了,“一老一小”疫苗接种率总体上还不够高,面对新冠肺炎疫情的反复冲击,如果采取与病毒共存的所谓“躺平”的策略,医疗卫生资源将会面临严重挤兑风险,大量有基础病的患者、老年人、儿童、孕妇等人群的身体健康将会受到威胁。同时,对经济社会发展也会产生严重冲击。在这种情况下,我们必须要坚持“动态清零”总方针,坚持我们的策略和措施不动摇。当然,也要不断优化完善防控措施,这也是一个时间窗口。如果我们加强疫苗接种,加快药物、疫苗等研发,我想我们就有可能抓住这个时机。当我们具备了一些相关条件,比如疫苗接种覆盖率较高,尤其是老年人等脆弱人群接种覆盖率进一步提高,各地都做好了医疗资源、隔离床位、有效药物、物资供应、应急机制等方面的准备,同时有效药物可以广泛使用,病毒不出现更坏的、新的变异,而是更加温和,死亡风险是我们可以承受的范围,利用“动态清零”给我们留出的时间窗口,做好这些相关的准备,我们一定能够战胜新冠肺炎疫情。

As a country with a large population, China faces imbalanced development among regions, shortages of medical resources, and inequality in resource distribution. As I have mentioned earlier, the vaccination rates for the elderly and the children are not high enough generally. In the face of repeated outbreaks, if we choose the so-called policy of coexisting with the virus, medical resources would be very likely to be overwhelmed, thus threatening the health of patients with background diseases, elderly people, children, and the pregnant. Meanwhile, that would deal a heavy blow to economic and social development. Under such circumstances, we must stick to the general principle of dynamic zero-COVID. Indeed, we must improve and optimize prevention and control measures during the time window. If we step up efforts in vaccination and accelerate R&D of medicines and vaccines, I think we can seize the chance. We will defeat the virus if we have a high vaccination coverage, especially for those older people and other vulnerable groups, all localities are well equipped with medical resources, quarantine beds, effective medicines applicable in a large scale, material supplies, and emergency mechanisms, the virus becomes milder without worse or new variations and an acceptable death rate, and we make use of the time saved by the dynamic zero-COVID policy.

谢谢。

Thank you.

彭博新闻社记者:

Bloomberg:

第一个问题,北京这次疫情防控从上海那里学到了什么经验?第二个问题,中国在加强老年人疫苗接种方面有什么举措,当老年人疫苗接种率达到什么水平时中国可能会考虑开放边境?谢谢。

What is the biggest lesson you've learned from the mistakes that were made in Shanghai in containing the outbreak? And separately on vaccination, why doesn't China compel elderly people to get vaccinated like you have for students and other population groups? What is an acceptable vaccination rate for those over 80 that China would be comfortable opening up under? Thank you.

李斌:

Li Bin:

谢谢您的提问,涉及两个问题,请两位同志分别来回答。请雷正龙局长回答一下关于老年人群体疫苗接种的相关问题,请梁万年院长回答关于当前北京防控需要借鉴经验的问题。

Thank you for your two questions. We invite Mr. Lei to answer the question about the vaccination of the elderly and Mr. Liang to answer the question about what lessons Beijing should draw in epidemic prevention and control.

雷正龙:

Lei Zhenglong:

谢谢您的提问。根据国务院联防联控机制的部署,国家卫生健康委继续指导各地积极稳妥推进新冠疫苗的接种工作。截至4月28日,全国累计报告接种新冠疫苗33亿4071.1万剂次,接种总人数达到12亿8493.5万,已完成全程接种12亿4968.8万人,覆盖人数和全程接种人数分别占全国总人口的91.14%和88.64%。完成加强免疫接种7亿5018.9万人,其中序贯加强免疫接种2996.7万人,60岁以上老年人接种覆盖人数达到2亿2708.8万人,完成全程接种2亿1515.5万人。覆盖人数和全程接种人数分别占老年人口的86.01%和81.49%。加强免疫接种已完成1亿6042.5万人。

Thank you for your question. In accordance with the arrangements of State Council's inter-agency task force, the NHC has continued to guide local governments to push forward with vaccination in a proactive and well-considered way. As of April 28, 3.340711 billion COVID-19 vaccine doses had been administered across the Chinese mainland. A total of 1.284935 billion people had been vaccinated, and 1.249688 billion had been fully vaccinated, accounting for 91.14% and 88.64% of the total population, respectively. A total of 750.189 million people had got a booster shot, among whom 29.967 million had got sequential booster jabs. About 227.088 million people aged 60 and above had been vaccinated, and 215.155 million had been fully vaccinated, registering 86.01% and 81.49% of the age group, respectively. A total of 160.425 million people in the group had got a booster shot.

目前,新冠病毒疫苗接种总体顺利,加强免疫正在有序开展,老年人群接种率也在逐步提高。近期,国家卫生健康委就老年人疫苗接种工作进行了再动员、再部署。一是落实属地责任。要求各地充分认识老年人疫苗接种的重要性、紧迫性,积极做好辖区内老年人群的摸底统计,进一步加强组织实施,保障接种安全。二是充分发挥老龄部门的作用。为进一步推动老年人的接种,全国老龄委办公室前期专门印发了《关于推动做好老年人新冠病毒疫苗接种工作的通知》,指导各地充分发挥涉老社会组织密切联系老年人的优势作用,条块结合,同向发力,确保为老年人接种疫苗提供安全便利的条件。三是加大宣传动员的力度,我们结合今年4月25日“全国儿童预防接种日”这个宣传活动平台,指导各地因地制宜,采用广播、电视、报刊和政府社区公开信等多种形式,以及新媒体和自媒体等多种平台,深入社区、乡村、养老院等,广泛开展新冠病毒疫苗接种宣传,提高大家接种的积极性和主动性。疫苗接种和个人防护是新冠肺炎疫情防控的有效手段,在此,也希望媒体朋友们多支持,多开展疫苗接种科普宣传工作,大家共同努力,进一步提高重点人群、老年人群的新冠疫苗接种率,为疫情防控助力。谢谢。

So far, the overall work of vaccination has been going smoothly. We are taking orderly steps to administer booster shots, and the vaccination coverage rate of senior citizens has been gradually increasing. Recently, the NHC has made further arrangements to mobilize senior citizens to get vaccination shots.

First, we will see that local governments fulfill their responsibilities. Local governments must fully recognize the significance and urgency of the need for the elderly to get vaccinated. The actual situation of the senior population within their jurisdictions should be checked proactively so that further arrangements for their vaccination can be implemented and their safety can be ensured.

Second, we will give full play to the role of departments responsible for the welfare of the elderly people. To further increase the vaccination coverage rate of the elderly group, the office of the China National Committee on Aging has specifically issued a notice in advance on better promoting the vaccination among the elderly group. The notice has guided local governments to give full play to the role of social organizations related to the work for the elderly group and encouraged all localities to work together to ensure the safe and convenient conditions of the vaccination for the elderly.

Third, we will intensify our efforts on publicity and mobilization. In combination with the China Prophylactic Vaccination Day activities on April 25 this year, we guided all localities to adjust measures in accordance with their specific local conditions to carry out further publicity on COVID-19 vaccination to encourage more people to get vaccinated. In addition, various other platforms, including radio, television, newspapers, open letters from the government and communities, and new media and We-media, were also used to promote vaccination in the communities, rural areas, and nursing homes.

Getting vaccinated and personal protection measures are effective means for COVID-19 prevention and control. Therefore, I also hope that our media friends will support and carry out more publicity activities about the popularization of vaccination. We will further increase the vaccination coverage rate of key groups and senior citizens with our joint efforts. In this way, we will offer more support to the epidemic prevention and control efforts. Thank you.

梁万年:

Liang Wannian:

我来回答第二个问题。北京和上海这次疫情的流行株都是奥密克戎变异株,这两个城市都是特大型城市,人口都在两千万甚至更多。奥密克戎变异株,它具有传播速度快、隐匿性强的特点,对这些特大城市来说,在抗击新冠肺炎疫情的时候就增加了很大的难度。无论从组织实施,还是相关的核酸检测能力、医疗救治能力等方面,都提出了更高的要求。所以在一定程度上来说,是对这些特大城市治理体系和治理能力的一个考验。

Let me answer the second question. The epidemic strain of the outbreaks in Beijing and Shanghai is the Omicron variant. Both cities are super-large, each with a population of 20 million or more. The Omicron variant has the characteristics of rapid spread and strong concealment. For these megacities, this has increased a lot of difficulties in fighting COVID-19 outbreaks. And this has put forward higher demands in terms of organization and implementation and other aspects such as related nucleic acid testing capabilities and medical treatment capabilities. Therefore, it is a test of these megacities' governance systems and governance capacity to a certain extent.

从上海经历的疫情情况,包括北京现在也正在抗击散发性的新冠肺炎疫情,我想有几点是可以有所启示的。第一,奥密克戎变异株的传播速度太快,隐匿性太强,所以我们必须要优化完善过去对待新冠肺炎病毒的原始株以及α、β、德尔塔变异株的这种打法进行优化完善,总的一条就是以快治快,病毒传播得快,我们出手的速度,工作的力度和速度要更快,要和这种病毒在时间上进行赛跑,这是一个非常重要的变化。

Speaking from the perspective of the epidemic situation experienced in Shanghai and that Beijing is also fighting the sporadic COVID-19 epidemic, I think there are a few points that can be enlightening. First, Omicron spreads too fast and is too concealed, so we must improve the previous approaches to fight the original strain of the novel coronavirus and its Alpha, Beta, and Delta variants. The general rule is to move fast. The virus spreads quickly, so the speed of our moves, and the intensity and speed of our work, have to be faster and race against time to fight this virus. This is a significant change.

第二,我们还是要树立信心。其实中国的一些城市,比如广东深圳、吉林长春和吉林市、天津等,都经历了奥密克戎变异株的侵袭。但是实践证明,我们采取有效的策略和打法,能够有效控制疫情的传播,来实现“动态清零”,所以这个信心我们必须要牢固树立。我们有能力、有基础、有条件来战胜奥密克戎变异株所造成的流行和传播。大家可以看到,无论从上海还是北京,都已取得了明显的进展。

Second, we still have to build our confidence. Some cities in China, such as Shenzhen in Guangdong province, Changchun in Jilin province, Tianjin, etc., have all experienced the outbreak of the Omicron. The practice has proved that we can effectively control the spread of the epidemic by adopting effective strategies and tactics to achieve dynamic zero-COVID, so we must firmly establish this confidence. We have the ability, the foundation, and the conditions to defeat the epidemic and spread caused by the Omicron. As you can see, significant progress has been made in both Shanghai and Beijing.

第三,我们要考虑到这种变异株最为脆弱的人群是老年人,基础病患者,最有效的保护手段是疫苗接种。这两个城市人口的老龄化也比较大,老年人口的占比比全国平均水平要高,所以老年人强化疫苗接种,切实提升疫苗全程接种,包括加强针接种的接种率,这是保护他们的身体健康和生命安全的一个有效手段,必须要强化。同时,还要强调,针对奥密克戎变异株的侵袭,我们要全力以赴地做到“四应四尽”,应检尽检、应隔尽隔、应收尽收、应治尽治,这是我们从2020年抗击武汉疫情以来所形成的一种经验。只要做到“四应四尽”,就可以快速有效地切断疫情的传播链条,有效保护人民群众的身体健康,有效实施医疗救治。

Third, we must consider that the most vulnerable groups of this variant are the elderly and those with underlying diseases. The most effective means of protection is vaccination. The population of these two cities is also relatively old, and the proportion of the elderly population is higher than the national average. Therefore, strengthening the vaccination of the elderly and effectively increasing the rate of whole process vaccination and the vaccination rate for the booster shot is an effective means to protect their health, which must be strengthened. At the same time, it should be emphasized that in response to the outbreak of the Omicron, we must go all out to implement the policy of ensuring that all those in need are tested, isolated, hospitalized, or treated. We have formed this experience since the fight against the Wuhan epidemic in 2020. As long as the policy is fulfilled, the transmission chain of the epidemic can be quickly and effectively cut off, the people's health can be effectively protected, and medical treatment can be effectively executed.

最后一点,新冠肺炎疫情的抗击是一场总体战、阻击战,更是一场人民战争,疫情的抗击是一个系统的工程,既需要政府,也需要各个部门,需要整个社会,需要每一个人形成强大的合力。所以,上海的抗疫,包括北京的抗疫。应该是一个全社会的动员,用一种系统工程的理念来发挥落实四方责任。我想,我们打一场人民战争,以更快的速度、更科学有效的手段来办,一定能够战胜新冠肺炎疫情。谢谢。

Last but not least, the battle against the COVID-19 pandemic is an all-out people's war. It is also a systemic process that needs strong synergies among governments, departments, every individual, and the whole society. The efforts to fight the pandemic in Shanghai and Beijing need to mobilize the entire society under the guidance of a systemic philosophy to ensure that local authorities, relevant departments, employers, and individuals fulfill their responsibilities. I think we will win the anti-pandemic war, as we are waging a people's war against it in a swifter response and a more scientific and efficient manner. Thank you.

香港大公文汇传媒集团记者:

Hong Kong Ta Kung Wen Wei Media Group:

现在的防疫措施给生产生活带来了一定的不便,有观点认为“动态清零”政策拖累了中国经济发展。您怎么看“动态清零”政策对经济带来的影响?谢谢。

The current pandemic prevention and control measures have caused some inconvenience in production and people's life. Some believe that the "dynamic zero-COVID" approach has slowed China's economic growth. What do you think will be the impact on the economy of this approach? Thank you.

梁万年:

Liang Wannian:

谢谢你的提问。首先我们要理清楚一个关系,就是“动态清零”最终目标是最大限度保护人民群众的身体健康和生命安全,同时要最大限度保护社会经济发展和正常的生产生活。“动态清零”和经济发展、正常的生产生活之间是相互协同的,不是对立的,并不是说实行“动态清零”总方针以及我们采取一系列措施和策略,就是要影响经济发展和正常的生产生活,不是这个概念。因为抗疫和经济发展是相互协同的,它们都是“动态清零”的主要目标之一。“动态清零”有三方面的子目标:一是有效保护身体健康、生命安全。二是有效保护经济发展,促进经济发展,使经济发展免受病毒和疫情造成的冲击。三是有效保障老百姓的正常生产生活。所以,它不是对立的。

Thank you for your question. First, we need to clarify that the ultimate purpose of the dynamic zero-COVID approach is to make the utmost efforts to ensure people's health and protect their lives while sustaining social and economic development and ensuring normal production and daily life. The approach can be coordinated with economic development, and normal production and life. They are not contradictory. We have been implementing the general principle of the dynamic zero-COVID policy with a series of measures, but that doesn't necessarily mean it will affect economic growth or normal production and life. The reason lies in that the pandemic containment and economic development can be coordinated. They are both the primary objectives of the dynamic zero-COVID approach. There are also three subgoals that the policy aims to achieve: First, it aims to safeguard people's health and lives. Second, it aims to ensure economic development to protect the economy from the impact of the virus. Third, it aims to ensure people's normal work and life. As such, they are not contradictory.

我们必须要认识到,疫情、病毒才是拖累经济的罪魁祸首。大流行都会对各国的经济造成影响,各国的抗疫,实际上在各自的理念指导下采取的一系列策略和措施,目的都是为了尽量减少疫情和病毒带来的影响。但由于理念、方针、策略、措施的力度强度速度等方面存在差异,就体现出不同国家、不同地方抗疫效果和效益的差异。当然,我们也要看到,为战胜疫情所采取的一些具体防控措施,会造成短暂性的生活不便和短暂的社会经济活动影响,这也是客观存在的。但是“动态清零”总方针特别强调的是精准,要精准平衡抗疫和经济发展、正常生产生活之间的关系。如何做到精准?实际上就要求各地结合疫情特点,结合疫情发展的不同阶段,结合当地社会经济等方面的情况,在有效的前提下,努力精准平衡抗疫和经济发展、正常生产生活之间的关系。

We need to understand that it is the pandemic and the virus dragging down the economy. The pandemic impacts the economy of all countries in the world, which have been doing their best to minimize the impacts of the virus and pandemic with various policies and measures adopted in line with their own guiding principles. However, the differences in anti-epidemic philosophies, guiding principles, policies and measures, coupled with factors such as the response speed and implementation effectiveness, lead to different outcomes and efficiency of the pandemic containment efforts. It should be admitted that some of the measures adopted to fight the virus will cause temporary inconvenience in daily life and affect social and economic activities temporarily. But the targeted way is the priority in the general principle of the dynamic zero-COVID approach, which aims to synergize pandemic containment, economic development, and normal production and life in a targeted and balanced manner. In this regard, different areas need to consider their respective pandemic situation and local social and economic situation to make the approach work well and thereby effectively balance the relationship between pandemic containment and economic development, as well as people's normal work and life.

最后我想说的是,怎么看待这个平衡?平衡的过程实际就是一个动态的过程,它是在一个总理念和方针的指引下来看的。所以,我们在看待平衡、抗疫和经济发展之间关系的时候,应该是以宏观视角、群体视角、动态视角来看待平衡问题。实际上,就是处理好短期和长期的关系、局部和整体的关系、个体和群体的关系。具体说,我们可能在实行某些具体策略和措施的时候,在短期之内,牺牲了一些局部地区和一部分人的生活便利性,使局部地区的经济在短时间内受到一定影响,但是我们可以换取最广大地区、最广大人民的正常生产生活和经济发展。我想,这个是具有成本效益的,这也是一种平衡。中国政府在整个抗疫的过程中,一直把平衡好这种关系作为一个重要目标,中国人民也一直在努力寻找和探索,在不同疫情情况下,在不同地区,如何做好这种平衡,找到平衡的手段、路径和方法。

The last thing I want to say is how to understand the balance? The balancing process is a dynamic process guided by China's general concept and policy guidelines against the virus. So, we should understand the balance between COVID-19 prevention and control and economic and social development from a macro, collective and dynamic perspective. It is about dealing with the relationship between short-term and long-term considerations, between part and whole, and between individuals and groups. Specifically, while implementing specific strategies and measures, we may have inconvenienced parts of areas and people in the short term and made the economy of parts of areas suffer for a short time. Still, we have ensured the normal production and life of the broadest areas and people. I think it is cost-effective, also a balance. The Chinese government has been putting the goal of a well-balanced relationship between COVID-19 prevention and control and economic and social development as a priority. China has been striving to explore the approaches of balance and make efforts to do well in the balance, facing different epidemic situations and regions.

谢谢。

Thank you.

红星新闻记者:

Red Star News:

近期国家卫健委表示,目前我国疫情防控已经进入第四阶段,即全方位综合防控“科学精准、动态清零”,请问这一阶段是从何时开始的?为什么有这样的调整?谢谢。

The NHC recently said that China's anti-epidemic work has entered the fourth stage -- the stage of all-round comprehensive epidemic prevention and control in a scientific and targeted manner following the dynamic zero-COVID approach. When did China enter this stage? Why the need to adjust? Thank you.

李斌:

Li Bin:

感谢你的提问,也感谢对我们国家疫情防控不同阶段的关注。回顾两年多来的抗疫历程,我国的防控举措、诊疗方案不断根据疫情形势变化来进行优化和调整,抗击疫情的中国答卷上“以人民为中心”的发展理念始终贯穿始终。新冠肺炎疫情的防控,从我们国家来看,现在分成了四个阶段:第一阶段,突发疫情应急围堵阶段。用了三个月左右的时间取得了武汉保卫战、湖北保卫战的决定性成果,成功阻断了疫情本土的传播。第二阶段,常态化防控的探索阶段。以核酸检测为中心来扩大预防,用2-3个潜伏期来控制住疫情。第三阶段,全链条精准防控、动态清零阶段。立足抓早抓小抓基础,充分利用疫情发生后黄金24小时,力争在一个潜伏期左右控制住疫情。当前,我国已经进入到了全方位综合防控“科学精准、动态清零”的第四个阶段。

Thank you for your question and attention on China's epidemic prevention and control stages. During more than two years of China's anti-epidemic work, we have optimized and adjusted prevention and control measures and diagnosis and treatment schemes depending on the epidemic situation. We have always followed the people-centered development philosophy in fighting against the epidemic. China's epidemic prevention and control work has included four stages: first, the emergency containment stage of the epidemic outbreak. We achieved a decisive result in fighting the virus in Wuhan city and Hubei province in about three months, and successfully contained the spread of the virus in China. Second is the exploration stage of regular epidemic prevention and control. China has mainly used nucleic acid testing as a major way to strengthen prevention, and strived to control an epidemic situation within two or three incubation periods. The third is the stage of targeted prevention and control following the dynamic zero-COVID approach across the whole chain. We have focused on early detection and meticulous and fundamental measures, and grasped the "golden 24 hours" after detecting positive cases to contain the epidemic within the first incubation period. Currently, China's anti-epidemic work has entered the stage of all-round comprehensive epidemic prevention and control in a scientific and targeted manner following the dynamic zero-COVID approach.

针对奥密克戎变异株传染性强、传播速度快、无症状感染者比例高、隐匿性传播强等特点,总结各地防控经验、不断完善防控的各项措施。在防控措施上,明确主攻方向,分清防控措施的优先次序,以“空间换时间”,把社区防控摆在了重要位置。第一时间把风险人群控制在管控范围内,阳性感染者应治尽治,密切接触者应隔尽隔,尽可能对次密接进行集中隔离,力争最短时间阻断疫情传播的链条。推进抗原+核酸筛查,以最快的速度发现感染者。公安、工信、公卫“三公(工)”协同开展流调,准确判定风险人群范围,精准采取防控措施。在疫情处置的组织管理上,更加协同高效,以快制快,以集中统筹为原则,确保核酸检测、流调、隔离转运、社区管控等各环节协调联动,最大程度压缩初筛阳性到完成转运的时间,以疫情高发地区为重点,集中优势力量,组织实施好重点区域的攻坚,迅速遏制疫情传播势头。

The Omicron variant is highly infectious, highly transmissible, difficult to detect, and can cause a larger proportion of asymptomatic infections. We summarize experiences from different regions and continue to improve COVID-19 response measures. As for COVID-19 prevention and control measures, we make clear our main focuses, set priorities for these measures, and put community-level prevention and control in a prominent position. We control the population at risk within the particular region at the earliest time. Infected patients will all be treated, and close contacts will all be isolated. We also isolate people who are secondary close contacts of COVID-19 cases in designated places as possible as we can, striving to cut off the transmission routes in the shortest time. We work to advance antigen tests and nucleic acid tests in order to detect infected cases as early as possible. Public security, industry and information technology, and public health departments have worked in synergy to conduct epidemiological investigations, identify the scope of the population at risk, and take targeted prevention and control measures. As for the organization and management of disposal of COVID-19 cases, we work in a well-coordinated and efficient way and try to run faster than the virus. Based on the principle of centralized and overall planning, we work to ensure that all processes, including nucleic acid testing, epidemiological investigation, isolation, transferring, and community-level prevention and control can be operated in a well-coordinated manner, striving to shorten the possible time from positive screening test to final transfer. We focus on high-risk regions and mobilize our best efforts to secure victory in key regions so that the transmission of the virus can be curbed as quickly as possible.

总之,无论疫情形势如何变化,我们都会坚持人民至上、生命至上的理念,慎终如始抓好疫情的防控。谢谢。

In general, no matter how the epidemic situation goes, we will always put people and their lives first and take prudent efforts to ensure the COVID-19 response measures are implemented. Thanks.

英国独立电视台记者:

ITV News:

刚才中方的发布人提到了,在一些城市,中方的抗疫已经取得了非常明显的成效,但是在上海,我们看到上海的抗疫举措有一些曲折。您刚才提到老龄化可能是上海出现曲折的原因,请问还有其他原因吗?第二个问题,中方在疫苗接种尤其是在mRNA疫苗方面,有什么计划?

Mr. Liang Wannian, you mentioned some cities have already battled some Omicron outbreaks. In those cities, it has taken generally far less than it has taken in Shanghai, where they're entering their second month of lockdown. The numbers are still rising. Do you know why that is? Why has the situation become so bad in Shanghai? You did mention there is a high elderly population there. Can I also ask if China has any plans to roll out mRNA vaccines? Thank you.

李斌:

Li Bin:

这涉及两方面的问题。第一方面问题很明确,请梁院长把相关情况介绍一下。第二关于mRNA疫苗相关的情况,请雷局长回答。

Your questions cover two aspects. The first one will go to Mr. Liang, and the second one on mRNA vaccines will go to Mr. Lei.

梁万年:

Liang Wannian:

谢谢。现在上海疫情防控还处在关键阶段,但我们也看到,从报告的病例发病曲线来看,处在下降阶段。实际上它还是在高位上平缓下降,这表明我们的疫情防控所采取的一系列措施和策略正在发挥作用,有效遏制了它上涨势头,出现了好转迹象。但是上海每天的发病数还在万例波动,形势依然严峻复杂。

Thank you. Shanghai is now still at a critical stage to control the epidemic. Also, as we see, data from the reported cases show a downturn in the curve. It is gradually decreasing on a high base. All these demonstrate that our series of efforts and strategies to respond to COVID-19 are taking effect and effectively curbing the surge of cases. The situation shows signs of improvement. However, with about 10,000 new COVID-19 cases reported every day in Shanghai, the situation remains grim and complex.

上海和北京这两个城市的特点,都是特大城市,人口基数大,人口密度大,人口流动性也大,这给防控造成了很大的困难。因为这么大的人口数,上海有近2500万人,我们要组织一次核酸检测,落实某一个抗疫措施,需要系统周密、大量资源配置和动员协调才能有效完成的。从市级政府到区,再到具体落地的街道、居委会,它是一个系统工程,这是一个难点。不像一些其他城市和局部地区,很快就能够做到、做好。

Shanghai and Beijing are megacities with a large population base, high population density, and high population mobility, which pose significant difficulties for prevention and control. For such a large population, nearly 25 million people in Shanghai, we need systematic, considerate, and extensive allocation of resources, mobilization, and coordination to effectively organize a nucleic acid test and implement a specific anti-epidemic measure. It is a systematic project involving the municipal government, districts, and specific sub-districts and residents' committees. It is one of the difficulties. It cannot be done quickly and well like some other cities and areas do.

第二,要求我们有强大的抗击病原体的能力。学术上经常讲时间和空间,也就是说,我们的这个系统抗击能力和容量是多大,比如核酸检测能力,对100万城市的核酸检测能力和对2500万城市的核酸检测能力,要求是不一样的,就是容量不一样。在不够的时候,时间就会长,够的时候,可能24小时就完成。所以,这一块又是一个挑战。

Second, it requires us to have a strong capacity against the virus. Like the frequently discussed time and space in academic fields, it requires different capacity levels against the virus in our system, nucleic acid testing capacity for example. For a city with 1 million people and one with 25 million, it will take longer in the case of insufficient capacity but may take merely 24 hours when there is sufficient capacity. So, that is another challenge.

再者,在抗疫的时候还是要保证城市生命线的运行,还有一些必需的水、电、煤、气、公共安全等保障经济运行,保障老百姓正常的生活。比如,我们的快递小哥、必要的交通、医护人员救治、社区的组织人员和志愿者等,这种必要的人口流动性还是存在的。由于上海存在广泛的社区传播,这种人口流动势必也给防控带来更大的风险。

Moreover, city operation must be ensured in the anti-epidemic fight. The supply of water, electricity, coal, and gas and public security needed in the running of the economy and people's everyday lives must be ensured. For example, couriers, transportation, medical staff and services, community organizers, and volunteers are necessary, so there has been a certain level of mobility. Given the extensive virus spread in communities in Shanghai, such population mobility is bound to bring greater risks to prevention and control.

一个这么大的城市,当疫情快速发展的时候,如何真正做到“四应四尽”,该检的都检了,该发现阳性的和密切接触者的,该收治、该管理的都管理了,该治疗的都进行有效治疗了,这些方面是需要充分准备和充足资源的保障,如果不够,对阳性感染者也好,对确诊病人也好,还是对密切接触者或者次密切接触者也好,如果我们没有实现“床等人”,仍然是滞留在社区,势必就会造成家庭内甚至社区的传播,这种资源如何有效保证实现“四应四尽”,实现“床等人”,这对上海也是一个挑战。但我们很高兴地看到,上海市正在向这方面迈进,医疗救治已经取得了明显成效,方舱基本实现了“床等人”。这些是有一个过程的,前段时间上海比较艰难,其实和城市的特点,和疫情传播快的特点,以及我们整体资源的容量,还有人口流动性等方方面面都是有关系的。

When the virus is quickly spreading in such a big city, it requires adequate preparations and resources to ensure the policy of ensuring that all those in need are tested, quarantined, treated, or restricted was implemented. If no adequate preparations and resources like hospital beds, infected cases, confirmed cases, close contacts, and secondary close contacts would be stranded in communities, resulting in virus spread in families and communities. It is also a challenge for Shanghai to ensure the policy of ensuring that all those in need are tested, quarantined, treated, or restricted was implemented effectively. Still, we are pleased to see that Shanghai is heading in the right direction, with remarkable progress in medical treatment and sufficient beds in makeshift hospitals. It took some time to get there. Shanghai went through a difficult period some time ago, which has to do with many aspects, including the characteristics of the city, the rapid spread of the virus, the level of our overall resources, and the mobility of the people.

最后我还想说一点,上海人口密度大,疫情发生后到现在,它是广泛的社区传播,这种广泛的社区传播采取措施,和在一个局部的点、一个局部的区域性聚集性疫情相比,防控难度更大。所以,时间可能比较长,采取的力度,比如核酸检测、抗原检测、筛查策略等会需要更长一些时间,更频繁一些。

Finally, Shanghai has a high population density. Since the outbreak in the city, the epidemic has spread widely in the community. Compared with single or regional cluster cases, the prevention and control measures for widespread community transmission have more difficulties. Therefore, it might take longer, and measures such as nucleic acid testing, antigen testing, and screening strategies may be needed more frequently.

谢谢。

Thank you.

雷正龙:

Lei Zhenglong:

关于mRNA疫苗,目前我国已经布局了多个研发任务,进展较快的正在境外开展III期临床试验,有的正在审评审批过程中。详细情况建议向相关部门进行咨询。谢谢。

Regarding mRNA vaccines, China has arranged several research and development tasks. Some with faster timelines are conducting phase III clinical trials abroad, and some are in the process of review and approval. For details, please consult the relevant departments. Thank you.

北京日报记者:

Beijing Daily:

在坚持“动态清零”方针下,如何让防疫政策更有利于复工复产,尽可能减少对普通民众的影响。如何保障效率和人性化,更好推进“动态清零”平稳实施?谢谢。

Under the principle of dynamic zero-COVID, how to make epidemic prevention policies more conducive to the resumption of work and production and minimize the impact on ordinary people? How to ensure efficiency and humanization and better promote the smooth implementation of dynamic zero-COVID? Thank you.

雷正龙:

Lei Zhenglong:

谢谢您的提问。新冠肺炎疫情发生以来,我们坚决贯彻落实党中央、国务院决策部署,积极指导各地加强科学防控精准施策,坚持“外防输入、内防反弹”的总策略和“动态清零”总方针不动摇。随着对新冠病毒认识的不断深入,根据疫情形势变化和防控工作的实际需要,防控政策措施也在不断进行调整完善,更好统筹疫情防控和社会经济发展。

Thank you for your questions. Since the outbreak of COVID-19, we have firmly implemented the decisions and deployments of the CPC Central Committee and the State Council, actively guided local governments to strengthen scientific and targeted prevention and control measures, and unswervingly adhered to the overall strategy of preventing imported cases and domestic resurgences and the general policy of dynamic zero-COVID. As we deepen the understanding of COVID-19, our prevention and control policies and measures have been constantly adjusted and improved in accordance with the changing epidemic situation and the actual needs of the prevention and control work to coordinate better the epidemic prevention and control with social and economic development.  

一是不断提升疫情防控的科学精准水平。根据疫情防控形势,不断完善疫情防控方案,疫情发生以后,我们力争在最短时间内找到密接、次密接,缩短感染者和密接在社会上停留的时间,缩小疫情扩散范围。科学划定中高风险地区,做好分级分类分区精准管控。社区防控中,精准划分封控区、管控区、防范区。

First, we have continued to improve the scientific and precise epidemic prevention and control level. According to the epidemic prevention and control situation, we have kept improving the epidemic prevention and control plan. After the outbreak, we have strived to find close contacts and sub-close contacts as soon as possible, shorten the time for infected persons and close contacts to linger in communities, and reduce the spread of the epidemic. Medium- and high-risk areas have been demarcated in a scientific method, and a multi-level, category-specific, and targeted approach has been adopted in different areas. In community prevention and control, lockdown area, control area, and prevention area have been precisely classified.

二是尽量减少疫情对公众的影响。面对疫情,我们严管控、有力度。同时我们提供贴心、暖心的服务,全力保障疫情期间群众正常看病的就医需求。在封控区、管控区精准了解有特殊诊疗需求患者的情况,并精准对接社区和相应的医疗机构。有看病需求的居民能够出得了小区门,进得了医院的门。全力保障疫情期间群众生活物资,各地统筹各方力量,加快完善各级供应配送体系,加强物资调配,确保渠道畅通。统筹社区社会组织、业主委员会、物业服务企业、志愿服务人员等各方力量,逐户做好需求收集、集中采购、物资配送等工作,保障到位,服务到位,关爱到位。

Second, we have done our best to minimize the negative effects of the pandemic on the public. We not only fought the virus with strict and effective control measures but also provided considerate services, making every effort to meet people's demands for medical treatment. We gathered information on patients needing special treatment in lockdown and control areas. We precisely synergized communities with designated hospitals, ensuring that residents can leave the community to see a doctor. To guarantee necessary supplies, we coordinated our efforts to improve the all-level delivery system and enhanced the allocation of daily supplies. We pooled strength from communities' social organizations, committees of property owners, real property management, and service enterprises as well as volunteers to collect information on each household's needs, place joint purchase orders and deliver necessities, providing residents with sufficient supplies, considerate services, and warm care.

三是规范有序推进复工复产。近期,有些地方和相关部门在严密防范疫情情况下有序推进复工复产,对交通物流做到保通保畅,优化司乘人员管理,严格落实闭环管理、健康监测、核酸检测等要求。优化在旅途中疫情防控措施,设置方便、充足的核酸检测点,落实“即采即走即追”的要求。统筹做好疫情防控和重点物资运输保障工作,统筹做好疫情防控和春季农业生产,针对不同的农业生产情形,我们提出针对性的防疫措施要求,有效保障农业生产和农产品供应。谢谢。

Third, we promoted the resumption of work and production in an orderly manner. To ensure smooth traffic and logistics, localities and relevant departments adopted closed-loop management, which requires drivers and conductors to regularly conduct health monitoring and take a nucleic acid test. We also improved our pandemic response measures for those on the road. A large number of checkpoints for the nucleic acid test have been installed to ensure drivers can conveniently take tests and go and could be traced at any time. Meanwhile, we coordinated pandemic response with the transportation of key materials and agricultural production. Precise pandemic response measures have been proposed for various agricultural scenarios so as to guarantee a smooth production and a stable supply of agricultural products. Thank you.

封面新闻记者:

Cover News:

有观点认为,奥密克戎与原始毒株有很大差别,极强的隐匿性、传播性与早隔离的愿景背离,这一特点决定了“动态清零”几乎等同于全域静默、全员核酸。请问如何看待这一观点?怎样才能在不进行全员核酸和全城封控的条件下尽早遏制疫情传播?谢谢。

Based on the fact that the Omicron variant is much harder to detect and more contagious than the original strain, some people argue that it is not easy to realize early quarantine, thus making dynamic zero-COVID approach almost equivalent to a citywide closed-off management and mass nucleic acid test. What's your view? How to contain the spread of the virus as early as possible without conducting mass nucleic acid tests or imposing a citywide lockdown? Thank you.

梁万年:

Liang Wannian:

谢谢这位记者的提问。我首先想说的是,奥密克戎虽然具有传播强、隐匿性强、无症状感染多这些特点,但是并不意味着就做不到早发现、早报告、早隔离和早治疗,就是我们说的“四早”。真正做到“四早”,我们就不一定需要做全市全员核酸,甚至全城封控,所以抗击奥密克戎并不意味着是全市全员的核酸,更不意味着是全市全域的封控。

Thanks for your question. First of all, I want to make it clear that even though the Omicron variant is highly contagious, hard to detect, and results in many asymptomatic cases, it doesn't mean that we can't realize early detection early reporting, early quarantine, and early treatment. If the "four earlies" principle is conscientiously observed, we don't have to launch a mass nucleic acid test or put a whole city under lockdown. So, my point is that fighting Omicron doesn't necessarily imply a citywide mass nucleic acid test or citywide closed-off management.

如何来采取核酸的检测策略? 现在我们提倡的是核酸+抗原自测的联合检测策略,这是根据疫情的发展阶段和疫情特点来决定的。总体上来看,疫情发现得越早,传播链条就越清楚。也就是说,病例是从哪儿来的?和谁接触了?这种传播链条就越容易搞清楚,波及的范围就越明晰,早发现、早报告、早隔离、早治疗这“四早”做得越好。我们越能搞清楚它的来龙去脉、波及的范围、传播的上下家,这时候我们的精准度就越高,就不一定需要更大的管控范围,可能只需在精准的、可控的范围来采取核酸检测、抗原自测和相应的管控措施。所以这是非常重要的。

What kind of test strategy shall we adopt? At present, we advocate a joint test strategy featuring conducting nucleic acid tests and antigen self-test based on the development of the pandemic. Generally speaking, the earlier the transmission is detected, the easier it is to figure out its chains. That's to say, we can more precisely find out how the cases are infected, who their contacts are, and people in which areas might be affected, thus doing a better job in terms of the "four earlies." We can then conduct the nucleic acid test and antigen self-test within a targeted area instead of imposing an extensive lockdown. This is very important.

我们能不能在不进行全员核酸检测和全城封控的条件下来做到疫情的有效控制,我的回答就是:只要做到“四早”就可以。但是“四早”是要靠一系列的理念、能力和机制来保障的。所以,在应对疫情的时候,我想各地都要做好相应的准备,监测能力、发现报告和快速反应能力,各个部门和民众的参与度,对这个疾病的警惕和重视程度等,都决定了能不能做到“四早”。反过来说,如果做不到“四早”,我们发现得晚,尤其对一些感染者,搞不清楚他是从哪儿来的,也搞不清楚他接触了多少人,波及的范围很大,这时候针对奥密克戎变异株快的特点,基本繁殖率可以达到9.5。另外,它的中位数潜伏期是3天,原始株是5.4天,德尔塔是4天,一代一代传播的时间间隔是2.83天,这么快的速度,要想控制住它,在不清楚传染源的来源以及感染者的波及范围和接触人群的情况下,就有必要适当扩大管控范围,加强核酸检测,加强相应的管控措施,我想这也是疫情防控的需要。

Can we effectively control the pandemic without city-wide nucleic acid testing and lockdown? I would say it's possible as long as we can ensure "early detection, reporting, quarantine and treatment." While to guarantee the "four earlies," it requires a set of concepts, capacities, and mechanisms. Therefore, in response to the pandemic, I believe that all places across the country should make good preparations. The monitoring capacity, discovery and reporting capacity, quick reaction capacity, the participation of multiple departments and individuals, the alerts, and degree of emphasis on diseases are highly relevant to achieving the "four earlies."

On the other hand, if we fail to achieve the "four earlies" and discover the cases late, in particular, for some infected patients, if we can't figure out where they are from, how many people have been exposed to, and the spread range. The basic reproduction number of Omicron variant will hit 9.5 with its fast transmission speed. In addition, the median incubation period is three days, compared with the original strain of 5.4 days and the Delta variant of four days. Its time interval of intergenerational transmission is 2.83 days. Under the circumstance of without knowing its source of infection, the spread range, and close contacts of infected patients, given the variant's fast transmission speed, we must expand the range of control, enhance nucleic acid testing, strengthen relevant prevention and control measures, to keep the pandemic under control. I believe it is also the need for pandemic prevention and control.

总的来看,我国现在应该具备了“四早”的技术和手段,比如我们的核酸检测技术和已经广泛推广使用的抗原自测技术。在出现疫情的地方,将核酸检测和抗原检测实行有效组合,尽早发现可能的感染者。另外,我们在法律上对疫情的报告有一系列的规定和要求。此外,我们有一套完备的监测体系,监测能力也正在进一步加强。更为重要的是,两年多以来,我们已经积累了和新冠肺炎病毒斗争的经验,我们的应急体系、救治体系、民众参与群防群控,部门联动,联防联控机制已经形成了一个最基本的经验,就是以快治快,特别是针对奥密克戎。只要我们把这些利用好,一定能落实“四早”,尽快用最小成本和代价战胜新冠肺炎疫情。谢谢。

Generally speaking, China has already been equipped with the technologies and approaches to achieve the "four earlies." For example, our nucleic acid testing technology and the extensively used COVID-19 antigen self-testing kits. The effective combination of nucleic acid testing and antigen self-testing could help to discover the potentially infected people as soon as possible across the places where there are COVID-19 outbreaks and resurgences. Moreover, we have made a series of regulations and requirements in the law. In addition, we have established a set of the comprehensive monitoring system, which has further enhanced our monitoring capacity. More importantly, we have accumulated abundant experience battling the coronavirus over the past two years. In terms of the emergency system, treatment system, people's participation in prevention and control, collaboration among departments, and the joint prevention and control mechanism, we have formed basic experience to curb the fast-spreading virus with fast response-ability, especially regarding the Omicron variant. As long as we can use those resources, we will achieve the "four earlies" and win the battle against COVID-19 at a minimum cost. Thank you.

中国日报记者:

China Daily:

当前一些因为疫情封控的地区出现了就医难的问题,请问如何保证抗疫和提供正常的医疗服务两不误?谢谢。

The difficulties of getting medical services in some lockdown areas have become a problem recently. I would like to know how to ensure the smooth operation of both pandemic control and medical services at the same time? Thank you.

李斌:

Li Bin:

谢谢您的提问。统筹好疫情防控和正常医疗服务,保障人民群众服务的需求,对于维护人民群众的健康至关重要。疫情防控的过程中,保障正常医疗秩序,保持医疗服务的连续性,始终是我们最为关切的问题。

Thank you for your question. Coordinating relations between the pandemic prevention and control and regular medical services and ensuring people's needs for services are crucial to protect people's health and well-being. During the pandemic prevention and control process, it has always been our most concerning issue to maintain medical treatment in good order to deliver consistent medical services for the public.

当前,全国新冠肺炎疫情呈现多点散发和局部规模性疫情交织的态势,防控形势依然严峻,一些地区因受疫情的影响,一些区域进行了封控和管控,群众的就医也受到了影响。针对这个问题,国家卫生健康委提出了明确的要求,作出了全面部署,也对各地进行了具体和细致的工作指导。各地也采取了切实有效的措施,千方百计保障群众就医需求。解决这个问题,主要抓住了四个方面的关键环节:

Currently, the COVID-19 epidemic features a combination of sporadic cases in a few places and cluster outbreaks in some parts across the country. The prevention and control situation remains grim. Some areas were put under closed-off management, affecting people's medical treatment. Given this problem, the NHC has put forward precise requirements, made comprehensive arrangements, and provided guidelines for specific local situations. Local authorities have also taken adequate measures to do everything possible to ensure the public's medical needs. To solve this problem, we have mainly focused on the four points:

第一,保障急危重症患者的救治。国家卫生健康委部署,要求各地设立“黄码”医院,开通“云门诊”,对于危急重症患者,在核酸检测结果不明的情况下,要及时启动和规范使用急诊、抢救室、手术室、病房设立的缓冲区域,医务人员严格落实首诊负责制和急危重症抢救的制度,做好个人防护,及时有效地进行救治,不以任何理由推诿拒绝、延误治疗。

First, we must ensure the timely treatment of acute and critical patients. According to the deployment of the NHC, all localities are required to designate hospitals for those whose health codes turn "yellow" and open "cloud clinics." For the critically ill, buffer zones for emergency treatment, first-aid centers, operating rooms, and wards should be put into use in a timely manner when their nucleic acid test results are yet unknown. Medics should strictly implement the first consultation responsibility system and ensure the treatment of acute and critical patients, offer timely and effective treatment while protecting themselves, and should not refuse patients at any excuse to delay the treatment.

第二,要满足特殊群体的就医需求。对封控区内血液透析的患者、放化疗等肿瘤患者,以及孕产妇和新生儿等特殊群体,地方疫情防控部门要做好调查和统计,要建立台账,做到“底数清、情况明”,切实落实好连续的医疗服务保障。对长期服药的慢性病患者,可通过开具长处方等方式,由基层医疗卫生机构做好服务,满足医疗服务的需求。

Second, we must meet the medical needs of special groups. Local epidemic prevention and control departments should conduct survey and develop a clear picture of the situation of patients with demand for hemodialysis, tumor radiotherapy or chemotherapy, as well as pregnant women and newborns in areas under closed-off management, so as to better provide continuous medical services. Community-level health care institutions should provide medical services for patients with chronic diseases by issuing long-term prescriptions and other means.

第三,完善发生疫情地区的医疗保障。疫情防控期间,提高统筹的层级,加强部门联动,科学设置120等急救电话和便民服务的渠道,确保群众在紧急情况下能够“打得通、联系上、找到人、看上病”。封控区和管控区要不断完善应急状态下的医疗服务管理的运行机制,安排专家团队对有需要的人员提供咨询和评估,需要外出就医的,要点对点接送,闭环管理,让看病需求的居民能够出得了小区的门,进得去医院的门。

Third, we must guarantee access to essential medical services in areas with the resurgence of COVID-19. During the epidemic prevention and control period, we have raised the level of coordination, strengthened the inter-department coordination, and set up emergency helplines such as 120 and convenient service channels to ensure that the public can "connect to the emergency center and receive timely treatment." The closed-off management areas and restrictive control areas should constantly improve the operation mechanism of medical service management under the emergency state. Expert teams providing consultation and evaluation to needy people should be arranged. For those who need to go out for medical treatment, point-to-point transportation, and closed-loop management should be arranged to ensure residents in medical demand can leave the community and get into the hospital.

第四,统筹医疗机构内部的疫情防控和医疗服务工作。进一步强化医疗机构内的疫情监测预警,完善突发疫情处置的流程,一旦发现确诊病例,立即启动应急预案。在及时有效做好应急处置工作的同时,要报告当地疾病防控指挥部门,统筹做好医院的疫情防控和社会的疫情防控。对于发现病例的医疗机构,不能因疫情的处置一关了之、一封了之,在采取封管控措施后,迅速启动应急机制,全力保障急诊、透析室、手术室、重症监护室、分娩室等重点科室医疗服务的连续性,确保急危重症患者得到及时救治,尽最大可能减少疫情防控对医疗机构正常医疗服务的影响。谢谢。

Fourth, we have coordinated epidemic prevention and control and medical services within medical institutions. The pandemic monitoring and early warning efforts in medical institutions have been further strengthened, and the procedures for handling public health emergencies have been improved. The emergency plan is immediately activated once confirmed cases are identified. While responding to emergencies timely and effectively, it is necessary to report to the local disease prevention and control departments to coordinate pandemic prevention and control in hospitals and society. The medical institutions where cases are identified cannot be shut down due to dealing with the pandemic. After taking closed-off management and restrictive control measures, the emergency response mechanism should be initiated swiftly to make sure that the key departments, including emergency, dialysis, operation, intensive care unit, and delivery, can continue to function. We must ensure critical patients can get timely treatment to minimize the impact of epidemic response on normal medical services in medical institutions. Thank you.

新加坡海峡时报记者:

The Straits Times:

有两个问题,第一,中方强调应该从宏观层面来计算“动态清零政策”的成本和收益。想问一下,成本大于收益的临界点在哪里?成本到底是什么?第二,中方率先从疫情中恢复发展,并一直在寻找新的方法来应对不断变异的新冠病毒,请问中方在这些年来做了哪些工作来加强医疗系统能力建设?谢谢。

I have two questions. First, China emphasizes that the costs and benefits of the dynamic zero-COVID approach should be calculated at the macro level. What is the tipping point where the costs exceed the benefits? What exactly are the costs? Second, China has taken the lead in recovering from the pandemic and has been looking for new ways to cope with the constantly mutating novel coronavirus. What has China done in recent years to intensify the capacity building of its medical system? Thank you.

梁万年:

Liang Wannian:  

谢谢你的提问。我想,在计算抗击新冠肺炎疫情成本和收益的时候,首先应该明确局部和整体的关系、短期和长期的关系,我们要从长远的、综合的、整体的、系统的观点来看它的成本和收益。二是,在评价抗疫的成本和收益时,不仅仅是经济或者是货币的成本和收益。因为生命是无价的,生命也是无法用货币来衡量的。所以,在做分析的时候,应该是一个系统的观点,要算大账、总体账、动态算账,既要算经济账,更要算民生账。

Thank you for your question. When calculating the costs and benefits of fighting against COVID-19, we should first make clear the local-overall relationship and short-term and long-term relationship and take a long, comprehensive, holistic and systematic perspective. Second, evaluating the costs and benefits of COVID-19 response involves more than economic or monetary factors. Life is priceless and cannot be measured with money. Therefore, to analyze the costs and benefits, we need to take a systematic, big-picture, holistic, and dynamic view to consider both the economy and people's livelihoods.

理论上来说,抗疫所采取的策略和措施肯定是要付出成本的,这种成本就包括直接的成本,比如疫苗接种、方舱建设、核酸检测,都会投入大量的人力、物力和财力,这些是直接成本。同时,也会引发一些间接成本,比如抗疫会限制局部地区的一部分人的流动性,由于这种流动性限制,可能会造成一些经济上的影响,这是间接成本。还有一个成本是无形的成本,比如隔离人员,特别是在封控区或者管控区的人员,在家隔离会产生焦虑不安等心理上的一些问题,都可以称之为无形成本。

Theoretically, the strategies and measures adopted to fight the epidemic will definitely generate direct costs — such as significant labor, material and financial resources invested in vaccination, temporary treatment centers construction, and nucleic acid testing. At the same time, there will also be some indirect costs. For example, the pandemic response will restrict the mobility of some people in some local areas, which may impact the economy. In addition, there will be intangible costs, such as anxiety and other psychological problems incurred in people quarantined at home in the closed-off management areas and restrictive control areas.

反过来说,在算抗疫策略和措施收益时,也应该是一个动态的、多层次的,包括直接收益、间接收益,甚至是无形收益。我国抗疫以来所采取的“外防输入、内防反弹”的总策略和“动态清零”总方针,有效避免了疫情大规模的流行和暴发,保护了最广大人民群众的身体健康和生命安全。实际上在期望寿命的折损方面,中国有效避免了人均期望寿命折损,维护了最广大地区人民群众的正常生产生活和经济发展。我想,这些都是我们抗疫直接收益的一个具体体现。刚才李斌主任也介绍了,我国2020年的经济发展,成为全球唯一实现正增长的主要经济体,2021年国内生产总值比上一年增长了8.1%,两年平均增长5.1%,整个经济增速居全球主要经济体前列。2022年第一季度,国内生产总值同比增长4.8%,这种态势已经证明,“动态清零”符合中国国情,较好地平衡了疫情的防控和社会经济发展之间的关系。

In terms of benefits, we should also follow a dynamic and multi-layered approach and consider both direct and indirect benefits and even invisible benefits. China's policy of preventing imported cases and domestic resurgences and the dynamic zero-COVID approach have effectively prevented the pandemic's large-scale spread and outbreaks, thus protecting the health and safety of the people to the maximum. China has effectively avoided a loss in the per capita life expectancy and managed to ensure order in the life and work of the people and the economy of as many regions as possible. These are all direct benefits. Just as Mr. Li mentioned a moment ago, in 2020, China was the world's only major economy to achieve growth. In 2021, China's GDP grew 8.1% year-on-year, with a two-year average of 5.1%, ranking among the highest compared with the world's other major economies. In the first quarter of this year, our GDP expanded by 4.8% year-on-year. These statistics show that the dynamic zero-COVID approach suits China's conditions and effectively coordinates pandemic control with social and economic development.

由于疫情不确定性等方面的原因,中国所采取的“动态清零”总方针和一系列抗疫举措,相当于为中国14亿人民购买了一份应对疫情变化、病毒变异传播等不确定因素的保险,购买保险的成本是牺牲一小部分人的消费,目的是为了整体社会福利的最大化。“动态清零”还促进了数字经济发展,比如我们利用的远程医疗、大数据技术等,促进了中国数字经济的发展,有力保障了民生,更保护了脆弱人群。同时,我们通过联防联控,通过社区治理能力提升,也促进了公共服务部门间、政府和社会间、上级政府到基层社区治理部门间的有效衔接和联动,我想这些也都可称之为是我们实施“动态清零”所产生的间接乃至无形收益。

Given the uncertainties brought about by the pandemic, the dynamic zero-COVID approach and the concrete anti-pandemic measures served as insurance for the 1.4 billion Chinese people against pandemic fluctuations and virus variants. The cost of the insurance is to sacrifice economic gains of a small number of people to ensure the welfare of the whole society at its most. The dynamic zero-COVID approach has also promoted the development of China's digital economy. For example, the telemedicine and big data technologies used in pandemic control have boosted the digital economy, firmly ensured the people's wellbeing, and protected the vulnerable. Meanwhile, through carrying out joint prevention and control and improving the governance capacities of communities, we have promoted the effective connection and coordination among departments of public services, between government and non-government entities, and between government administrations and the community governance services in their direct charge. I think these are all indirect or invisible benefits of the dynamic zero-COVID approach.

医疗救治一直是中国抗击新冠肺炎疫情的重要一环,中国政府一直高度重视,采取了一系列措施来强化应收尽收、应治尽治,尤其是自新冠肺炎病毒株奥密克戎流行以来,主要做了几方面的工作:

Medical treatment has always been a priority in China's pandemic control efforts. Attaching great importance to the work, the Chinese government has adopted a series of measures to ensure that all suspected and confirmed cases could be hospitalized and treated. Efforts mainly focused on the following aspects, especially after the appearance of Omicron.

一是加强新冠肺炎定点医院的设置管理。指导各地将综合能力强、救治水平高、感染防控技术好的医院作为定点医院,集中收治患者,同时提出了明确不同人口数量城市定点医院的床位要求,比如,原则上每个地市级以上城市城区常住人口在100-500万的大城市的定点医院床位总数应不小于500张,500万-1000万的特大城市定点医院床位总数要不少于1000张,1000万人以上的大城市定点医院床位总数要不少于1500张。其中,重症救治床位不少于定点床位总数的10%。另外,要求各地设置一定数量的后备定点医院,确保有需要的时候24小时内就能腾空并投入使用。

First, we have improved the establishment and management of designated hospitals. We guided local authorities to set hospitals with strongly integrated capacities, high-quality medical treatment, and outstanding epidemic prevention and control techniques as designated hospitals to hospitalize patients. At the same time, clear requirements have been put forward for the number of beds in designated hospitals in cities with different populations. For example, in principle, in each of the cities above the prefectural level with 1 to 5 million permanent urban residents, the total number of beds in designated hospitals should not be less than 500. In megacities with 5 to 10 million permanent urban residents, the total number should not be less than 1,000. And in megacities with more than 10 million permanent urban residents, the total number should not be less than 1,500. Among them, the number of beds for severe cases shall not be less than 10% of the total number of designated beds. Besides, local authorities must set up a certain number of back-up designated hospitals to ensure that they can be vacated and put into use within 24 hours when needed.

二是加强方舱医院设置管理。实行病例分级治疗建设和改造一批方舱医院,确保有需要的时候能够在两天内投入使用,保障应收尽收、应治尽治。截至4月25日,全国已建成和正在建设的方舱医院近400家,床位总数约56万余张。此外,对方舱医院的医护比、床医比都有明确要求。

Second, we have improved the establishment and management of makeshift hospitals. A hierarchical approach to diagnosis and treatment has been adopted. And a number of makeshift hospitals have been built and remodeled to ensure that they can be put into use within two days when necessary so that all those in need are hospitalized or treated. As of April 25, nearly 400 makeshift hospitals have been built or are under construction in China, with a total of more than 560,000 beds. In addition, there are clear requirements for the ratio of doctors to nurses and doctors to beds in makeshift hospitals.

三是切实提高医疗资源使用率。指导各地及时将符合标准的新冠肺炎患者转送方舱和定点医院,最大限度提高床位使用率,同时也要求各地统筹做好疫情防控和正常医疗服务。

Third, we have taken practical measures to promote the utilization of medical resources. We have guided local authorities to transfer COVID-19 patients whose symptoms meet specific conditions to makeshift and designated hospitals, maximizing the use of hospital beds. At the same time, local authorities are also required to strengthen epidemic prevention and control while ensuring daily medical service.

除此以外,这段时间以来,我们还一直强化ICU救治建设,配置相应的救治设施设备,加强医务人员培训,及时修订完善诊疗规范,广泛使用中医药,加强应急救治预案、培训演练,加强应急医疗救治物资储备等。

In addition, during this period of time, we have been raising the capacity for ICU treatment by providing necessary treatment facilities and equipment, strengthening the training of medical staff, revising and improving diagnosis and treatment standards in a timely manner, widely adopting traditional Chinese medicine, strengthening emergency treatment plans, training and exercise, and strengthening the reserve of emergency medical treatment supplies.

谢谢。

Thank you.

深圳卫视直新闻记者:

Zhinews of Shenzhen Satellite TV:

我们注意到,世卫组织日前表示,新冠大流行继续构成国际关注的突发公共卫生事件,新一轮疫情可能在秋季进一步暴发,并建议各国随时做好应对措施。请问我国在秋季防疫方面有哪些针对性的措施呢?谢谢。

We have noticed that according to the World Health Organization (WHO) recently, the COVID-19 pandemic remains a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). It suggests countries take response measures at any time against a possible new round of COVID-19 breakout in autumn. What targeted epidemic prevention measures will China take accordingly? Thank you.

雷正龙:

Lei Zhenglong:

谢谢您的提问。我们也注意到了,世卫组织4月13日发布的《国际卫生条例》突发事件委员会第11次会议声明中,确定新冠肺炎大流行仍然构成国际关注的突发公共卫生事件。我国高度关注新冠肺炎疫情在全球流行情况及世卫组织、各个国家应对策略措施的调整变化情况,进一步完善我国的防控政策措施。秋冬季是呼吸道传染病的高发季节,2020年以来,我们根据全国新冠肺炎疫情防控形势和流行毒株变化等情况,指导各地健全监测预警机制,加强疫情风险评估研判,进一步落实早发现、早报告、早隔离、早治疗,也就是“四早”的各种措施。强化重点环节防控,统筹做好新冠肺炎疫情以及其他呼吸道传染病等防控工作,有效应对处置秋冬季的疫情。

Thank you for your question. We have noticed that in the WHO statement issued on April 13 on the eleventh meeting of the International Health Regulations Emergency Committee, it has determined that the COVID-19 pandemic continues to constitute a PHEIC. China has been paying close attention to the global pandemic situation and adjustment and changes in response strategies and measures of the WHO and various countries to further improve its prevention and control policies and measures. Autumn and winter are the seasons with a high incidence of respiratory infectious diseases. Since 2020, based on the national situation in COVID-19 prevention and control and the mutation of the virus, we have guided local authorities to improve the monitoring and early warning mechanism, strengthen epidemic risk assessment, and further implement the measures of early detection, reporting, quarantine and treatment. We have strengthened epidemic prevention and control at key links and carried out prevention and control of the coronavirus epidemic and other respiratory infectious diseases in a coordinated way, to effectively respond to the epidemic in autumn and winter.

今年我们将继续密切追踪全球新冠肺炎疫情形势以及病毒株的变异情况,结合我国疫情防控的形势变化,进一步加大对各地的指导,做好秋冬季疫情的应对准备。谢谢。

This year, we will closely keep track of the COVID-19 pandemic situation and the mutation of the virus across the world. Considering that and based on the changes in the epidemic prevention and control situation in China, we will further increase the guidance for local authorities to prepare for the epidemic response in autumn and winter. Thank you.

寿小丽:

Shou Xiaoli:

谢谢各位发布人,谢谢各位记者朋友们。今天的发布会就到这里,大家再见。

Thank you to all speakers and friends from the media. Today's briefing is now concluded. Goodbye.

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