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双语:谢锋在《联合国海洋法公约》开放签署40周年国际研讨会上的报告

外交部 2022-09-05 25次

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全面善意履行《公约》,积极贡献全球海洋治理

Implement UNCLOS in Full and in Good Faith and Actively Contribute to Global Maritime Governance

——谢锋副部长在《联合国海洋法公约》开放签署40周年国际研讨会上的主旨报告

– Keynote Report by Vice Foreign Minister Xie Feng at “UNCLOS at 40: Retrospect and Prospect”

2022年9月1日

1 September 2022

很高兴参加本次研讨会,共同纪念《联合国海洋法公约》开放签署40周年。刚才王毅国务委员兼外长就坚持《公约》原则和精神,促进全球海洋治理发表了重要意见、提出了引领性倡议。苏亚雷斯副秘书长的致辞也让我们大家深受启发。

It gives me great pleasure to join you in this conference to commemorate the 40th anniversary of the opening for signature of UNCLOS. Just now, State Councilor and Foreign Minister Wang Yi offered important views and proposed pioneering initiatives on upholding the principles and spirit of UNCLOS and advancing global maritime governance. The opinions shared by Under-Secretary-General Soares in his address also give us much food for thought.

《公约》谈判是中国恢复联合国合法席位后参与的首个重要国际立法进程。中国在1982年12月首批签署《公约》、1996年批准《公约》,有力促进《公约》的达成和生效。作为《公约》缔约国,中国全面、忠实履行《公约》,是《公约》及其机制的积极参与者、建设者和贡献者。

The UNCLOS negotiations were the first major international legislative process China took part in after the restoration of its lawful seat at the United Nations. China was one of the first countries that signed UNCLOS in December 1982, and ratified the Convention in 1996, giving a strong boost to its conclusion and entry-into-force. As a State Party to UNCLOS, China has fully and faithfully implemented UNCLOS, and proved itself an active participant, builder and contributor to the Convention and its mechanisms.

第一,打造海洋立法矩阵,推动《公约》落地生根。中国依据《公约》规定和精神,先后颁布《领海及毗连区法》和《专属经济区和大陆架法》。中国还出台《海洋环境保护法》《渔业法》《海域使用管理法》等重要涉海法律,加强海洋环保和资源养护。近年,中国颁布《深海海底区域资源勘探开发法》,出台《海警法》,修订《海上交通安全法》,不断完善符合包括《公约》在内国际法的海洋立法体系。

First, China has constructed a matrix of maritime legislation to facilitate UNCLOS implementation on the ground. In accordance with the provisions and spirit of UNCLOS, China has promulgated the Law on the Territorial Sea and the Contiguous Zone and the Law on the Exclusive Economic Zone and the Continental Shelf. China has also introduced the Marine Environment Protection Law, the Fisheries Law, the Sea Areas Administration Law and other important maritime laws for the purpose of strengthening the protection of the marine environment and preservation of marine resources. In recent years, by promulgating the Law on the Deep Seafloor Exploration, introducing the Coast Guard Law, and revising the Maritime Traffic Safety Law, China has further strengthened its maritime legislation system consistent with UNCLOS and other international law.

第二,规范海洋科考,携手发展中国家认知海洋。中国持续依据《公约》加强海洋科考管理。中国积极开展海洋科考合作,与菲律宾、印度尼西亚、越南、巴基斯坦、坦桑尼亚等设立联合海洋研究中心;协助尼日利亚、莫桑比克、塞舌尔、马达加斯加等开展大陆架科学调查。中国积极参加“联合国海洋科学促进可持续发展十年”计划,为认识和保护海洋做贡献。

Second, China has ensured standard operation of marine scientific research and worked together with other developing countries to advance human knowledge of the ocean. China has continued to strengthen management of marine scientific research in accordance with UNCLOS, and actively engaged in cooperation on marine scientific research. China has built joint maritime research centers with the Philippines, Indonesia, Vietnam, Pakistan and Tanzania, among others, and assisted Nigeria, Mozambique, Seychelles and Madagascar in conducting scientific research on the continental shelf. Through the participation in the United Nations Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development (2021-2030), China has contributed its share to advance the learning and protection of the ocean.

第三,保护人类蓝色家园,坚持渔业可持续发展。中国以习近平生态文明思想为指引,深度参与联合国环境规划署“防止陆上活动影响海洋全球行动计划”,推动建设清洁美丽的全球海洋。中国已参加北太平洋、印度洋、大西洋等区域渔业管理组织,致力于公海渔业可持续开发,对非法捕捞行为实行“零容忍”,正积极研究加入《关于预防、制止和消除IUU捕捞的港口国措施协定》。

Third, China has worked to protect humanity’s blue homeland and followed a sustainable approach to fisheries development. Under the guidance of Xi Jinping Thought on Ecological Civilization, China has stepped up its participation in the Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-based Activities of the United Nations Environment Programme to promote clean and beautiful oceans across the globe. China has joined regional fisheries management organizations including in the North Pacific, the Indian Ocean and the Atlantic Ocean, and committed itself to sustainable development of fisheries on the high seas and a zero-tolerance approach to illegal fishing. China is actively studying the accession to the Agreement on Port State Measures to Prevent, Deter and Eliminate Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing.

第四,赋能《公约》三大机构,助力《公约》高效运作。中国迄今已向国际海底管理局申获5块勘探矿区,贡献2块保留区,与管理局共建全球首个深海联合培训和研究中心。中国坚定维护大陆架界限委员会“有争端、不审议”规则,并向委员会提交了东海外大陆架界限初步信息。中国就相关咨询意见案等向国际海洋法法庭提交书面意见,贡献中国智慧和力量。作为管理局和法庭最大会费国,中国坚持及时足额缴纳会费,为两机构运作提供有力财务支撑。

Fourth, China has supported the capacity building of the three UNCLOS bodies to facilitate the efficient functioning of the Convention. China has by now acquired five prospecting and exploration mining areas from the International Seabed Authority (ISA) and contributed two reserved areas on its part. Together with the ISA, China has built the world’s first joint training and research center on deep seas. China has firmly upheld Annex I Article 5 of the rules of procedure of the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS), and submitted to the Commission preliminary information on the limits of the continental shelf beyond 200 nautical miles in the East China Sea. Meanwhile, China has contributed its wisdom and strength to the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (ITLOS) with the submission of written statements on relevant advisory opinions. As the largest funding contributor of the ISA and the ITLOS, China has always paid its membership contributions on time and in full, providing strong financial support to the functioning of the two institutional bodies.

中国一贯主张由直接当事国通过谈判磋商解决海洋争端。中国不接受、不承认南海仲裁案所谓裁决,就是要维护《公约》的权威性和完整性。

China has all along maintained that maritime disputes shall be handled through negotiation and consultation by the parties directly concerned. China does not accept or recognize the so-called “award” of the South China Sea arbitration, which is for the very purpose of upholding the authority and integrity of UNCLOS.

第五,保障航行自由和安全,守护国际航运畅通。中方一贯尊重和支持各国依据国际法在周边海域享有的航行和飞越自由。中国积极落实《公约》和国际海事组织相关规定,加入了国际海事组织框架下几乎所有公约,不断提升海上搜救等保障服务,显著改善航行安全条件。中国深度参与《亚洲地区反海盗及武装劫船合作协定》,积极开展亚丁湾护航。多年来,中方积极保障和维护各国在不同海域的航行权利,在管辖海域从未出现航行方面的问题。

Fifth, China has protected the freedom and safety of navigation and ensured smooth international shipping. China respects and supports the freedoms of navigation and overflight enjoyed by all countries in its surrounding sea areas under international law. China actively implements UNCLOS and the relevant provisions of the International Maritime Organization (IMO), and has acceded to almost all conventions under the IMO framework. China has steadily boosted maritime rescue and other services, and significantly improved the conditions for navigation safety. China has been deeply involved in work related to the Regional Cooperation Agreement on Combating Piracy and Armed Robbery against Ships in Asia, and has actively carried out naval escorts in the Gulf of Aden. Over the years, China has worked proactively to ensure and protect the navigation rights of all countries in different sea areas, and there has never been a problem with navigation in the sea areas within its jurisdiction.

各位嘉宾,

Distinguished guests,

习近平主席指出,我们人类居住的蓝色星球,不是被海洋分割成了各个孤岛,而是被海洋连接成了命运共同体。当前,百年变局加速演进,全球海洋新问题层出不穷。我们要完整、准确、善意解释和适用《公约》,兼顾《公约》、其他涉海条约和一般国际法。要从《公约》维护全人类利益的初衷出发,反对歪曲滥用,反对双重标准和选择性适用,反对强权即公理。要加强国际合作,平衡海洋环保与利用,维护全球粮食和能源安全,重视海水淡化、潮汐能等新海洋利用形式,切实提升发展中国家认识、利用、保护海洋和参加全球海洋治理的能力。

As President Xi Jinping pointed out, the blue planet humans inhabit is not divided into islands by the oceans, but connected by the oceans to form a community with a shared future. At present, global transformation unseen in a century is evolving at an accelerated pace, and new global maritime issues keep emerging. We must accurately interpret and apply UNCLOS in its entirety and in good faith, and give balanced consideration to UNCLOS, other maritime treaties and general international law. We should bear in mind the Convention’s original goal of upholding the interests of mankind as a whole, oppose the distortion and abuse of UNCLOS, reject the practice of double standards and selective application, and discard the mindset of “might is right”. We should strengthen international cooperation, balance marine environmental protection and utilization, safeguard global food and energy security, attach higher importance to new forms of ocean utilization including seawater desalination and tidal energy, and take credible steps to raise developing countries’ ability to learn about, utilize and protect the sea and participate in global maritime governance.

我们要忠实维护《公约》宗旨原则。《公约》妥为顾及各国主权,旨在促进海洋和平用途,实现公平公正的国际经济秩序。《公约》确认了和平使用海洋、公海自由、国际海底为人类共同继承财产等重要原则。各方应以《公约》宗旨原则为指引,合理行使《公约》权利,善意履行《公约》义务,抵制海上“丛林法则”,反对利用海洋威胁他国主权安全。

We need to faithfully uphold the purposes and principles of UNCLOS. UNCLOS gives due regard for the sovereignty of all States and aims to promote the peaceful uses of the seas and oceans and realize a just and equitable international economic order. UNCLOS has established important principles including peaceful uses of the seas, freedom of the high seas and the international seabed as the common heritage of mankind. All parties should follow the purposes and principles of UNCLOS, duly exercise their rights under the Convention, fulfill their obligations under the Convention in good faith, reject the law of the jungle at sea, and oppose the attempt to threaten other country’s sovereignty and security by using the sea.

我们要严格遵守《公约》规定的航行制度。《公约》在领海、专属经济区、公海等海域规定了相应的航行制度。外国船舶在领海享有无害通过,但不得损害沿海国的和平、良好秩序或安全;在专属经济区享有航行自由,但须顾及沿海国对自然资源的主权权利以及对海洋科考、环保等事项的管辖权;各方在公海享有航行自由,但须符合“公海应只用于和平目的”等要求。各方在不同海域行使航行权利,均应全面遵守《公约》规定和精神,否则将损害《公约》完整性和权威性。即使非《公约》缔约国也不能片面强调航行权利,而无视沿海国的正当合理权益。混淆《公约》设立的海域制度,无中生有地炒作所谓航行自由问题,是造谣抹黑、别有用心。中方尊重各国依法享有的航行权利,但坚决反对个别国家以“航行自由”之名,行威胁中国主权和安全之实。

We need to strictly abide by the regime on navigation stipulated in UNCLOS. UNCLOS has stipulated the regime on navigation for various sea areas including the territorial sea, exclusive economic zone and high seas. Foreign ships enjoy innocent passage in the territorial sea, but such passage shall not be prejudicial to the peace, good order or security of the coastal State. They enjoy freedom of navigation in the exclusive economic zone, but shall have due regard to the coastal State’s sovereign rights over natural resources and jurisdiction over marine scientific research and environmental protection, among others. All parties enjoy freedom of navigation in the high seas, but must comply with such requirements as “the high seas shall be reserved for peaceful purposes”. In exercising navigation rights in different sea areas, all parties should fully abide by the provisions of UNCLOS in letter and spirit; otherwise, the integrity and authority of UNCLOS will be undermined. Even if one is not a State Party to UNCLOS, it should not underscore only their navigation rights while ignoring the legitimate rights and interests of coastal States. The attempts to misinterpret the regime on sea areas established by UNCLOS and play up the so-called freedom of navigation issues are driven purely by ill intentions. China respects the lawful navigation rights of all countries, but firmly opposes certain country’s move to threaten China’s sovereignty and security in the name of freedom of navigation.

我们要善意、准确适用《公约》争端解决机制。《公约》倡导“以互相谅解和合作的精神解决与海洋法有关的一切问题”。争端当事方是争端解决程序的主人,只有当事方认可和接受相关争端解决程序,才能真正有效解决争端。有关各方和国际机构应恪守“国家同意原则”,结合地区国家争端实际,善意、准确适用《公约》争端解决程序,不得越权滥用。

We need to accurately apply the dispute settlement mechanism of UNCLOS in good faith. UNCLOS advocates “to settle, in a spirit of mutual understanding and cooperation, all issues relating to the law of the sea”. The parties to a dispute are the owners of the dispute settlement procedures. Only when the procedures are approved and accepted by the parties concerned, can they be truly effective in settling the dispute. All parties concerned and international institutions should honor the principle of State consent, act in line with the realities of the dispute among regional countries, and accurately apply the dispute settlement procedures in good faith, and must not overstep or abuse their mandate.

各位嘉宾,

Distinguished guests,

站在新的历史起点上,面对新形势、新挑战,中方愿与各方一道,坚持《公约》宗旨原则,全面准确落实《公约》规定,携手应对时代挑战,不断完善全球海洋治理规则,共同构建海洋命运共同体。

Standing at a new historical starting point and faced with new circumstances and challenges, China is ready to work with all parties to uphold the purposes and principles of UNCLOS, fully and accurately implement the provisions of UNCLOS, meet the challenges of the era, steadily improve global maritime governance rules, and build a maritime community with a shared future.

最后,预祝研讨会圆满成功。谢谢大家!

To conclude, I wish this conference a full success. Thank you!

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