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双语:《中国的反恐怖主义法律制度体系与实践》白皮书

国新办&CGTN 2024-01-24 47次

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目录

Contents

前言

Preface

一、反恐怖主义法律制度体系日臻完善

I. An Improving Legal Framework for Counterterrorism

二、恐怖活动认定清晰、处罚规范

II. Clear Provisions for the Determination and Punishment of Terrorist Activities

三、在反恐怖主义工作中规范权力运行

III. Standardized Exercise of Power in Fighting Terrorism

四、在反恐怖主义工作中依法保障人权

IV. Protection of Human Rights in Counterterrorism Practices

五、有力维护人民安全和国家安全

V. Effective Protection of People’s Safety and National Security

结束语

Conclusion

前言

Preface

恐怖主义是人类社会的公敌,是对所有国家和全人类的挑战,严重威胁国际和平与安全。反恐怖主义是国际社会的共同责任。

Terrorism is the common enemy of humanity, posing a grave threat to international peace and security, and representing a challenge to all countries and all of humanity. All members of the international community share the responsibility to fight it.

长期以来,联合国主导制定一系列公约等文件,领导和协调成员国共同打击恐怖主义,推动将反恐怖主义工作纳入法治轨道。世界各国纷纷响应联合国号召,积极履行国际义务,制定和实施国内反恐怖主义法律,不断加强国际反恐怖主义合作。经过不懈努力,国际社会逐步建立起包括国际性、区域性公约,多边、双边条约和协定,以及国内法在内的多层次反恐怖主义法律制度体系。

Over the decades, the United Nations has led the creation of relevant conventions and other instruments, coordinating member states in their joint efforts to combat terrorism, and bringing such efforts under the rule of law. In response to its call, many countries have actively fulfilled their international obligations by making and enforcing domestic counterterrorism laws and strengthening international cooperation against terrorism. Through unremitting efforts, the international community has gradually established a multitiered framework of legal instruments against terrorism, including international and regional conventions, multilateral and bilateral treaties and agreements, and domestic laws.

中国作为恐怖主义受害国,长期面临着恐怖主义的现实威胁。中国历来高度重视反恐怖主义法治建设,通过缔结或参加一系列国际公约条约、修改完善刑事法律,不断积累反恐怖主义法治经验。面对国际国内恐怖活动的新情况、新形势,中国持续深化对反恐怖主义法治工作的认识,全面总结本国反恐怖主义工作的规律特点和实践做法,借鉴吸收他国有益经验,制定反恐怖主义专门法律,完善反恐怖主义法律制度体系,规范和统一法律适用,为加强反恐怖主义工作提供了法治保障。

As a victim of terrorism, China has long faced its real threat, and has always attached great importance to law-based counterterrorism efforts. It has accumulated experience by concluding or joining international conventions and treaties and amending and improving criminal laws. In the face of new developments in international and domestic terrorism, China has first endeavored to gain a deeper understanding of law-based counterterrorism, summarize its underlying dynamics, and identify appropriate countermeasures. Drawing on foreign experience, China has formulated counterterrorism laws, improved the legal framework, and made consistent application of these laws. These have provided legal safeguards for China’s ramped up efforts in combating terrorism.

多年来,通过建立健全法律制度、严格规范公正文明执法、全面落实公正司法、切实加强人权保障等法治实践,中国逐步探索出符合本国实际的反恐怖主义法治道路,有力维护了国家安全、公共安全和人民生命财产安全,为全球和地区安全稳定作出贡献。

China has found a path of law-based counterterrorism that conforms to its realities by establishing a sound legal framework, promoting strict, impartial, procedure-based law enforcement, and ensuring impartial administration of justice and effective protection of human rights. It has safeguarded national and public security, protected people’s lives and property, and contributed to global and regional security and stability.

一、  反恐怖主义法律制度体系日臻完善

. An Improving Legal Framework for Counterterrorism

20世纪60年代以来,在联合国及其专门机构和关联组织主持下,国际社会陆续制定了13项全球性反恐怖主义公约,表明全球对打击恐怖主义的基本立场和态度。

Headed by the UN, its specialized agencies, and some other international organizations, the international community has formulated 13 global counterterrorism conventions since the 1960s, demonstrating its position and attitude on counterterrorism.

20世纪70年代末开始,为加强国际合作,有效防范和惩治恐怖活动,中国相继加入或批准了《关于在航空器内的犯罪和犯有某些其他行为的公约》《关于制止非法劫持航空器的公约》《统一国际航空运输某些规则的公约》等。20世纪90年代以来,中国立足本国国情,坚持宪法原则,借鉴学习国际社会有益经验,加快了国内反恐怖主义法律制度体系建设进程。

To strengthen international cooperation and effectively prevent and combat terrorist activities, China has joined or ratified a number of conventions since the late 1970s, including the Convention on Offences and Certain Other Acts Committed on Board Aircraft, Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Seizure of Aircraft, and Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules for International Carriage by Air. In light of its national conditions, and following constitutional principles, China has drawn on useful experience from the international community and accelerated its efforts to build a domestic counterterrorism legal framework since the 1990s.

——修改完善刑事法律。

 Amending and improving the criminal laws.

恐怖活动犯罪是国际公认的严重刑事犯罪,是各国刑法打击的重点。

Terrorism is viewed by the international community as a serious criminal offense, and is therefore a highlighted target of criminal laws in all countries.

19973月,全国人民代表大会修改《中华人民共和国刑法》,新增组织、领导、参加恐怖组织罪,并加大了对相关恐怖活动犯罪的处罚力度。

In March 1997, China’s National People’s Congress (NPC) amended the Criminal Law, adding the crimes of forming, leading, or participating in a terrorist organization, and tightening sanctions for crimes of terrorism.

2001年美国“9·11”事件后,世界各国迅速采取有效措施打击恐怖主义。同年12月,全国人大常委会通过《中华人民共和国刑法修正案(三)》,专门完善恐怖活动犯罪刑法条款,明确刑法适用,对刑法作出八条补充修改。其中,为落实联合国安理会第1373号决议,增设资助恐怖活动犯罪。

After the September 11 attacks in the United States in 2001, many countries took prompt and effective measures to combat terrorism. In December the same year, China’s NPC Standing Committee adopted Amendment III to the Criminal Law, which consists of eight revisions and additions for improving and clarifying provisions on terrorist activities. One of the additions relates to the crime of financing terrorism. This was part of China’s effort to implement UN Security Council Resolution 1373.

同时,为惩治涉及恐怖活动洗钱的犯罪活动,将恐怖活动犯罪纳入洗钱罪的上游犯罪。20066月,全国人大常委会通过《中华人民共和国刑法修正案(六)》,在相关条款中进一步完善了为恐怖活动犯罪洗钱的罪刑规定。20158月,针对暴力恐怖犯罪出现的新情况、新问题,全国人大常委会通过《中华人民共和国刑法修正案(九)》,增设准备实施恐怖活动罪,宣扬恐怖主义、极端主义、煽动实施恐怖活动罪以及利用极端主义破坏法律实施罪等罪名,并明确相关罪状,细化刑罚适用。

At the same time, to sanction money laundering for terrorist activities, China prescribed terrorism as a predicate crime of money laundering. In June 2006, the NPC Standing Committee adopted Amendment VI to the Criminal Law, which further clarifies penalties on money laundering for terrorist activities. In response to new developments and issues in the crime of terrorism, in August 2015 the NPC Standing Committee adopted Amendment IX to the Criminal Law, adding to it the crimes of preparing for terrorist activities, advocating terrorism and extremism, inciting terrorism, and using extremism to undermine law enforcement, while also clarifying relevant charges and penalties.

此外,2012年、2018年全国人大及其常委会先后两次修改《中华人民共和国刑事诉讼法》。其中,为适应惩治恐怖活动犯罪的需要,对恐怖活动犯罪侦查、起诉、审判程序等方面作出特别规定。最高人民法院、最高人民检察院单独或者联合制定发布一系列司法解释,进一步规范打击恐怖活动犯罪的法律适用和诉讼程序。

In 2012 and 2018, the NPC and its Standing Committee amended the Criminal Procedure Law to add provisions on the investigation, prosecution, and trial procedures for crimes of terrorism. The Supreme People’s Court and the Supreme People’s Procuratorate have independently or jointly formulated and issued a series of judicial interpretations to further standardize the application of law and prosecution procedures for combating crimes of terrorism.

——开展反恐专门立法。

 Making a counterterrorism law.

进入21世纪以来,世界范围内接连发生一系列重大恐怖袭击事件,各国纷纷制定反恐怖主义法,或者修订完善原有法律。201110月,为加强反恐怖主义工作,保障国家安全、维护社会稳定、保护人民生命财产安全,全国人大常委会通过关于加强反恐怖工作有关问题的决定,对恐怖活动的定义、反恐怖工作领导机构及其职责、恐怖活动组织和人员认定及名单公布、开展反恐怖国际合作等作出规定,为后续立法工作打下坚实基础。

Since the beginning of the 21st century, a series of horrendous terrorist attacks have occurred around the world. In response, many countries have made their own counterterrorism law, or amended existing laws. In October 2011, to strengthen counterterrorism, safeguard national security, maintain social stability, and protect people’s lives and property, the NPC Standing Committee adopted the Decision on Issues Related to Strengthening Counterterrorism Work, which defines the concept of terrorism, the leading state counterterrorism body and its duties, the determination of terrorist organizations and individuals, the publication of lists of these organizations and individuals, and the principles for international cooperation. This laid a solid foundation for subsequent legislation.

2011年至2014年间,国际恐怖主义愈演愈烈,多国接连发生一系列重大恐怖袭击事件,境内外民族分裂势力、宗教极端势力、暴力恐怖势力连续在新疆、北京、云南等多地制造一系列暴力恐怖案(事)件,严重践踏人类尊严。

Between 2011 and 2014, terrorist attacks hit multiple countries, signaling a resurgence of terrorism worldwide. Forces of terrorism, separatism and extremism, both within and outside China, carried out violent terrorist acts in Xinjiang, Beijing, Yunnan, and other places.

20144月,为总结治理恐怖活动犯罪经验,完善反恐怖主义工作机制,坚决遏制暴恐活动多发、频发、蔓延态势,国家反恐怖主义工作领导机构牵头多部门,在实地调查、研究论证、广泛听取征求各方意见建议基础上,起草反恐怖主义法。201410月,全国人大常委会对《中华人民共和国反恐怖主义法(草案)》进行初次审议,会后将草案全文面向社会公开征求意见,并进行修改。20152月和12月,全国人大常委会对《中华人民共和国反恐怖主义法(草案)》分别进行第二、第三次审议,均对草案进行完善。20151227日,全国人大常委会通过《中华人民共和国反恐怖主义法》。该法作为反恐怖主义的专门性、综合性法律,对中国反恐怖主义工作的基本原则和立场、恐怖活动组织和人员的认定、安全防范、情报信息、调查、应对处置、国际合作、保障措施、法律责任等作出全面规定,为防范和惩治恐怖活动提供了有力的法律保障。20184月,全国人大常委会修正《中华人民共和国反恐怖主义法》,进一步明晰行业主管部门职责,促进反恐怖主义工作的有效开展。

From April 2014, to summarize the experience against crimes of terrorism, improve the counterterrorism mechanism, and curb frequent and widespread acts of violence and terrorism, the leading state counterterrorism body led several other departments in conducting field investigations, research and argumentation, soliciting opinions and suggestions from all parties, and drafting a counterterrorism law. In October 2014, the NPC Standing Committee held the first deliberations on the draft law, published it in full to the public for suggestions, and made revisions. In February and December 2015, it deliberated on the draft law for the second and third rounds to improve it. On December 27, 2015, the NPC Standing Committee adopted the Counterterrorism Law. It is a comprehensive counterterrorism law that defines China’s basic principles and stance on counterterrorism. By specifying provisions on the determination of terrorist organizations and individuals, security protection, intelligence information, investigation, response and handling, international cooperation, safeguard measures, and legal liability, it provides a strong legal guarantee for preventing and punishing terrorist activities. In April 2018, the NPC Standing Committee amended the law to further clarify the responsibilities of competent departments and facilitate effective counterterrorism work.

Following the first deliberations on the draft counterterrorism law, the Legislative Affairs Commission of the NPC Standing Committee, in accordance with the Legislation Law, published the draft on the NPC website for public comment and distributed it to provincial-level administrative units, relevant central departments, some universities, and legal research institutions for suggestions. Based on the opinions and suggestions solicited, the NPC Standing Committee revised and improved the draft.

——完善其他相关法律。

 Improving other relevant laws.

为在反恐怖主义实践中加强不同法律之间的系统性配合,填补法律漏洞,补齐短板,形成合力,中国不断对相关法律中涉及反恐怖主义的具体内容进行完善。

China has made consistent efforts to upgrade the counterterrorism provisions of relevant laws to strengthen systematic coordination among different laws, close legal loopholes, improve areas of weakness, and form synergy in counterterrorism practice:

例如,2006年通过的《中华人民共和国反洗钱法》对预防和遏制恐怖主义融资及相关违法犯罪活动作出规定;2015年通过的《中华人民共和国国家安全法》对打击恐怖主义和极端主义作出规定;2016年通过的《中华人民共和国网络安全法》对不得利用网络宣扬恐怖主义、极端主义等作出规定;2020年修订的《中华人民共和国国防法》对依法运用武装力量打击恐怖主义等作出规定,《中华人民共和国人民武装警察法》对武警部队参与防范和处置恐怖活动的任务作出规定;2020年通过的《中华人民共和国香港特别行政区维护国家安全法》对与香港特别行政区有关的恐怖活动犯罪及其处罚作出规定。

The Anti-Money Laundering Law, adopted in 2006, provides for the prevention and suppression of terrorist financing and related illegal and criminal activities. The National Security Law, adopted in 2015, provides for the fight against terrorism and extremism. The Cybersecurity Law, adopted in 2016, prohibits the use of the internet to advocate terrorism and extremism. The National Defense Law, amended in 2020, provides for the lawful use of armed forces in combating terrorism. The Law on the People’s Armed Police, amended in 2020, provides for the People’s Armed Police Force to perform the tasks of preventing and responding to terrorist activities. The Law on Safeguarding National Security in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region enacted in 2020 contains provisions on combating crimes of terrorism in the region and defined the relevant penalties.

——健全有关行政法规。

 Improving relevant administrative regulations.

为不断适应反恐怖主义工作实践需要,加强相关行政部门开展反恐怖主义工作的协调配合,压实各方责任,中国政府持续健全完善相关行政法规中涉及反恐怖主义工作的条款。

The Chinese government has continued to improve counterterrorism provisions of relevant administrative regulations to meet practical counterterrorism needs, strengthen coordination and cooperation among relevant administrative bodies, and define the responsibilities of all parties:

例如,2000年通过的《互联网信息服务管理办法》对不得制作、复制、发布、传播含有散布恐怖内容的信息作出规定;2017年修订的《宗教事务条例》对任何组织和个人不得利用宗教进行恐怖活动作出规定;2023年通过的《未成年人网络保护条例》对不得制作、复制、发布、传播含有恐怖主义、极端主义等危害未成年人身心健康内容的网络信息作出规定。

The Administrative Measures for Internet Information Services, adopted in 2000, ban the production, reproduction, publication and distribution of content that spreads terror. The Regulations on Religious Affairs, amended in 2017, stipulate that no organization or individual may use religion to carry out terrorist activities. Regulations on the Protection of Minors in Cyberspace adopted in 2023 ban the production, reproduction, publication and distribution of information online containing content of terrorism and extremism that will damage the physical and mental health of minors.

——新增相关地方性法规。

 Making new local regulations.

2016年反恐怖主义法施行后,依据《中华人民共和国宪法》《中华人民共和国立法法》赋予的地方立法权限,新疆、浙江、湖南、上海、四川、福建、北京等地结合本地实际,陆续制定关于在本行政区域实施反恐怖主义法的办法,新疆还专门制定《新疆维吾尔自治区去极端化条例》,细化工作措施手段,增强了可操作性。此外,部分地区还在制定宗教事务条例、平安建设条例等地方性法规的过程中,规定了加强反恐怖主义工作的内容。

After the Counterterrorism Law came into force in 2016, Xinjiang, Zhejiang, Hunan, Shanghai, Sichuan, Fujian, Beijing, and some other localities developed measures on the enforcement of the law within their respective administrative regions in light of local realities and in accordance with the local legislative authority conferred by the Constitution and the Legislation Law. Xinjiang formulated the Regulations of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region on Deradicalization, with detailed work measures and means to make the law more practicable. In addition, some localities added content on strengthening counterterrorism work when formulating local regulations on religious affairs and public security.

——制定部门与地方政府规章。

 Formulating departmental and local government rules.

为更好落实反恐怖主义相关法律法规,做好本领域、本地区反恐怖主义工作,相关部门和地方政府依据法定权限与程序,相继制定符合本领域和本地区实际需要、涉及反恐怖主义工作的有关规章。

To better implement counterterrorism-related laws and regulations and improve counterterrorism work in respective sectors or localities, central departments and local governments have formulated counterterrorism rules that meet their specific needs in accordance with statutory authority and procedures:

例如,2014年中国人民银行、公安部与国家安全部联合制定的《涉及恐怖活动资产冻结管理办法》,对涉及恐怖活动资产冻结的程序与行为作出专门规定;2021年青海省人民政府通过的《青海省铁路安全管理办法》,对建立反恐怖主义指挥协调机制、加强防范恐怖袭击能力建设等作出规定。

In 2014, the People’s Bank of China, Ministry of Public Security, and Ministry of State Security formulated the Administrative Measures for the Freezing of Assets Relating to Terrorist Activities, with provisions on the procedures and actions for freezing terrorism-related assets. In 2021, the Qinghai provincial government adopted the Administrative Measures of Qinghai Province for Railway Safety, with provisions on establishing a counterterrorism command and coordination mechanism and building the capacity to guard against possible terrorist attacks.

历经40余年探索与实践,中国以宪法为根本,逐步形成以反恐怖主义法为主体,刑事法律为骨干,国家安全法等为保障,其他法律为补充,涵盖行政法规、司法解释、地方性法规、部门规章与地方政府规章等的反恐怖主义法律制度体系。

Relying on more than 40 years of experience, China has gradually formed a counterterrorism legal framework based on the Constitution. With the Counterterrorism Law as the centerpiece and the criminal laws and National Security Law playing major roles and other laws as supplements, it also covers administrative regulations, judicial interpretations, local regulations, and departmental and local government rules.

二、  恐怖活动认定清晰、处罚规范

. Clear Provisions for the Determination and Punishment of Terrorist Activities

中国法律明确规定了对恐怖活动的认定和处罚标准,视恐怖活动的危害程度,区分行政违法行为和刑事犯罪行为,规定不同的法律责任。恐怖活动违法行为的认定和处罚标准由反恐怖主义法规定,恐怖活动犯罪行为的认定和处罚标准由刑法规定。

Chinese law has clear provisions for the determination and punishment of terrorist activities. It distinguishes between administrative violations and criminal acts based on the degree of harm they cause, and affixes different legal liabilities accordingly. The criteria for the determination of terrorism-related violations and penalties are stipulated in the Counterterrorism Law, and the criteria for the determination and punishment of terrorist crimes are stipulated in the Criminal Law.

——清晰界定恐怖主义、恐怖活动等概念。中国反恐怖主义法对恐怖主义、恐怖活动等相关概念的界定具体且明确,与中国参加、缔结的国际公约精神相一致,也与他国做法相通。

 The concepts of terrorism and terrorist activities are clearly defined. China’s Counterterrorism Law provides concrete and precise definitions of terrorism, terrorist activities, and related concepts, consistent with the principles championed by the international conventions it has entered and concluded, and in agreement with the practices of other countries.

其中,恐怖主义必须同时具备手段、目的和表现形式等要素,手段包括“暴力、破坏、恐吓等手段”,目的是通过“制造社会恐慌、危害公共安全、侵犯人身财产,或者胁迫国家机关、国际组织,以实现其政治、意识形态等目的”,表现形式为“主张和行为”;恐怖活动则必须既具备恐怖主义性质,又具有“组织、策划、准备实施、实施恐怖活动”等法定表现形式。

In the Counterterrorism Law, the concept of terrorism encompasses the means, ends and forms, and is defined as propositions or acts that by means of violence, sabotage or intimidation, create social panic, undermine public security, violate personal and property rights, or coerce state agencies and international organizations, to realize political, ideological or other purposes. The Counterterrorism Law defines the nature of terrorist activities and their specific forms, including organizing, planning, preparing for, or conducting acts that cause serious social harm.

此外,中国的反恐怖主义法、新疆去极端化条例还界定了极端主义的概念,列举了极端主义活动的具体情形,明确极端主义是恐怖主义的思想基础。

The Counterterrorism Law and the Regulations of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region on Deradicalization define the concept of extremism and specific forms of extremist activity, and highlight the link between extremist thought and terrorism.

——明确恐怖活动违法行为认定标准。中国刑法只对具有严重社会危害性的恐怖活动追究刑事责任,对情节轻微尚不构成犯罪的违法行为,按照反恐怖主义法等法律予以行政处罚。对于反恐怖主义法规定的宣扬恐怖主义、极端主义或者煽动实施恐怖活动、极端主义活动等情节轻微,尚不构成犯罪的恐怖活动,由公安机关依法予以行政处罚。情节是否轻微,由执法司法办案机关依照法律规定,根据恐怖活动是否符合犯罪构成要件,行为人主观恶性、所起到的作用,造成的社会危害等因素综合判断。

 The criteria for determining law-breaking terrorist activities are accurately defined. China’s Criminal Law assigns criminal liability only for terrorist activities that inflict grave harm on society. Minor violations of the law that do not constitute crimes instead receive administrative penalties in accordance with the Counterterrorism Law and other relevant laws. The Counterterrorism Law lists terrorist activities that are punishable by administrative penalties issued by public security agencies, including advocating terrorism and extremism or inciting the commission of terrorist and extremist acts. Whether the violations are minor or not is subject to the judgment of judicial and law enforcement agencies, based on whether the activities involve the essential condition of crime. Judicial and law enforcement agencies take into account the motive of the offender, their role in the activities, and the harm caused to society.

A suspect surnamed Wan posted on his social media account a video with scenes of bloodshed and violence. The video was forwarded numerous times and generated harmful social impact. It was determined that the video contained illegal elements advocating terrorism, and should be banned from dissemination. Based on the Counterterrorism Law, a public security agency in Sichuan Province determined that Wan’s act constituted a violation of the law by spreading items advocating terrorism.

——明确恐怖活动犯罪行为认定标准。中国通过刑法、司法解释、立案追诉标准对恐怖活动犯罪的认定标准进行明确。刑法从犯罪客体、客观方面、主体、主观方面,对恐怖活动犯罪构成要件作出清晰明确的规定,严格区分罪与非罪、此罪与彼罪、一罪与数罪。

– The criteria for determining criminal terrorist activities are accurately defined. The criteria are laid out in China’s Criminal Law, judicial interpretations, and standards for filing and prosecuting cases. The Criminal Law has clear and specific provisions on the constitutive elements of terrorist crimes in terms of the object and the objective circumstances, and the subject and the subjective circumstances. It strictly distinguishes between crimes and non-crimes, between different crimes, and between punishment for a single crime and for multiple crimes.

坚持罪刑法定原则,法律没有明文规定的,不得以任何理由定罪处刑。司法机关通过制定司法解释、司法文件,明晰刑事案件立案追诉标准,进一步细化恐怖活动犯罪的认定标准。例如,2018年最高人民法院、最高人民检察院等印发的关于办理恐怖活动和极端主义犯罪案件适用法律若干问题的意见,明确规定了构成非法持有宣扬恐怖主义、极端主义物品罪的数量标准。

Under the principle of legality, no one should be convicted of a terrorist crime for any reason if there are no explicit provisions in law. Judicial agencies have outlined the criteria for determining criminal terrorist activities in detail by issuing judicial interpretations and documents and setting standards for filing and prosecuting criminal cases. The Opinions on Certain Issues Concerning the Application of Law in Handling Criminal Cases Involving Terrorism and Extremism, jointly issued by the Supreme People’s Court, the Supreme People’s Procuratorate, and other authorities in 2018, specify the quantitative criteria that constitute the crime of illegally possessing materials propagating terrorism or extremism.

Between 2004 and 2010, a suspect surnamed Bai provided transfer, accommodation, and false identity certification for persons trying to leave China to conduct terrorist activities abroad, with full knowledge of their intentions. Bai’s actions had serious consequences. The case was tried in a court in Henan Province, which ruled that Bai’s actions constituted the crime of sponsoring terrorist activities, in accordance with the Criminal Law.

——遵循恐怖活动违法行为处罚原则。中国执法机关处罚恐怖活动违法行为,坚持行政处罚法定原则,严格遵守反恐怖主义法、治安管理处罚法、行政处罚法等法律的明文规定。

 The punishment for law-breaking terrorist activities follows statutory principles. China’s law enforcement agencies adhere to the principle of legality in applying administrative penalties in accordance with the Counterterrorism Law, Public Security Administrative Punishment Law, Law on Administrative Penalty, and other relevant laws.

坚持过罚相当原则,确保处罚与违法行为的事实、性质、情节以及社会危害程度相当。

Law enforcement agencies pursue the principle of proportionality to ensure that punishment is appropriate to the facts, nature and circumstances of the offense, and the degree of harm it caused to society.

坚持一事不再罚原则,对同一个违法行为,不得给予两次以上罚款的行政处罚,同一个违法行为违反多个法律规范应当给予罚款处罚的,按照罚款数额高的规定处罚。

Law enforcement agencies execute the principle against double punishment to ensure that no person can be subject to more than one administrative fine for the same offense. Should an offense violate several legal provisions that are punishable by multiple fines, the highest of the fines applies.

执法机关落实行政裁量权基准制度,细化量化行政执法行为的裁量范围、种类、幅度等并对外公布。2018年以来,安徽、浙江、北京、黑龙江等地公安机关相继制定并实施行政处罚裁量基准,对反恐怖主义行政执法行为进行了规范。

Law enforcement agencies implement a system of benchmarks for administrative discretion, working out quantitative indexes on the scope, type and extent of discretion in acts of law enforcement and making the information available to the general public. Since 2018, public security agencies in Anhui, Zhejiang, Beijing and Heilongjiang have established and implemented administrative discretion benchmarks to regulate administrative law enforcement against terrorism.

A suspect surnamed Zhan posted videos containing scenes of violence and bloodshed on the internet. A public security agency in Fujian Province issued Zhan an administrative penalty in accordance with the Counterterrorism Law.

——规范恐怖活动犯罪行为处罚自由裁量权。人民法院在审理恐怖活动犯罪案件中,坚持罪责刑相适应原则,根据恐怖活动犯罪的事实、犯罪的性质、情节和对于社会的危害程度,依照刑法的明文规定判处刑罚。

Discretionary power in the punishment of criminal terrorist activities is well regulated. In trials of criminal cases involving terrorist activities, people’s courts follow the principle that punishment should be proportionate to the gravity of the crime and the criminal liability involved, and apply the Criminal Law to determine the appropriate punishment for offenders, taking into consideration the facts, nature and circumstances of the offense, and the harm it caused to society.

为使量刑更加科学精准,中国司法机关积极推进量刑规范化改革,制定《最高人民法院关于在审判执行工作中切实规范自由裁量权行使保障法律统一适用的指导意见》《最高人民法院、最高人民检察院关于常见犯罪的量刑指导意见(试行)》《最高人民法院、最高人民检察院、公安部、国家安全部、司法部关于规范量刑程序若干问题的意见》等规范性文件,从自由裁量权的行使原则、行使条件,正确运用法律适用方法、法律解释方法、量刑程序等方面,对行使自由裁量权进行了全面系统的规范。在恐怖活动犯罪案件审判实践中,司法机关坚持规范行使自由裁量权,做到该宽则宽、当严则严、宽严相济、罚当其罪。

China’s judiciary has undergone reform to improve and standardize the consistency of sentencing. It has formulated normative documents that provide a complete set of standards for the principles and conditions of exercising discretion and the correct exercise of measures governing applicable law, legal interpretations, and sentencing procedures. These normative documents include the Guiding Opinions of the Supreme People’s Court on Effectively Regulating the Exercise of Discretion in Trials and Enforcement to Ensure the Consistent Application of Law, the Guiding Opinions of the Supreme People’s Court and the Supreme People’s Procuratorate on the Sentencing of Common Crimes (Trial), and the Opinions of the Supreme People’s Court, Supreme People’s Procuratorate, Ministry of Public Security, Ministry of State Security, and Ministry of Justice on Issues Concerning the Standardization of Sentencing Procedures. In the adjudication of criminal cases involving terrorist activities, judicial agencies made consistent efforts to standardize the exercise of discretionary power, striking the right balance between leniency and severity while ensuring that offenses receive due punishment.

A defendant surnamed Liu was prosecuted for advocating terrorism. A court in Chongqing found Liu guilty. Taking account of the facts, nature and circumstances of the offense, and the degree of harm it caused to society, the court sentenced Liu to a suspended fixed-term imprisonment and a fine in accordance with the Criminal Law.

三、  在反恐怖主义工作中规范权力运行

. Standardized Exercise of Power in Fighting Terrorism

中国法律对恐怖活动区分行政违法和刑事犯罪,并规定了不同办理程序。恐怖活动违法案件适用行政处罚程序,恐怖活动犯罪案件适用刑事诉讼程序。通过依法规范恐怖活动案件办理程序,落实办案责任,强化外部监督,实现了权力规范有序运行。

Chinese law distinguishes between administrative and criminal offenses that constitute terrorist activity, and stipulates different procedures for their handling. Administrative penalty procedures apply in cases of unlawful terrorist activities, while criminal procedures apply in cases of criminal terrorist activities. The procedures have been regulated in accordance with the law, case management responsibility has been implemented, and external oversight has been strengthened to ensure the standardized and orderly exercise of power in handling terrorist cases.

——规范办理程序。中国法律明文规定了执法司法办案机关的职权和责任。恐怖活动违法案件由公安机关依法调查处理;恐怖活动犯罪案件由公安机关侦查、人民检察院审查起诉、人民法院审判。

 Regulating the procedures. Chinese law prescribes the powers and responsibilities of law enforcement and judicial agencies in handling cases. Cases of unlawful terrorist activities are investigated and handled by public security agencies, while cases of criminal terrorist activities are investigated by public security agencies, examined and prosecuted by people’s procuratorates, and tried by people’s courts.

执法司法办案机关在办理恐怖活动案件中,必须严格依照法律授权,依法行使职权,确保法律执行准确有效。在立案时,对于不应当立案而立案的,公安机关应当撤销案件,人民检察院有权监督公安机关撤销案件。

When handling terrorism cases, law enforcement and judicial agencies must exercise their statutory authority and powers to ensure the accurate and effective enforcement of the law. In managing cases, public security agencies should withdraw cases that should not have been filed, and people’s procuratorates have the power to supervise the withdrawal.

在收集、调取证据时,公安机关既要收集对嫌疑人不利的证据,也要收集对嫌疑人有利的证据,禁止使用刑讯逼供等非法方法收集证据,对于非法证据要依法排除。

When collecting and obtaining evidence, public security agencies should collect evidence both in favor of and against the suspect. Torture and other illegal means are prohibited in collecting evidence, and evidence obtained by illegal means should be excluded in accordance with the law.

在批准逮捕、审查起诉时,人民检察院对于不符合条件的,不得作出批准逮捕或起诉决定。

When approving arrests and examining cases for prosecution, people’s procuratorates should not warrant an arrest or initiate prosecution if the required conditions are not met.

在审判时,人民法院对于证据不足或不构成犯罪的,应当作出无罪判决。

At the trial stage, people’s courts should render a verdict of not guilty if the evidence is insufficient or the act does not constitute a crime.

——落实办案责任。中国执法司法办案机关积极推进办案责任制改革,确保严格执法、公正司法,有效压实恐怖活动案件办理人员的履职责任。

 Implementing the responsibility for case management. To ensure strict law enforcement, judicial justice, and accountability of the competent authorities, China’s law enforcement and judicial agencies have promoted reform of the responsibility system.

人民法院进一步明晰审判组织权限和审判人员职责,以有效的审判管理和审判监督为保障,深化庭审实质化改革,落实让审理者裁判、由裁判者负责,确保依法独立公正行使审判权。

With effective trial management and supervision, people’s courts have advanced substantive reform in trials, further clarifying their organizational authority and the duties of judges to unify the responsibility for conducting trials and rendering verdicts, and ensure the lawful, independent and impartial exercise of judicial power.

人民检察院健全办案组织,界定内部办案权限,完善司法办案责任体系,做到谁办案谁负责、谁决定谁负责,构建公正高效的检察权运行机制。

People’s procuratorates have built a fair and efficient mechanism for exercising procuratorial power by improving the organization of case management, defining the internal division of authority, and strengthening the judicial responsibility system to ensure the accountability of those who handle cases and make decisions.

公安机关建立健全案件审核把关机制,明确了办案人、审核人、审批人等的执法办案权力,并充分运用信息化技术对执法办案活动全过程记录留痕、可回溯管理,对执法办案活动进行约束。

Public security agencies have established a case review and approval mechanism that defines the powers of those who handle, review, and approve cases. Information technology is now applied to track and trace the entire process, and to keep these activities within bounds.

执法司法办案机关在明确责任的基础上,还规定了严格的责任追究制度,对违法办案的责任人依法追究责任,根据情节予以惩戒,构成犯罪的依法追究刑事责任。此外,执法司法办案机关还通过深化量刑规范化改革、建立案件质量评价体系、推行办案质量考核评议机制、加强案件管理和案例指导、强化办案人员培训等方式,全面规范权力运行。

With their responsibilities clarified, law enforcement and judicial agencies have put in place a strict accountability system, under which judicial officials who are found to have violated the law in case management will be held accountable and given due punishment; if their acts constitute a crime, they shall be prosecuted for their criminal responsibility. To fully regulate the exercise of power, the reform to standardize the consistency of sentencing has been introduced, a case handling quality assessment system and a performance evaluation and review mechanism have been initiated, case management and guidance have been reinforced, and training has been improved.

——加强外部监督。中国执法司法办案机关的权力除受到法定和内部监督机制的制约,还接受人大监督、民主监督、社会监督等外部监督。

Strengthening external oversight. The powers of law enforcement and judicial agencies are subject to external oversight from people’s congresses, the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC), and the public, as well as to statutory and internal oversight.

人民代表大会作为国家权力机关,通过听取工作报告、开展专题询问等方式,依法对人民法院、人民检察院的工作进行监督。人民政协对执法司法办案机关实行民主监督。人民法院、人民检察院、公安机关也主动接受人民代表大会和人民政协的监督。人民群众通过担任人民陪审员、人民监督员和参与听证等方式,对人民法院、人民检察院、公安机关的执法司法办案活动开展社会监督。

People’s congresses, as bodies of state power, oversee the work of people’s courts and people’s procuratorates by hearing their work reports and conducting special inquiries. The CPPCC exercises democratic oversight over law enforcement and judicial agencies. People’s courts, people’s procuratorates, and public security agencies invite supervision from people’s congresses and the CPPCC, while the public can supervise the work of these agencies in the capacity of people’s assessors and people’s supervisors and by attending hearings.

A suspect surnamed Zhang was investigated on suspicion of llegally possessing items advocating terrorism. When examining the case for prosecution, a procuratorate in Anhui Province conducted public hearings to extensively solicit opinions and invite scrutiny.

——拓宽监督渠道。中国执法司法办案机关持续拓宽监督渠道,通过多种方式强化社会监督,不断增强执法司法透明度,防止执法权、司法权被滥用。

 Expanding channels of oversight. To prevent abuse of power in law enforcement and judicial matters, channels of oversight have been expanded and public scrutiny has been strengthened through various means, increasing the transparency of law enforcement and justice.

人民法院通过审判流程信息公开、裁判文书公开、执行信息公开、庭审公开等加大司法公开力度,及时公布法院审判、执行工作情况。人民检察院推行检务公开,依法公开与检察职权相关的活动和事项,并充分运用现代化信息手段,建立检务公开信息平台,设置电子显示查询设备,开通网站、网页等,方便检务信息查询。公安机关推行警务活动公开,行政处罚遵循公开原则,执法过程、处罚结果自觉接受社会和公民的监督。司法行政机关推行狱务公开,将监狱执法工作的条件、程序、结果依法向社会公开,加强监狱工作的规范化、制度化、法治化建设,规范执法行为。

For greater openness, people’s courts have established platforms for the timely release of information on judicial process, judgments, the execution of judgments, and trials. People’s procuratorates have increased transparency by releasing information on their procuratorial activities and affairs and have used information technology to establish platforms for this purpose, including setting up electronic displays and inquiry devices and opening websites and webpages for inquiry. Public security agencies have made their policing and administrative penalty enforcement activities more open and accept scrutiny from citizens and the wider society over law enforcement processes and outcomes. Judicial administrative agencies have ensured transparency in prison affairs, released information on the conditions, procedures and results of law enforcement in prisons, regulated acts of law enforcement by prison officers, and made prison management more standardized and institutionalized under the rule of law.

China’s prison authority has issued a handbook on prison affairs disclosure to promote differentiated release of information to different groups on the basis of protecting privacy for convicts. General information is released to the public for their knowledge, more detailed information is shared with the family of convicts, and complete information is disclosed to law enforcement supervisory agencies.

四、  在反恐怖主义工作中依法保障人权

. Protection of Human Rights in Counterterrorism Practices

中国将尊重和保障人权作为反恐怖主义法律制度体系与实践的基本原则,将依法惩治恐怖活动与尊重和保障人权有机结合,在依法办理恐怖活动违法犯罪案件过程中,既注重保障公民基本权利和维护社会正常秩序,又注重保障受害人、其他利害关系人,以及嫌疑人、被告人和罪犯的权利。

China respects and protects human rights as an underlying principle in improving its legal framework and practices in the field of counterterrorism. It integrates the punishment of terrorist activities with the protection of human rights. In handling cases involving terrorist offenses and crimes, it gives equal weight to safeguarding the basic rights of citizens, preserving social order, and protecting the rights of victims and interested persons as well as suspects, defendants and convicts.

——保障享有人权的安全环境与社会秩序。恐怖主义对国家安全、公共安全、人民生命财产安全造成重大威胁,强化反恐怖主义措施、有效防范和打击恐怖活动就是人权保障的重要方面。中国依法开展反恐怖主义工作,一方面坚决维护公民和组织的合法权益,禁止任何基于地域、民族、宗教等理由的歧视性做法;另一方面有效遏制恐怖主义传播蔓延,最大限度保障公民的生命权、健康权、财产权,维护社会稳定。

 Maintaining a safe environment and social order where human rights are guaranteed. Terrorism poses a significant threat to national and public security, and to people’s lives and property. Strengthening counterterrorism measures to prevent and punish terrorist activities in strict accordance with the law is essential in safeguarding human rights. The government has succeeded in curbing the spread of terrorism, protecting citizens’ rights to life, health and property, and maintaining social stability, while taking firm actions to protect the lawful rights and interests of citizens and organizations, and guard against discrimination based on geographical area, ethnic group, or religion.

According to the results of the annual national survey on the sense of public security, the proportion of positive answers rose from 87.55 percent in 2012 to 98.62 percent in 2021, sustaining the high level and receiving widespread public acclaim.

——保障受害人和其他利害关系人的权利。中国在应对处置恐怖事件时,优先保护直接受到恐怖活动危害、威胁人员的人身安全,组织营救和救治受害人员,疏散、撤离并妥善安置受到威胁的人员;应对处置结束后,组织有关部门帮助受影响的单位和个人尽快恢复生活、生产,稳定受影响地区的社会秩序和公众情绪,及时给予恐怖事件受害人员及其近亲属适当的救助,提供心理、医疗等方面的援助,并向失去基本生活条件的受害人员及其近亲属及时提供基本生活保障。

 Protecting the rights of victims and interested persons. In responding to terrorist incidents, China prioritizes the personal safety of those who are subject to direct harm and threat, organizes relief and provides medical treatment for victims, and evacuates and relocates potential victims. Following initial response operations, relevant government departments take measures to help individuals and organizations resume normal life and work, restore social order, and relieve public concern in affected areas. These departments offer timely help, provide psychological and medical assistance to victims and their close relatives as appropriate, and guarantee the basic living needs of victims and their close relatives who have lost basic means of life.

Following a terrorist incident in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, relevant departments provided medical aid and psychological evaluation and intervention for victims and organized rehabilitation activities, including psychological counseling and physical exercises, for those impacted. These endeavors aimed to help the victims recover both physical and mental health.

——保障人身自由、人格尊严。中国宪法法律明确规定,公民的人身自由、人格尊严不受侵犯。

 Protecting personal freedom and dignity. China’s Constitution and laws specify that citizens’ personal freedom and dignity shall not be violated.

办案机关办理恐怖活动犯罪案件,采取拘留、逮捕等限制人身自由的强制措施时,严格遵守法律规定的条件、程序和期限。未经人民检察院批准或者人民法院决定,公安机关不得实施逮捕。人民检察院加强羁押必要性审查,对没有继续羁押必要的,建议予以释放或变更强制措施,并严格把握延长侦查羁押期限的条件,对不符合条件的不予延长。

When taking compulsory measures that restrain personal freedom, such as detention and arrest, agencies handling cases of terrorism strictly follow the criteria, procedures and time limits prescribed by the law. Public security agencies cannot make arrests without prior approval by people’s procuratorates or decisions by people’s courts. People’s procuratorates have strengthened examination of the need for custody, proposed release or alternative compulsory measures when custody is deemed unnecessary, and precisely implemented the statutory criteria in approving any extension of custody for investigation.

办案机关严格遵守关于人格尊严不受侵犯的宪法法律规定,保证恐怖活动违法犯罪嫌疑人、被告人饮食和必要的休息时间,不得体罚、虐待、侮辱,禁止在审讯过程中殴打、威胁、恐吓,严禁刑讯逼供和以威胁、引诱、欺骗以及其他非法方法收集证据,不得强迫自证其罪,采用刑讯逼供等非法方法收集的犯罪嫌疑人、被告人供述应当予以排除。

Agencies handling cases of terrorism have abided by the provisions of the Constitution and the law that personal dignity shall not be violated. They have ensured that suspects and defendants are provided with necessary food and rest time and are safe from physical abuse and insults. Interrogations that utilize violence, threats or intimidation, obtainment of evidence through torture, threat, enticement, deceit and other illegal means, and forced self-incrimination are all prohibited. Confessions extorted by torture or other illegal means shall be excluded.

Separate investigations were conducted into five suspects from Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region for involvement in a terrorist organization. When examining their case for prosecution, local procuratorates, in accordance with the law, approved the arrest of one suspect who was accused of organizing crimes. The four other suspects were found not to have posed actual harm, and their arrests were rejected.

——保障辩护权。恐怖活动犯罪嫌疑人、被告人自被侦查机关第一次讯问或者采取强制措施之日起,就有权委托辩护人辩护,符合法定情形的有权获得法律援助。司法机关和司法行政机关积极推动刑事案件审查起诉阶段的律师辩护全覆盖试点工作,为没有辩护人的犯罪嫌疑人指派律师提供法律援助,扩大刑事法律援助范围。

 Safeguarding the right to defense. Suspects and defendants of terrorist crimes are entitled to a defender from the first interrogation or the day of the enforcement of compulsory measures by investigation agencies. Those eligible for legal aid services are entitled to an appointed attorney as their defender. Judicial and judicial administrative agencies pilot programs for full coverage of attorneys’ defense throughout the stage of examining criminal cases for prosecution, assign defense attorneys to suspects who have no defenders, and expand the scope of criminal legal aid.

此外,为确保犯罪嫌疑人、被告人的辩护权落到实处、获得有效辩护,司法机关还进一步强化诉讼过程中律师的知情权、申请权、申诉权,以及会见、阅卷、收集证据和发问、质证、辩论辩护等各项权利保障。

To ensure that suspects’ and defendants’ right to defense is fully realized, judicial agencies have strengthened attorneys’ rights to information, application, and petition during proceedings, and their rights to meet with suspects and defendants, consult case files, collect evidence, and take part in inquiry, cross-examination, debate and defense.

During court sessions for a terrorism case in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, defense attorneys were assigned, in accordance with the law, to three defendants who were accused of organizing, leading and participating in terrorist organizations and had no defenders, with the aim of guaranteeing their right to defense.

——保障知情权、参与权。行政机关在查处恐怖活动违法案件,作出行政处罚决定前,应当告知当事人拟作出的处罚内容及事实、理由和依据,告知当事人依法享有的陈述、申辩、要求听证等权利。当事人提出的事实、理由和证据成立的,行政机关应当采纳。

 Ensuring the rights to information and participation. Prior to announcing any decisions surrounding administrative penalties for terrorist activities, administrative agencies have a duty to inform the accused of the specifics of punishment, the facts of violations, and the reasons for and basis of punishment, as well as their rights to statement, defense, and a hearing. The facts, explanations and evidence provided by the accused, once verified, must be admitted by administrative agencies.

在恐怖活动犯罪案件侦查中,严格限制采取强制措施后不通知家属的例外情形,对通知家属可能有碍侦查的,待有碍侦查情形消失后应立即通知。

During investigations of cases involving terrorist crimes, the family of the suspects and defendants must be notified of the enforcement of compulsory measures. In cases where this may hinder an investigation, notification must be issued immediately after the potential risk has passed.

在刑事诉讼中,恐怖活动犯罪嫌疑人、被告人有权及时获知被控告的罪名、案件情况及所享有的诉讼权利,有权申请回避,有权出席法庭,有权参加法庭调查、辩论和向法庭作最后陈述。

During criminal proceedings involving terrorist crimes, suspects and defendants must be informed of the charges, the specifics of their case, and their rights to apply for an withdrawal, appear before the court, participate in court investigations and debates, and deliver a final statement.

——保障依法获得救济的权利。中国法律保障当事人获得全方面、多渠道的救济权利。

 Protecting the right to legal relief. China’s laws protect right of the accused to comprehensive and multichannel legal relief.

因恐怖活动违法行为受处罚的人,对处罚决定不服的,有权依法申请行政复议或者提起行政诉讼,并可以委托律师参加。

Those who have received administrative penalties for terrorism and who disagree with the decision have the right to apply for administrative reconsideration or to bring an administrative lawsuit and entrust attorneys with the legal proceedings.

恐怖活动犯罪被告人、经被告人同意的辩护人和近亲属等,不服地方各级人民法院一审判决、裁定的,有权提出上诉。被告人的上诉权不得以任何借口剥夺。对已经发生效力的判决和裁定,当事人有权提出申诉,符合法定条件的,人民法院、人民检察院应当提起审判监督程序,由人民法院对案件重新审理。

Those found guilty of terrorist crimes, their authorized defenders, and close relatives have the right to appeal should they disagree with first instance judgments by local people’s courts, and this right shall not be withheld under any pretext. Those convicted have the right to appeal against judgments and rulings that are already legally effective. Should an appeal comply with statutory conditions, people’s courts and people’s procuratorates must institute trial supervision procedures and remand the case for retrial by the original people’s court.

当事人因行政机关、司法机关违法给予行政处罚、刑事处罚,权益受到损害的,有权依法申请国家赔偿。

Those whose rights and interests have been damaged through wrongful administrative penalties or criminal penalties have the right to claim state compensation as provided by law.

——保障使用本民族语言文字进行诉讼的权利。中国宪法法律赋予各民族公民使用本民族语言文字进行诉讼的权利。

 Safeguarding the right to court proceedings in ethnic spoken and written languages. China’s Constitution and laws grant citizens of all ethnic groups the right to use their own language in court proceedings.

司法机关审理恐怖活动犯罪案件,对于不通晓当地通用的语言文字的诉讼参与人,应当为他们翻译。

Judicial agencies are required to provide interpreting and translation services in terrorism cases for any party to court proceedings who has little knowledge of the spoken and written languages commonly used in the locality.

在少数民族聚居或者多民族杂居的地区,应当用当地通用的语言进行审讯,用当地通用的文字发布判决书、布告和其他文件。在民族自治地方,人民法院和人民检察院应当用当地通用的语言审理和检察案件,并合理配备通晓当地通用的少数民族语言文字的人员,法律文书应当根据实际需要,使用当地通用的一种或者几种文字。

In areas where people of one ethnic group live in compact communities or multiple ethnic groups live together, court hearings must be conducted in the spoken language commonly used in the locality, while judgments, notices and other documents shall be issued in the written language commonly used in the locality. In ethnic autonomous areas, people’s courts and people’s procuratorates shall handle cases in the commonly used local language and be reasonably equipped with personnel proficient in local ethnic spoken and written languages, while legal documents shall be written in the commonly used local language or languages as appropriate.

In a violent terrorism case in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, the suspects, defendants, and victims and their immediate relatives were from multiple ethnic groups and used multiple ethnic languages. Throughout court proceedings, interpreters and translators were assigned to interpret for parties concerned during court sessions and translate legal documents, thereby guaranteeing the right to proceedings in ethnic spoken and written languages for those involved in the case.

——保障罪犯合法权利。中国法律明确规定,罪犯的人格不受侮辱,其人身安全、合法财产和辩护、申诉、控告、检举以及其他未被依法剥夺或者限制的权利不受侵犯。

 Ensuring the legitimate rights and interests of convicts. China’s laws specify that convicts’ personal dignity, personal safety, lawful properties, and the right to defense and appeal, and the right to submit complaints and accusations, along with other rights that have not been deprived or restricted by law, shall not be violated.

刑罚执行机关尊重恐怖活动罪犯人格尊严,保障其合法权益。人民检察院依法对刑罚执行活动进行法律监督。罪犯对生效判决不服的,可以提出申诉。罪犯提出控告、检举的,刑罚执行机关应当及时处理或转送相关部门处理并将结果通知罪犯。

Enforcement agencies respect the personal dignity of those convicted of terrorism and defend their legitimate rights and interests. People’s procuratorates exercise supervision over the execution of criminal punishments. Convicts who disagree with legally effective verdicts have the right to petition, and enforcement agencies must handle convicts’ complaints and accusations without delay or transfer these materials to the relevant agencies, and inform the complainants and accusers of the results.

罪犯在服刑期间可以与他人通信,可以会见亲属及律师等。监狱设有专门医疗机构,确有必要的可以外出就诊或保外就医,确保患病罪犯及时得到医疗救治。

During incarceration, convicts are entitled to correspondence and meetings with their relatives, attorneys and others. To ensure prisoners receive timely medical treatment, prisons are equipped with medical facilities to provide in-prison treatment, and prisoners are permitted to be transferred outside prison for medical treatment or be released on medical parole if necessary.

监狱坚持“惩罚与改造相结合,以改造人为宗旨”工作方针,对罪犯开展文化、法律、技能教育,提升罪犯文化水平和谋生能力,着力预防恐怖活动罪犯刑满释放后重新犯罪。

Following the principle of combining punishment and reform, with emphasis on the latter, prisons provide cultural, legal and technical education to increase offenders’ knowledge, skills and employability, while special efforts are made to prevent offenders of terrorist crimes from reoffending.

刑罚执行机关、人民法院严格按照法定程序和条件办理减刑、假释案件,由刑罚执行机关提请,人民法院依法对符合条件的罪犯作出减刑、假释裁定,人民检察院依法监督。

In handling cases of commutation and parole, enforcement agencies and people’s courts strictly follow statutory procedures and criteria. Enforcement agencies make recommendations to the people’s courts, which can grant commutation or parole where eligible. People’s procuratorates exercise supervision over these decisions.

五、  有力维护人民安全和国家安全

. Effective Protection of Peoples Safety and National Security

中国依法开展反恐怖主义工作,不断增强反恐防恐能力,更好统筹安全稳定与社会发展,消除恐怖主义的思想基础,提升了人民的安全感,捍卫了国家安全,也为区域和全球安全稳定作出了积极贡献。

China carries out counterterrorism work in accordance with the law. By balancing security and stability with social development, it continues to increase its capacity to prevent and combat terrorism and eradicate its ideological foundation. China has thus heightened the people’s sense of security, defended national security, and contributed to regional and global security and stability.

——不断增强反恐防恐能力。随着法律制度体系不断完善,中国不断加强交通运输、寄递物流、危险物品等相关行业的安全管理制度建设,积极推进重点行业领域和地方反恐怖防范标准建设,相继制定修订了各类反恐怖主义预案,并加强演练,强化社会治安防控能力。鼓励、支持反恐怖主义科学研究和技术创新,开发和推广使用新的技术设备,并用于实训和实战,有效应对人工智能、加密通信、虚拟货币等新技术、新业态带来的挑战,不断提升科技反恐怖主义能力。

 Increasing capacity to prevent and combat terrorism. On an increasingly sound legal base, China continues to improve its security management systems in relevant fields, including transport, logistics, and hazardous goods. It actively promotes improved terrorism prevention standards in key sectors and localities, formulates or revises counterterrorism contingency plans, and strengthens drills accordingly, thereby improving prevention and control to maintain public security. By encouraging and supporting scientific research and technological innovation, developing and popularizing new technical devices, and applying them to training and actual work, China continues to increase its scientific and technological capacity to counter terrorism and effectively tackles the challenges posed by new technologies and business forms, including artificial intelligence, encrypted communication, and virtual currency.

坚持反恐怖主义专门工作与群众路线相结合,在全社会广泛开展反恐怖主义宣传教育活动,推动宣传进校园、进单位、进社区等,面向社会公众推出《公民反恐防范手册》等宣传品,出台涉恐线索举报奖励办法,广泛发动群众提供线索,提升了人民群众的安全防范意识和应对暴力恐怖突发状况的能力。

Apart from specialized efforts, China also relies on the public in working to counter terrorism. It conducts extensive public education on campuses and in workplaces and residential communities, and has distributed counterterrorism booklets such as A Citizen’s Handbook on Counterterrorism to the general public. It incentivizes people to report terrorism-related activities to the authorities, and continues to improve societal awareness of public security and the public’s ability to respond to emergent incidents of violence and terrorism.

China is engaged in establishing standards for the prevention of terrorism in key sectors, including transport, water, electricity, oil, gas, heating, nuclear facilities, nuclear technology, media facilities, hazardous chemicals, biosecurity, and national strategic reserves. To date, the Ministry of Public Security has released 37 terrorism prevention standards for the public security sector and local authorities have issued hundreds of standards. These standards serve as the basis for establishing personnel, physical and electronic protection systems, and facilitate the synchronous design, development and operation of corresponding equipment and facilities for key targets.

——更好统筹安全稳定与社会发展。2014年以来,中国持续严厉打击暴力恐怖活动,依法惩处了一批预谋实施恐怖活动的犯罪人员,把绝大多数恐怖活动摧毁在预谋阶段、行动之前,有力维护了国家安全和社会大局稳定,人民群众安全感显著提升。

 Balancing security and stability with social development. Since 2014, China has continued to take tough action against violent terrorism and punish criminals who have plotted terrorist activities. It has foiled most terrorist schemes in the making, effectively safeguarding national security and social stability, and markedly improving people’s sense of security.

反恐怖主义促进安全稳定,安全稳定带来发展红利,发展红利进一步巩固安全稳定。以中国反恐怖主义斗争主战场新疆为例,2012年至2022年,城镇居民人均可支配收入从19019元增加到38410元,农村居民人均可支配收入从6876元增加到16550元,分别增长1.02倍和1.4倍。截至2020年底,现行标准下新疆306.49万农村贫困人口全面脱贫,3666个贫困村全部退出,35个贫困县全部摘帽。2023年,新疆共接待国内外游客26544万人次,同比增长117%,实现旅游总收入2967亿元,同比增长227%,游客接待量创历史新高,旅游热度持续位居全国前列,旅游业逐步成为带动就业、富民惠民的重要支柱性产业。

Counterterrorism efforts are the anchor of security and stability. Security and stability enable development, which in turn further consolidates security and stability. In Xinjiang, a key focal point for China’s counterterrorism efforts, urban residents’ per capita disposable income increased from RMB19,019 in 2012 to RMB38,410 in 2022, while the per capita disposable income of rural residents rose from RMB6,876 to RMB16,550. By the end of 2020, all 3.06 million individuals living in rural areas below the poverty line had emerged from poverty, and poverty had been eradicated from all 3,666 villages and 35 counties that were previously impoverished. In 2023, Xinjiang received 265.44 million tourists, representing a year-on-year increase of 117 percent and setting a new record for the number of visiting tourists. Xinjiang’s total income from tourism in 2023 was RMB296.7 billion, a growth of 227 percent on the previous year. The autonomous region is now a leading tourist destination, with tourism acting as a pillar industry that boosts employment opportunities and enriches the lives of local people.

——消除恐怖主义的思想基础。中国在严厉惩处恐怖活动违法犯罪的同时,更加注重以非刑罚方式教育挽救大多数受极端主义思想蛊惑,但行为尚未产生严重危害后果的人员。政府各有关部门、妇联等社会组织、宗教团体以及学校、家庭等密切配合,针对受极端主义感染人员的不同特点,分类采取多种干预措施,避免其受到进一步侵害。

 Eradicating the ideological foundation of terrorism. While striking hard at unlawful and criminal terrorist activities, China attaches greater importance to the education and rehabilitation of victims of extremist teachings who have committed only minor offenses. For people falling under different levels of extremist influence, relevant government departments, women’s associations and other social organizations, religious groups, schools, and families collaborate to offer targeted intervention measures, in order to protect them from further harmful impact.

宗教极端主义不是宗教,它歪曲宗教教义,鼓吹暴力激进观点,严重破坏正常宗教活动。在宗教极端主义的渗透和控制下,一些人参与或者被教唆、胁迫、引诱参与恐怖活动。

Religious extremism is not religion. It distorts religious doctrines to spread violent and radical ideas and cause serious disruption to normal religious activities. Influenced and controlled by religious extremism, some people have engaged in, or have been instigated, coerced, or enticed to engage in terrorist activities.

中国坚持“保护合法、制止非法、遏制极端、抵御渗透、打击犯罪”原则,切实保护宗教信仰自由,保障正常宗教活动,依法持续深入推进“去极端化”工作,有效遏制宗教极端主义渗透蔓延的态势。

Following the principles of protecting the lawful, banning the unlawful, containing extremism, resisting infiltration, and combating crimes, China protects citizens’ freedom of religious belief, ensures the normal practice of religious activities, and makes consistent law-based efforts in deradicalization. It has succeeded in containing the influence and spread of religious extremism.

群众法治意识显著增强,普遍能够认清宗教极端主义的危害,明辨是非和抵御渗透的能力明显提高。

The public has developed a stronger awareness of the rule of law and realized the harm that religious extremism causes, while their abilities to distinguish between right and wrong, and to resist the penetration of religious extremism have greatly strengthened.

——为全球和区域安全稳定作出积极贡献。中国通过有力打击境内恐怖活动,加强口岸边境管控,阻止恐怖分子的跨境流动,有效遏制恐怖主义的传播蔓延。中国按照法律规定,根据缔结或参加的国际条约,按照平等互惠原则,积极开展反恐怖主义国际合作。坚持人类命运共同体理念,积极支持联合国在国际反恐怖主义合作中发挥领导和协调作用,坚持遵循《联合国宪章》和其他公认的国际法,支持联合国安理会通过的一系列反恐怖主义决议,先后参与了12项全球性反恐怖主义公约,积极履行反恐怖主义义务。

 Contributing to global and regional security and stability. By combating domestic terrorist activities, strengthening border and port of entry control, and stopping the cross-border movement of terrorists, China has effectively curbed the spread of terrorism. In accordance with its own laws and the international conventions it has entered or concluded, China actively cooperates in international counterterrorism on the basis of equality and mutual benefit. It is committed to the vision of a global community of shared future, supports the UN’s leading and coordinating role in international cooperation on counterterrorism, abides by the UN Charter and other well-recognized international laws, and backs the counterterrorism resolutions adopted by the UN Security Council. It has joined 12 global counterterrorism conventions and actively fulfills its obligations in fighting terrorism.

积极倡导区域反恐怖主义合作,在上海合作组织框架下,推动制定《打击恐怖主义、分裂主义和极端主义上海公约》《上海合作组织成员国边防合作协定》等一系列文件,开展司法合作、联合反恐怖主义演习等,在维护国际和地区安全稳定方面发挥了重要作用。通过建立执法部门和边境地区反恐怖主义领域会晤交流和对口合作机制,在情报信息交流、边境管控、案件侦办、打击恐怖融资等方面,与数十个国家开展了务实交流与合作。

China advocates regional cooperation to counter terrorism. Under the framework of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), it has facilitated the formulation of documents such as the Shanghai Convention on Combating Terrorism, Separatism and Extremism and the SCO Member States Agreement on Border Defense Cooperation, and participated in judicial cooperation and joint counterterrorism exercises, playing an important role in maintaining international and regional security and stability. By establishing cooperation mechanisms with dozens of countries and between law-enforcement departments to combat terrorism in border areas, it has engaged in pragmatic exchanges and cooperation in intelligence, border control, and investigation and handling of cases, and cut off funds for terrorism.

结束语

Conclusion

天下同归而殊途,一致而百虑。确保反恐怖主义工作在法治轨道上运行是当今国际社会的普遍共识。但各国的政治体制、法律制度、文化传统存在差异,所面临的恐怖主义形态、形式、行为表现不尽相同,在反恐怖主义法治实践上不可能完全一致。

Different paths can lead to the same end, and consensus can be reached despite varied concerns. Counterterrorism must be on the right side of the rule of law, a principle widely acknowledged by the international community. Due to different political systems, legal institutions, and cultural traditions, different countries are confronted with different forms and manifestations of terrorism, and are thus applying different legal practices in combating terrorism.

中国的反恐怖主义法律制度体系历经40余年的发展完善,实现了本国法治精神和理念与国际反恐怖主义原则和理念的协调统一,既有效防范和惩治恐怖活动,又切实尊重和保障人权,符合本国实际和国际惯例,取得了良好的实践效果。

China’s counterterrorism legal framework has improved over the past four decades, aligning China’s rule of law essentials with international counterterrorism principles. The legal framework in place works well both in preventing and punishing terrorist activities, and in respecting and protecting human rights. It conforms to China’s realities and international norms, and has yielded satisfactory and practical results.

令人遗憾的是,一些国家时常无视各国自主选择反恐怖主义法治化道路的权利,将自身意志强加于人,妄加评判他国实践做法,甚至以所谓“法治”“人权”为借口干涉他国内政、侵犯他国主权,严重阻碍国际反恐怖主义法治化进程,严重削弱国际反恐怖主义合作基础,严重影响国际反恐怖主义效果。

Regrettably, some countries often disregard others’ right to choose their own path of counterterrorism under the rule of law. These countries impose their own will upon others and pass judgment on them. They even interfere in others’ internal affairs, and infringe on their national sovereignty under the pretext of defending the rule of law and human rights. These actions have severely hampered the global effort to fight against terrorism under the rule of law, weakened the foundations of cooperation, and reduced operational effectiveness.

实践证明,各国的探索和实践只要能够体现人类社会价值取向,遵循联合国反恐怖主义原则准则,符合本国国情和法律制度,就都是国际反恐怖主义法治化事业的组成部分。国际社会应海纳不同形态的反恐怖主义法治路径,坚决反对反恐怖主义“双重标准”,反对将反恐怖主义问题政治化、工具化。

Counterterrorism approaches by individual countries that champion the common values of humanity, comply with the norms and principles of the United Nations, and conform to their own national conditions and legal institutions, are all part of the global effort to combat terrorism under the rule of law. In fighting terrorism, the international community should support diverse law-based actions, reject double standards, and oppose the politicization of related issues.

中国愿与世界各国一道,在人类命运共同体理念指引下,积极参与全球反恐怖主义治理,在平等尊重的基础上,广泛开展互学共鉴和交流合作,共同推动全球反恐怖主义事业健康发展。

Upholding the vision of a global community of shared future, China is willing to work closely with other countries to push forward counterterrorism cause as part of global governance. On the basis of equality and respect, China will engage in extensive exchanges, cooperation, and mutual learning to facilitate the global effort to counter terrorism.

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