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国新办2020年国民经济运行情况新闻发布会

国新办 2021-01-21 129次

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胡凯红:

HuKaihong:

女士们、先生们,上午好,欢迎出席国务院新闻办今天举办的新闻发布会。2020年是极不平凡的一年,这一年中国经济怎么样,国内外都高度关注。今天我们非常高兴邀请到国家统计局局长宁吉喆先生,请他向大家介绍2020年国民经济的运行情况,并回答大家关心的问题。

Ladies and gentlemen, good morning and welcome to this pressconference. 2020 was an extraordinary year in which China's economicperformance attracted wide attention at home and abroad. Today, we aredelighted to invite Mr. Ning Jizhe, head of the National Bureau of Statistics(NBS), to introduce China's economic performance in 2020, and answer yourquestions.

首先,有请宁局长作介绍。

Now, I would like to give the floor to Mr. Ning.

国家统计局局长宁吉喆:

NingJizhe:

各位媒体朋友大家上午好,我先介绍一下2020年中国国民经济运行情况。2020年国民经济稳定恢复,主要目标完成好于预期。2020年,面对严峻复杂的国内外环境特别是新冠肺炎疫情严重冲击,在以习近平同志为核心的党中央坚强领导下,各地区各部门坚持稳中求进工作总基调,统筹疫情防控和经济社会发展工作,扎实做好“六稳”工作、全面落实“六保”任务,经济运行稳定恢复,就业民生保障有力,经济社会发展主要目标任务完成情况好于预期。

Friends from the media, good morning. Let me start by introducingChina's economic performance in 2020. China's economy recovered steadily duringthe year, with major economic indicators surpassing expectations. In 2020,faced with a grave and complex situation both at home and abroad, and the hugeimpact of the epidemic in particular, under the strong leadership of theCentral Committee of the Communist Party of China with Comrade Xi Jinping atits core, all regions and departments adhered to the general working guidelineof making progress while maintaining stability, coordinated epidemic preventionand control work with socio-economic development, and took solid steps toensure stability on the six fronts (employment, finance, foreign trade, foreigninvestment, domestic investment and market expectations) and security in thesix areas (residential employment, people's livelihood, market entities, foodand energy, stability of industrial and supply chains, and grassrootsoperations). As a result, the national economy recovered steadily, employmentand living standards were ensured, and the main goals and tasks ofsocio-economic development were accomplished better than expected.

初步核算,全年国内生产总值1015986亿元,按可比价格计算,比上年增长2.3%。分季度看,一季度同比下降6.8%,二季度增长3.2%,三季度增长4.9%,四季度增长6.5%。分产业看,第一产业增加值77754亿元,比上年增长3.0%;第二产业增加值384255亿元,增长2.6%;第三产业增加值553977亿元,增长2.1%。

According to preliminary estimates, China's gross domestic product(GDP) was 101.6 trillion yuan in 2020, an increase of 2.3% over the previousyear at comparable prices. In the first quarter, China's GDP fell by 6.8% yearon year, while the remaining three quarters saw growth rates of 3.2%, 4.9% and6.5%, respectively. The value-added of primary, secondary and tertiaryindustries were 7.78 trillion yuan, 38.43 trillion yuan, and 55.4 trillionyuan, respectively, with growth rates of 3%, 2.6%, and 2.1%.

一、粮食产量再创新高,生猪生产持续较快恢复

First, grain output reached a record high and the production ofhogs saw sustained and rapid recovery.

全年全国粮食总产量66949万吨,比上年增长0.9%,增产565万吨。其中,夏粮产量14286万吨,增长0.9%;早稻产量2729万吨,增长3.9%;秋粮产量49934万吨,增长0.7%。分品种看,稻谷产量21186万吨,增长1.1%;小麦产量13425万吨,增长0.5%;玉米产量26067万吨,持平略减;大豆产量1960万吨,增长8.3%。

Last year's total grain output was 669.49 million tons, up 0.9%compared with the previous year, increasing by 5.65 million tons. Of thistotal, the output of summer grain was 142.86 million tons, up by 0.9%, and thatof early rice was 27.29 million tons, up by 3.9%. The output of fall grainreached 499.34 million tons, up by 0.7%. By species, the output of rice was211.86 million tons, up by 1.1%; wheat was 134.25 million tons, up by 0.5%;corn was 260.67 million tons, declining slightly compared with the previousyear; and soybeans was 19.6 million tons, up by 8.3%.

全年猪牛羊禽肉产量7639万吨,比上年下降0.1%。其中,牛肉产量672万吨,增长0.8%;羊肉产量492万吨,增长1.0%;禽肉产量2361万吨,增长5.5%;禽蛋产量3468万吨,增长4.8%;牛奶产量3440万吨,增长7.5%;猪肉产量4113万吨,下降3.3%。2020年末,生猪存栏、能繁殖母猪存栏比上年末分别增长31.0%、35.1%。

The total output of pork,beef, mutton and poultry in 2020 was 76.39 million tons, down by 0.1% year onyear. Of this, the output of beef was 6.72 million tons, up by 0.8%; mutton was4.92 million tons, up by 1%; poultry was 23.61 million tons, up by 5.5%; eggswas 34.68 million tons, up by 4.8%; milk was 34.4 million tons, up by 7.5%; andpork was 41.13 million tons, down by 3.3%. At the end of 2020, the number ofhogs and breeding sows in stock grew by 31% and 35.1%, respectively, over thatat the end of 2019.

二、工业生产持续发展,高技术制造业和装备制造业较快增长

Second, industrial production continued to increase, and high-techmanufacturing and equipment manufacturing enjoyed faster growth.

全年全国规模以上工业增加值比上年增长2.8%。分经济类型看,国有控股企业增加值增长2.2%;股份制企业增长3.0%,外商及港澳台商投资企业增长2.4%;私营企业增长3.7%。

The total value-added of industrial enterprises above designatedsize increased by 2.8% year on year. In terms of ownership, the value-added ofstate-holding enterprises grew by 2.2%, that of shareholding enterprises was upby 3%; enterprises funded by foreign investors and investors from Hong Kong,Macao and Taiwan was up by 2.4%; and private enterprises were up by 3.7%.

分三大门类看,采矿业增加值增长0.5%,制造业增长3.4%,电力、热力、燃气及水生产和供应业增长2.0%。高技术制造业和装备制造业增加值分别比上年增长7.1%、6.6%,增速分别比规模以上工业快4.3、3.8个百分点。从产品产量看,工业机器人、新能源汽车、集成电路、微型计算机设备同比分别增长19.1%、17.3%、16.2%、12.7%。

In terms of sectors, the value-added of the mining sectorincreased 0.5%, manufacturing grew by 3.4%, and that of producing and supplyingelectricity, thermal power, gas and water grew by 2%. The value-added ofhigh-tech manufacturing and equipment manufacturing increased by 7.1% and 6.6%,respectively, over the previous year, or 4.3 percentage points and 3.8percentage points, faster than that of industrial enterprises above designatedsize. Specifically, the production of industrial robots, new energy vehicles,integrated circuits and microcomputer equipment grew by 19.1%, 17.3%, 16.2% and12.7% year on year, respectively.

四季度,规模以上工业增加值同比增长7.1%,比三季度加快1.3个百分点。12月份,规模以上工业增加值同比增长7.3%,比上月加快0.3个百分点,环比增长1.10%。2020年,全国工业产能利用率为74.5%。四季度,全国工业产能利用率为78.0%,比三季度上升1.3个百分点。

In the fourth quarter, the total value-added of industrialenterprises above designated size grew by 7.1% year on year, which was 1.3 percentagepoints higher than that in the third quarter. In December, the totalvalue-added of industrial enterprises above designated size grew by 7.3% yearon year, up 0.3 percentage points compared with November, and an increase of1.1% month on month. In 2020, the national industrial capacity utilization ratereached 74.5%. In the fourth quarter, the rate reached 78%, which was 1.3percentage points higher than that in the third quarter.

1-11月份,全国规模以上工业企业实现利润总额57445亿元,同比增长2.4%,增速比1-10月份加快1.7个百分点;其中11月份,规模以上工业企业利润总额同比增长15.5%,连续6个月保持两位数增长。

In the first 11 months of 2020, the profits of industrial enterprisesabove designated size reached 5.74 trillion yuan, up by 2.4% year on year, 1.7percentage points higher than that in the first 10 months. Specifically, thetotal profits made by industrial enterprises above designated size in Novemberincreased by 15.5% year on year, maintaining double-digit growth for sixconsecutive months.

三、服务业逐步恢复,现代服务业增势良好

Third, the service sector recovered gradually, with the modernservice sector gaining momentum.

全年全国服务业生产指数与上年持平。信息传输、软件和信息技术服务业,金融业增加值分别增长16.9%、7.0%,增速分别快于第三产业14.8、4.9个百分点。

In 2020, the Index of Services Production remained the same asthat of the previous year. The value-added of information transmission,software and information technology services as well as financial services grewby 16.9% and 7% year on year, respectively, or 14.8 percentage points and 4.9percentage points higher than that of the tertiary industry.

四季度,服务业生产指数同比增长7.7%,比三季度加快3.4个百分点。12月份,服务业生产指数同比增长7.7%。1-11月份,规模以上服务业企业营业收入同比增长1.6%,其中,信息传输、软件和信息技术服务业,科学研究和技术服务业营业收入分别增长13.5%、9.9%,增速分别快于规模以上服务业11.9、8.3个百分点。 

In the fourth quarter, the Index of Services Production grew by7.7% year on year, up 3.4 percentage points compared with the third quarter. InDecember, the index also rose by 7.7% year on year. In the first 11 months, therevenue of service enterprises above designated size grew by 1.6% year on year.Specifically, the revenue of information transmission, software and informationtechnology services and that of scientific research and technology servicesgrew by 13.5% and 9.9%, respectively, 11.9 percentage points and 8.3 percentagepoints higher than that of service enterprises above designated size. 

12月份,服务业商务活动指数为54.8%,位于较高景气区间。其中,航空运输、电信广播电视卫星传输服务、货币金融服务、资本市场服务等行业商务活动指数持续位于60.0%以上高位景气区间。从市场预期看,服务业业务活动预期指数为60.1%,连续6个月位于高位景气区间。

In December, the Business Activity Index for services was 54.8%,staying above the expansion range. Specifically, the index for sectors includingair transportation, telecommunications, broadcast, television and satellitetransmission services, monetary and financial services and capital marketservices continued to stay within the high expansion range at 60% and above.From the perspective of market expectations, the Business Activity ExpectationIndex for services was 60.1%, staying within the high expansion range for sixconsecutive months.

四、市场销售较快恢复,消费升级类商品销售增速加快

Fourth, market sales recovered quickly, and the growth in thesales of upgraded consumer goods accelerated.

全年社会消费品零售总额391981亿元,比上年下降3.9%。其中,限额以上单位消费品零售额143323亿元,下降1.9%。按经营单位所在地分,城镇消费品零售额339119亿元,下降4.0%;乡村消费品零售额52862亿元,下降3.2%。按消费类型分,餐饮收入39527亿元,下降16.6%;商品零售352453亿元,下降2.3%。

In 2020, the total retail sales of consumer goods reached 39.2trillion yuan, down by 3.9% compared with the previous year. Specifically, thetotal retail sales of consumer goods by enterprises above designated sizereached 14.33 trillion yuan, down by 1.9%. In terms of regions, retail sales inurban areas reached 33.91 trillion yuan, down by 4%; and retail sales in ruralareas stood at 5.29 trillion yuan, down by 3.2%. Grouped by consumptionpatterns, catering revenue was 3.95 trillion yuan, down 16.6%; and retail salesof goods were 35.25 trillion yuan, down 2.3%.

消费升级类商品销售增速加快,四季度限额以上单位通讯器材类、化妆品类、金银珠宝类商品零售额同比分别增长26.0%、21.2%、17.3%,分别比三季度加快16.0、7.1、5.0个百分点。

The sales growth of upgraded consumer goods accelerated. In thefourth quarter, the retail sales of communication equipment, cosmetics, gold,silver and jewelry by enterprises above designated size grew by 26%, 21.2% and17.3% respectively, or 16 percentage points, 7.1 percentage points and 5percentage points higher than in the third quarter.

四季度,社会消费品零售总额同比增长4.6%,比三季度加快3.7个百分点。12月份,社会消费品零售总额同比增长4.6%,环比增长1.24%。全年全国网上零售额117601亿元,比上年增长10.9%。其中,实物商品网上零售额97590亿元,增长14.8%,占社会消费品零售总额的比重为24.9%,比上年提高4.2个百分点。

In the fourth quarter, the total retail sales of consumer goodsgrew by 4.6% year on year, which was 3.7 percentage points higher than in thethird quarter. In December, the total retail sales of consumer goods grew by4.6% year on year, or 1.24% month on month. In 2020, the national online retailsales reached 11.76 trillion yuan, up by 10.9% year on year. Specifically, theonline retail sales of physical goods was 9.76 trillion yuan, up by 14.8%,accounting for 24.9% of total retail sales of consumer goods, or 4.2 percentagepoints higher than that of the previous year.

五、固定资产投资稳步回升,高技术产业和社会领域投资增长较快

Fifth, investment in fixed assets rebounded steadily andinvestment in high-tech industries and social sectors grew fast.

 全年全国固定资产投资(不含农户)518907亿元,比上年增长2.9%。分领域看,基础设施投资增长0.9%,制造业投资下降2.2%,房地产开发投资增长7.0%。全国商品房销售面积176086万平方米,增长2.6%;商品房销售额173613亿元,增长8.7%。三次产业投资增速全部转正,其中第一产业投资增长19.5%,第二产业投资增长0.1%,第三产业投资增长3.6%。民间投资289264亿元,增长1.0%。高技术产业投资增长10.6%,快于全部投资7.7个百分点,其中高技术制造业和高技术服务业投资分别增长11.5%和9.1%。高技术制造业中,医药制造业、计算机及办公设备制造业投资分别增长28.4%、22.4%;高技术服务业中,电子商务服务业、信息服务业投资分别增长20.2%、15.2%。社会领域投资增长11.9%,快于全部投资9.0个百分点,其中卫生、教育投资分别增长29.9%和12.3%。12月份,固定资产投资环比增长2.32%。

In 2020, the investment in fixed assets (excluding ruralhouseholds) reached 51.89 trillion yuan, up by 2.9% from last year.Specifically, investment in infrastructure was up by 0.9%, manufacturing downby 2.2%, and real estate development up by 7.0%. The floor space of commercialbuildings sold reached 1.76 billion square meters, up by 2.6%, while the totalsales of commercial buildings was 17.36 trillion yuan, up by 8.7%. The growthof investment in all three industries showed positive trends. Specifically,investment in the primary industry went up by 19.5%, 0.1% in the secondaryindustry, and 3.6% in the tertiary industry. Private investment was 28.93trillion yuan, up by 1.0%, and investment in high-tech industries rose 10.6%,7.7 percentage points higher than the total investment, with investment inhigh-tech manufacturing and services rising 11.5% and 9.1%, respectively. Interms of high-tech manufacturing, investment in pharmaceutical manufacturingand computers and office devices grew by 28.4% and 22.4%, respectively. Interms of high-tech services, investment in e-commerce services and informationservices also grew by 20.2% and 15.2%, respectively. The investment in socialsectors rose by 11.9%, 9.0 percentage points higher than the total investment.Likewise, investment in the health and education industries went up by 29.9%and 12.3%, respectively. In December, investment in fixed assets grew by 2.32%month on month.

六、对外贸易实现正增长,贸易结构持续优化

Sixth, foreign trade achieved positive growth and trade structurecontinued to optimize.

全年货物进出口总额321557亿元,比上年增长1.9%。其中,出口179326亿元,增长4.0%;进口142231亿元,下降0.7%。进出口相抵,顺差为37096亿元。机电产品出口增长6%,占出口总额的59.4%,比上年提高1.1个百分点。一般贸易进出口占进出口总额的比重为59.9%,比上年提高0.9个百分点。民营企业进出口增长11.1%,占进出口总额的比重为46.6%,比上年提高3.9个百分点。12月份,货物进出口总额32005亿元,同比增长5.9%。其中,出口18587亿元,增长10.9%;进口13419亿元,下降0.2%。进出口相抵,贸易顺差5168亿元。

In 2020, the total imports and exports of goods reached 32.16trillion yuan, an increase of 1.9% over last year. The exports amounted to17.93 trillion yuan, up by 4%, while the imports were 14.22 trillion yuan, downby 0.7%. The trade balance achieved a 3.71 trillion yuan surplus. Exports ofmechanical and electrical products grew by 6%, accounting for 59.4% of thetotal exports, which was 1.1 percentage points higher than that of last year.Imports and exports of general trade accounted for 59.9% of the total importsand exports, an increase of 0.9 percentage point compared to last year. Importsand exports by private enterprises grew by 11.1%, accounting for 46.6% of thetotal imports and exports, which was 3.9 percentage points higher than that oflast year. In December, the total imports and exports of goods were 3.2trillion yuan, up by 5.9% year on year. Specifically, the total exports reached1.86 trillion yuan, up by 10.9%, and the total imports were 1.34 trillion yuan,down by 0.2%. The trade balance achieved 516.8 billion yuan in surplus.

七、居民消费价格涨幅回落,工业生产者价格下降

Seventh, growth of consumer prices slowed and producer prices forindustrial products dropped.

全年居民消费价格上涨2.5%,低于上年2.9%的涨幅,也低于3.5%左右的全年预期目标。其中,城市上涨2.3%,农村上涨3.0%。分类别看,食品烟酒价格上涨8.3%,衣着下降0.2%,居住下降0.4%,生活用品及服务持平,交通和通信下降3.5%,教育文化和娱乐上涨1.3%,医疗保健上涨1.8%,其他用品和服务上涨4.3%。在食品烟酒价格中,粮食价格上涨1.2%,鲜菜价格上涨7.1%,猪肉价格上涨49.7%。扣除食品和能源价格的核心CPI上涨0.8%。12月份,居民消费价格同比上涨0.2%,环比上涨0.7%。全年工业生产者出厂价格比上年下降1.8%,12月份同比下降0.4%,环比上涨1.1%。全年工业生产者购进价格比上年下降2.3%,12月份同比持平,环比上涨1.5%。

In 2020, consumer prices increased by 2.5%, lower than the 2.9%growth of the year before and also lower than the expected annual target ofaround 3.5%. To be more specific, prices went up by 2.3% in urban areas and upby 3% in rural areas. Grouped by commodity categories, prices for food,tobacco, and alcohol went up by 8.3%; clothing down by 0.2%; housing down by0.4%; articles and services for daily use remained the same; transportation andcommunication down by 3.5%; education, culture, and recreation up by 1.3%;medical services and health care up by 1.8%; and other articles and services upby 4.3%. Breaking down food prices, grain prices rose 1.2%, the price of freshvegetables grew 7.1%, and pork prices increased 49.7%. The core CPI, excludingthe prices of food and energy, went up by 0.8%. In December, the consumer pricewent up by 0.2% year on year and up by 0.7% month on month. In 2020, producerprices for industrial products went down by 1.8% over last year, and inDecember, went down by 0.4% year on year and up by 1.1% month on month. Thepurchasing prices for industrial producers decreased by 2.3% over last year,and in December, maintained the same level year on year, or up by 1.5% month onmonth.

八、就业形势总体稳定,城镇调查失业率回落至上年水平

Eighth, employment was generally stable, and the surveyedunemployment rate in urban areas fell to the level observed last year.

全年城镇新增就业1186万人,明显高于900万人以上的预期目标,完成全年目标的131.8%。12月份,全国城镇调查失业率为5.2%,与上年同期持平;其中25-59岁人口调查失业率为4.7%,与上年同期持平。2020年年均城镇调查失业率为5.6%,低于6%左右的预期目标。12月份,31个大城市城镇调查失业率为5.1%。2020年末,城镇登记失业率为4.24%,低于5.5%左右的预期目标。全年农民工总量28560万人,比上年减少517万人,下降1.8%。其中,本地农民工11601万人,下降0.4%;外出农民工16959万人,下降2.7%。农民工月均收入水平4072元,比上年增长2.8%。

In 2020, 11.86 million new jobs were created in urban areas,notably higher than the expected goal of over 9 million a 131.8% increase onthe annual target. In December, the surveyed unemployment rate in urban areaswas 5.2%, the same as that of last year. Specifically, the surveyedunemployment rate among those aged between 25 and 59 was 4.7%, also the same asthat of 2019. In 2020, the average annual surveyed unemployment rate in urbanareas stood at 5.6%, lower than the expected target of around 6%. The surveyedunemployment rate in 31 major cities in December was 5.1%. At the end of 2020,the registered unemployment rate in urban areas was 4.24%, lower than theexpected target of around 5.5%. The number of rural migrant workers reached285.6 million, 5.17 million less than that of last year, or down by 1.8%.Specifically, migrant workers working in their home provinces totaled 116.01million, down by 0.4%; migrant workers working outside their home provincestotaled 169.59 million, down by 2.7%. The average monthly income for migrantworkers was 4,072 yuan, up by 2.8% over last year.

九、居民收入增长与经济增长基本同步,城乡居民人均收入比继续缩小

Ninth, resident income grew at the same pace as the economy andthe ratio of per capita disposable income between urban and rural residentscontinued to narrow.

 全年全国居民人均可支配收入32189元,比上年名义增长4.7%,扣除价格因素实际增长2.1%,与经济增长基本同步。按常住地分,城镇居民人均可支配收入43834元,比上年名义增长3.5%,扣除价格因素实际增长1.2%;农村居民人均可支配收入17131元,比上年名义增长6.9%,扣除价格因素实际增长3.8%。城乡居民人均收入比值为2.56,比上年缩小0.08。全国居民人均可支配收入中位数27540元,比上年名义增长3.8%。按全国居民五等份收入分组,低收入组人均可支配收入7869元,中间偏下收入组人均可支配收入16443元,中间收入组人均可支配收入26249元,中间偏上收入组人均可支配收入41172元,高收入组人均可支配收入80294元。

In 2020, the nationwide per capita disposable income was 32,189yuan, a nominal increase of 4.7% over that of last year and a real increase of2.1% after deducting price factors, which generally grew at the same pace asthe economy. In terms of those citizens with permanent residence, the percapita disposable income of urban households was 43,834 yuan, a nominal growthof 3.5% and a real growth of 1.2% after deducting price factors. The per capitadisposable income of rural households was 17,131 yuan, a nominal growth of 6.9%and a real growth of 3.8% after deducting price factors. The per capitadisposable income of urban households was 2.56 times that of rural households,0.08 less than that of last year. The median of the nationwide per capitadisposable income was 27,540 yuan, a nominal increase of 3.8% over that of lastyear. Taking the per capita disposable income for nationwide households ascompared by income quintiles, that of the low-income group reached 7,869 yuan,the lower-middle-income group 16,443 yuan, the middle-income group 26,249 yuan,the upper-middle-income group 41,172 yuan, and the high-income group 80,294yuan. 

全年全国居民人均消费支出21210元,比上年名义下降1.6%,扣除价格因素实际下降4.0%。按常住地分,城镇居民人均消费支出27007元,名义下降3.8%;农村居民人均消费支出13713元,名义增长2.9%。

In 2020, the nationwide per capita consumer spending was 21,210yuan, a nominal decline of 1.6% or a real decline of 4% after deducting pricefactors. Specifically, the per capita consumer spending of urban households was27,007 yuan, a nominal decline of 3.8%, while the per capita consumer spendingof rural households was 13,713 yuan, a nominal growth of 2.9%.

总的来看,2020年国民经济运行稳定恢复,稳就业保民生成效显著,决战脱贫攻坚取得决定性胜利,“十三五”规划圆满收官,全面建成小康社会胜利在望。同时应看到,疫情变化和外部环境存在诸多不确定性,我国经济恢复基础尚不牢固。下一步,要以习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想为指导,全面贯彻落实党的十九届五中全会和中央经济工作会议精神,坚持稳中求进工作总基调,立足新发展阶段,贯彻新发展理念,构建新发展格局,坚定不移深化改革开放创新,巩固拓展疫情防控和经济社会发展成果,扎实做好“六稳”工作、全面落实“六保”任务,科学精准实施宏观政策,努力保持经济运行在合理区间,确保“十四五”开好局、起好步。

Generally speaking, thenational economy in 2020 recovered steadily, notable results were achieved instabilizing employment and ensuring people's basic needs, a decisive successwas made in eradicating extreme poverty, the 13th Five-Year Plan came to asatisfactory conclusion, and the task of building a moderately prosperoussociety in all respects will soon be completed. However, the changing COVID-19situation and external environment pose a multitude of uncertainties and thefoundation for economic recovery is yet to be consolidated. At the next stage,we must take Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for aNew Era as the guideline, implement the spirit of the fifth plenary session ofthe 19th CPC Central Committee and the Central Economic Work Conference, adhereto the general working tone of making progress while maintaining stability,align ourselves with the new development phase, stick to the new developmentphilosophy, foster a new development pattern, unswervingly deepen reform andopening up and innovation, consolidate and proliferate the gains made inepidemic prevention and control as well as economic and social development,take solid steps to ensure stability in six areas, fully carry out tasks to maintainsecurity in six fronts, and implement macro policies in a science-based andprecise manner to keep the economy performing within a reasonable range and toensure a good start of the 14th Five-Year Plan period (2021-2025).

胡凯红:

HuKaihong:

谢谢宁吉喆局长,现在开始提问。

Thank you, Mr. Ning. The floor is now open to questions.

中央广播电视总台央视记者:

CCTV:

2020年面对疫情巨大冲击和复杂严峻的国内外环境,我国国民经济在一季度下降后逐季恢复,您怎么样评价全年经济运行的表现?我们全年目标任务是否完成?谢谢。

Due to the huge impact of the pandemic and a grave and complexenvironment both at home and abroad, China's economy recovered quarter byquarter in 2020 after a decline in the first quarter. What do you think of theeconomy throughout the year? Did we meet the goals and tasks for the year?Thank you.

宁吉喆:

NingJizhe:

谢谢,你这个问题很重要。2020年是新中国历史上极不平凡的一年,面对严峻复杂的国内外环境,特别是新冠肺炎疫情的严重冲击,在以习近平同志为核心的党中央坚强领导下,各地区各部门坚持人民至上、生命至上,坚持稳中求进工作总基调,坚持统筹疫情防控和经济社会发展工作,加大宏观政策的对冲力度,扎实做好“六稳”工作,全面落实“六保”任务,疫情防控工作取得重大战略成果,经济社会发展主要的目标任务已经完成,并且完成的情况是好于预期的。“十三五”规划圆满收官,全面建成小康社会胜利在望,主要表现在以下几方面:

Thanks for your questions. 2020 was an unusual year in China'shistory. In 2020, we faced with a grave and complex environment both at homeand abroad on account of the huge impact of the pandemic in particular, butunder the strong leadership of the CPC Central Committee with Comrade XiJinping at its core, all localities and departments put the people and theirlives first, adhered to the general working guideline of making progress whilemaintaining stability, coordinated the work of epidemic prevention and controland economic and social development, pledged stronger macro policies to offsetthe economic impact of COVID-19, took solid steps to ensure stability in sixareas, and fully carried out tasks to maintain security in six fronts. Majorstrategic achievements were made in epidemic prevention and control, and themain goals and tasks of economic and social development were accomplishedbetter than expectation. The 13th Five-Year Plan came to a satisfactoryconclusion and the task of building a moderately prosperous society in allrespects will soon be completed. The achievements were mainly shown in thefollowing aspects.

一是统筹疫情防控和经济社会发展取得重大成果。经过全国上下的共同努力,我国率先控制住疫情,率先复工复产,率先实现经济正增长。3月下旬,本土疫情传播基本阻断,4月中旬,规模以上企业开工率超过了90%。二季度GDP增长3.2%,由负转正。三季度增长4.9%,四季度增长6.5%,全年经济增长2.3%,预计将成为全球唯一实现经济正增长的主要经济体。1万亿美元以上的主要经济体全球有18个,现在大多数国家的数据还没出来,根据前三个季度的数据,我们是唯一正增长的,也是全年唯一正增长的。2020年我国GDP达到101.6万亿元,经济总量迈上百万亿元新的大台阶。

First, major progress has been made in coordinating epidemicresponse and economic and social development. Thanks to the joint efforts ofthe whole country, China was the first to bring the epidemic under control, toresume work and production, and to achieve positive economic growth. By lateMarch, the spread of COVID-19 on the mainland had been initially halted, and bymid-April, more than 90% of the enterprises above designated size had resumedoperation. The GDP grew by 3.2% in the second quarter, turning from negative topositive, and by 4.9% in the third quarter, 6.5% in the fourth quarter, and2.3% for the whole year. China is expected to be the world's only major economyto achieve positive economic growth in 2020. There are 18 major economies inthe world each with a GDP over US$1 trillion, and economic data from most ofthese countries is not yet available. Based on the data from the first threequarters of 2020, China is the only major economy to register positive growthand the only one with positive growth for the whole year. In 2020, China's GDPreached 101.6 trillion yuan, exceeding a new watermark of 100 trillion yuan.

二是决战脱贫攻坚取得决定性胜利。现行标准下农村贫困人口全部脱贫,832个贫困县全部摘帽,绝对贫困现象历史性消除。贫困地区农民居民收入较快增长,2020年贫困人口较多的广西、四川、贵州、云南、甘肃、宁夏、新疆七个省(区)农村居民人均可支配收入名义增速均高于全国农村居民增速0.2-1.7个百分点。

Second, decisive success has been achieved in eradicating extremepoverty. All rural residents below the current poverty line have been liftedout of poverty, and all 832 impoverished counties have been raised out ofpoverty. Extreme poverty has been eliminated, the first time in Chinesehistory. The personal income for farmers in poor areas has increased rapidly.In 2020, the nominal per capita disposable income growth of rural residents inGuangxi, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan, Gansu, Ningxia, and Xinjiang, the sevenprovinces (autonomous regions) with a relatively large impoverished population,were all 0.2 to 1.7 percentage points higher than that of the rural residentsacross the country. 

三是宏观调控成效显著。季度的经济增长指标恢复至常态水平,四季度,GDP同比增长6.5%,比上年同期高0.7个百分点;规模以上工业增加值增长7.1%,比上年同期高1.1个百分点。全年就业物价预期目标较好完成,2020年全国城镇新增就业1186万人,超额完成了全年目标任务。全国城镇调查失业率全年平均5.6%,低于6%左右的预期目标。2020年居民消费价格指数CPI比上年上涨2.5%,低于3.5%左右的预期目标。居民收入增长与经济增长基本同步,2020年全国居民人均可支配收入实际增长2.1%,与经济增长基本同步。国际收支总体改善,2020年末,外汇储备余额32165亿美元,比上年末增加了1086亿美元。单位GDP能耗实现了下降,2020年单位GDP能耗比上年下降0.1%。政府工作报告提出的宏观调控的主要目标已经实现,好于预期。

Third, remarkable results have been secured in macro-regulation,with quarterly indicators for economic growth returning to normal levels. Inthe fourth quarter, China's GDP and the added value of the industrialenterprises above designated size grew by 6.5% and 7.1% year on year,respectively, and 0.7 and 1.1 percentage points higher than the same period of2019. The annual employment and price targets have been well met. In 2020,11.86 million new urban jobs were created in the country, surpassing the targetset for the year. The annual surveyed urban unemployment rate averaged 5.6%nationwide, lower than the expected target of about 6%. The consumer priceindex (CPI) for 2020 rose by 2.5% over the previous year, lower than theprojection of around 3.5%. Growth in personal income was basically in step witheconomic growth. In 2020, the per capita disposable income of Chinese citizensgrew by 2.1% in real terms, basically in line with economic growth. Overall,the balance of payment has been improved. By the end of 2020, China's foreignexchange reserves stood at US$3.22 trillion, an increase of US$108.6 billionyear over year. Energy consumption per unit GDP has been reduced by around 0.1%in 2020 when compared to 2019. The main targets for macro-regulation set out inthe government work report have been achieved and exceeded expectations.

四是“六稳”“六保”落地显效。居民就业得到保障,12月份,全国25-59岁就业主体人口的城镇调查失业率为4.7%,恢复至上年同期水平。基本民生保障有力,2020年全国居民人均转移净收入同比名义增长8.7%,这表明兜底保障的力度加大。市场主体活力增强,1-11月份,规模以上工业企业实现利润同比增长2.4%,连续6个月增速保持两位数增长。粮食能源供给增加,2020年粮食总产量13390亿斤,一次能源生产总量比上年增长2.8%左右。产业链、供应链基本稳定,行业的增长面持续拓展,2020年规模以上工业41个大类行业中25个行业增加值实现增长,比前三季度增加5个。基层运转得到较好维护,1-11月份全国一般公共预算支出中,与基层“三保”有关的社会保障和就业、住房保障、扶贫支出分别增长9.8%、9.5%、9.2%。

Fourth, tasks have been carried out to ensure stability on sixfronts (employment, finance, foreign trade, foreign investment, domesticinvestment, and market expectations) and guarantee stability in six areas(jobs, daily living needs, food and energy, industrial and supply chains, theinterests of market players, and the smooth functioning of grassrootsgovernments), and effective results have been achieved. Employment has beensafeguarded. In December, the surveyed urban unemployment rate of the mainworking population aged 25 to 59 nationwide registered 4.7%, a return to levelsseen during the same period of 2019. People's livelihoods have been effectivelyensured. In 2020, the per capita net transfer income of Chinese citizensregistered a nominal year-on-year growth of 8.7%, indicating greater efforts tomeet the basic needs of the people. The vitality of market players have beenincreased. In the first 11 months of 2020, the profits of industrialenterprises above designated size grew by 2.4% year on year, maintainingdouble-digit growth for six months in a row. Grain and energy supply haveincreased. In 2020, grain output totaled 669.5 billion kilograms and the totalprimary energy production increased by some 2.8% over the previous year.Industrial and supply chains have been basically stable, and the growth ofindustries has continued to expand. In 2020, added value growth was reported in25 out of the 41 industrial categories of the industrial enterprises abovedesignated size, five categories more than that of the first three quarters.The functioning of grassroots governments has been well maintained. FromJanuary to November, expenditures in the general public budget for socialsecurity and employment, housing security, and poverty alleviation  allrelated to the guarantee in three areas of the grassroots governments (people'slivelihood, employment, functioning)  rose by 9.8%, 9.5%, and 9.2%,respectively.

五是改革开放创造发展奇迹。多种所有制企业效益均得到改善。11月份,国有控股规上工业企业利润同比实现两位数增长,连续6个月正增长。1-11月,外商及港澳台投资规上工业企业利润增长4.3%,增速比前三季度加快1.7个百分点;私营规上工业企业利润增长1.8%,前三季度是下降0.5%,表明多种所有制工业企业效益全面提升。供给侧结构性改革深入推进,四季度全国工业产能利用率达78%,比三季度回升1.3个百分点,为2013年以来的最高点。“放管服”改革成效继续显现,1-11月,日均新设企业2.2万户,日均净增1.2万户。2020年,高技术制造业增加值比上年增长7.1%,快于全部规上工业增加值4.3个百分点;实物商品网上零售额增长14.8%。外贸外资增长好于预期,在全球贸易和跨境投资大幅萎缩的情况下,2020年我国货物进出口总额创历史新高,比上年增长1.9%。1-11月份,实际使用外资同比增长6.3%。

Fifth, reform and opening-up have created development miracles.Enterprises across various types of ownership operate more efficiently. InNovember, state holding industrial enterprises above designated size reporteddouble-digit profits and year-on-year growth, registering positive growth forthe sixth consecutive month. From January to November, the profits ofindustrial enterprises above designated size with foreign investment andinvestment from Hong Kong, Macao, and Taiwan grew by 4.3% 1.7 percentage pointshigher than in the first three quarters. The profits of private industrialenterprises above designated size increased by 1.8%, compared with a decline of0.5% in the first three quarters. All these show that industrial enterpriseswith various types of ownership have experienced a comprehensive improvement intheir efficiency. Supply-side structural reform has been deepened. China'sindustrial capacity utilization rate reached 78% in the fourth quarter, up 1.3percentage points over the third quarter,  the highest since 2013. Thereforms to streamline administration and delegate power, improve regulation,and upgrade services have continued to show results. From January to November,an average of 22,000 new enterprises were established every day, with a netincrease of 12,000 per day. In 2020, the added value of high-tech manufacturinggrew by 7.1% over the previous year, 4.3 percentage points higher than that ofall the enterprises above designated size, and the online retail sales of goodsincreased by 14.8%. The growth in foreign trade and inbound investment wasbetter than expected. In 2020, China's total import and export of goods reacheda record high, up 1.9% over the previous year, despite a sharp decline inglobal trade and cross-border investment. From January to November, China'sutilized foreign capital increased by 6.3% year on year.

六是全面建成小康社会取得伟大历史性成就。“十三五”规划主要目标任务已经完成。国内生产总值突破100万亿元,人均国内生产总值超过1万美元,经济结构持续优化,重大工程项目基本完成,我国经济实力、科技实力、综合国力跃上新的大台阶。三大攻坚战取得重大突破,脱贫攻坚成果举世瞩目,5575万农村贫困人口实现脱贫。第一批脱贫攻坚普查结果显示,1385万建档立卡贫困户全部实现了“两不愁三保障”,即不愁吃不愁穿,义务教育、基本医疗、住房安全有保障,饮水安全也得到保障。污染防治效果显著,2020年全国337个地级及以上城市空气质量平均优良天数的比例达87%,比上年提高5个百分点。防范化解重大风险取得成效,金融风险总体可控,地方政府债务余额控制在全国人大批准的限额之内。人民生活水平显著提高,城镇新增就业五年超过6000万人,已建成世界上规模最大的社会保障体系,基本医疗保障覆盖超过13亿人,基本养老保障覆盖近10亿人。“五位一体”总体布局统筹推进,我国经济建设、政治建设、文化建设、社会建设、生态文明建设全面加强,全党全国各族人民的自信心、自豪感和凝聚力、向心力显著增强。

Sixth, historic achievements in the building of a moderatelyprosperous society in all respects have been made. The main goals set out inthe 13th Five-Year Plan have been fulfilled. Our GDP exceeded 100 trillion yuanand the per capita GDP exceeded US$10,000 in 2020. The economic structure hascontinued to improve; major projects have been basically completed, and; our economic,scientific, and technological strength, as well as the composite nationalstrength, have risen to new highs. Major breakthroughs have been made in thethree critical battles against poverty, pollution, and major risks, withaccomplishments in the fight against poverty winning international recognition.Approximately 55.75 million rural residents have been lifted out of poverty.The first poverty reduction surveys show that all 13.85 million registered poorhouseholds have had their basic living needs met and have access to compulsoryeducation, basic medical services, housing, and safe drinking water. Remarkableresults have been achieved in pollution prevention and control. In 2020, theproportion of days with good air quality in 337 cities at or above theprefectural level reached 87%, an increase of 5 percentage points over theprevious year. Progress has also been made in preventing and defusing majorrisks. Financial risks were manageable on the whole and the outstanding localgovernment debt was within the budgeted limit approved by the National People'sCongress. People's living standards have improved markedly. Over the past fiveyears, more than 60 million urban jobs have been created. China has establishedthe world's largest social security system, with its basic medical insurancecovering over 1.3 billion people and basic old-age insurance covering nearly 1billion people. Coordinated efforts have been made to implement the Five-sphereIntegrated Plan, making coordinated progress in the economic, political,cultural, social, and eco-environmental fields. The confidence, pride, unity,and cohesion of the Party and the people of all ethnic groups have beenenhanced remarkably.

总体上看,我国经济在极不平凡之年取得了极不平凡的成就,交出了一份让人民满意、世界瞩目、可以载入史册的答卷。这些成绩是在新冠肺炎疫情肆虐全球、世界经济陷入严重衰退、外部环境更加复杂严峻的情况下取得的,来之不易,成之惟艰。这是以习近平同志为核心的党中央坚强领导、科学决策的结果,是全国各族人民万众一心、团结奋斗的结果,是中国特色社会主义制度优势的充分展现。谢谢。

In general, China's economy has recorded an extraordinaryaccomplishment in an extraordinary year, delivering results that have satisfiedthe people, won international recognition, and will go down in history. Theseachievements were hard-won after overcoming enormous difficulties, withCOVID-19 still wreaking havoc around the world, the world economy falling intoa severe recession, and the external environment becoming more complex andgraver than before. These accomplishments are attributed to the strongleadership and sound policy-making of the CPC Central Committee with Comrade XiJinping at its core and the concerted efforts of the people of all ethnicgroups, speaking volumes about the advantages of the socialist system withChinese characteristics. Thank you.

中央广播电视总台央广记者:

ChinaNational Radio:

我们注意到2020年我国GDP已经超过100万亿元,对中国经济来说意味着什么?对于构建新发展格局,有哪些重要意义?谢谢。

In 2020, China's GDP exceeded 100 trillion yuan. What does thismean for China's economy? What is the significance for establishing a newdevelopment pattern? Thank you.

宁吉喆:

NingJizhe:

这个题目很抓住要害。国内生产总值已经突破了100万亿元大关,这意味着我国经济实力、科技实力、综合国力又跃上一个新的大台阶。对于全面建成小康社会,开启全面建设社会主义现代化国家新征程,都具有十分重要的标志性意义。

These questions are very much to the point. China's GDP has nowexceeded 100 trillion yuan. This means that China's economic and technologicalstrength, and composite national strength have taken a big step forward. Theachievement is of great symbolic significance in building a moderatelyprosperous society in all respects and embarking on a new journey of building amodern socialist country in all respects.

第一,这标志着我国综合国力持续增强。2020年,我国国内生产总值达到了101.6万亿元人民币,历史上首次突破100万亿。2000年,我国经济总量迈上10万亿元的台阶,2012年突破了50万亿元,2020年又突破100万亿元。20年内,经济总量规模扩大至10倍,成就举世瞩目。按照目前测算的年平均汇率折算,2020年我国国内生产总值达到14.7万亿美元左右,稳居世界第二,占世界经济的比重预计达到17%左右。2020年,人均国内生产总值连续两年超过1万美元,稳居中等偏上收入国家行列,与高收入国家发展的差距继续缩小。

First, it marks the continuing rise of China's composite nationalstrength. China's GDP reached 101.6 trillion yuan in 2020, surpassing 100trillion yuan for the first time in its history. The Chinese economy reached 10trillion yuan in 2000, exceeded 50 trillion yuan in 2012. Over the past 20years, the Chinese economy expanded 10 times, which is a remarkableachievement. Converted at the prevailing average annual exchange rate, China'sGDP in 2020 reached $14.7 trillion, ranking second in the world, and it isexpected to account for around 17% of the global economy. In 2020, its percapita GDP exceeded $10,000 for the second consecutive year, which consolidatedChina's position among upper middle-income countries and narrowed thedevelopment gap with high-income countries.

第二,这标志着我国科技实力不断进步。重大科技成果过去一年持续涌现。“嫦娥五号”成功登月并采样返回,“天问一号”火星探测器成功发射,500米口径球面射电望远镜正式开放运行,“北斗三号”全球卫星导航系统正式开通,载人潜水艇“奋斗号”下潜突破万米,量子计算机“九章”成功研制。“可上九天揽月、可下五洋捉鳖”成为现实。科技创新日趋活跃,为经济高质量发展注入了新的活力。

Second, it marks the continuous improvement of China's scientificand technological strength. Major sci-tech achievements were made over theprevious year. Chang'e-5 successfully landed on the moon and returned withsamples. China's Mars probe Tianwen-1 was successfully launched. TheFive-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical Radio Telescope (FAST) was officially putinto operation. The Beidou-3 global navigation satellite system was put intooperation. The manned submersible Fendouzhe (Striver) completed a 10,000-meterdive. And, the Jiuzhang quantum computer was successfully developed. The poeticline "[c1] We can clasp the moon in the sky and catch turtles in thedeep sea" has now become reality. Scientific and technological innovationis becoming increasingly vigorous, injecting new vitality into high-qualityeconomic development.

第三,这标志着我国经济实力显著提升,我国工农业生产能力明显增强。2020年,粮食总产量创历史新高,持续居世界第一位。220多种工业产品产量居世界第一位,制造业增加值预计连续11年居世界第一位。基础设施不断改善,高速铁路营运总里程达到3.8万公里,高速公路里程超过15.5万公里,5G终端连接数已超过2亿,均居世界第一。信息、商务、研发、营销等现代服务业持续发展,金融服务实体经济能力增强,我国的社会生产力已经达到一个新的水平。

Third, it marks significant gains in China's economic strength anda remarkable increase in its industrial and agricultural productivity. In 2020,total grain output reached a record high and continued to rank first in theworld. The output of more than 220 industrial products ranks No. 1 in theworld, and the added value of the manufacturing sector is expected to rank firstin the world for 11 consecutive years. China's infrastructure has constantlyimproved. The high-speedrailway network hasreached38,000km and expresswaysexceeded 155,000 km. 5G connections in China has exceeded 200 million, rankingfirst in the world. The modern service sector, including information services,business services, research and development services and marketing services,continues to develop. The capability of the financial sector for serving thereal economy has been enhanced, and the country's social productivity hasreached a new level.

第四,这为我国构建新发展格局奠定了坚实基础。加快形成以国内大循环为主体、国内国际双循环相互促进的新发展格局,关键在于挖掘内需尤其是消费需求的潜力。我国人口规模居世界第一,中等收入群体也是世界最大的,2020年社会消费品零售总额接近40万亿元,最终消费支出超过55万亿元,资本形成总额也接近45万亿元,这将助推我国超大市场规模的优势进一步发挥。

Fourth, it has laid a solid foundation for China to build a newdevelopment pattern. We are accelerating the formation of a new developmentpattern with the domestic market as the mainstay and the domestic andinternational markets mutually supporting each other. The key is to tap thepotential of domestic demand, especially consumer demand. China has the largestpopulation and the largest middle-income group in the world. In 2020, the totalretail sales of consumer goods reached almost 40 trillion yuan, and finalconsumption expenditure exceeded 55 trillion yuan. The total capital formationwas close to 45 trillion yuan. This will further boost the advantage of thesuper large Chinese market. 

同时,我们也要清醒地认识到,我国仍然是世界上最大的发展中国家,人均GDP仍略低于世界平均水平,与主要发达国家相比,还有较大差距。我国处于社会主义初级阶段的基本国情没有变,发展不平衡不充分问题依然突出,城乡区域发展差距还比较大,创新能力仍不适应高质量发展的要求。要实现经济社会发展的远景目标,把我国建设成社会主义现代化国家,还需要艰苦奋斗,不懈努力。谢谢。

At the same time, we should also clearly recognize that China isstill the world's largest developing country, and its per capita GDP is stillslightly lower than the global average. Compared with the major developedcountries, China still lags far behind. The basic reality that China is stillin the primary stage of socialism has not changed. The issue of unbalanced andinadequate development is still prominent, and there is still a large gapbetween the development of urban and rural areas. Meanwhile, innovation capacitystill fails to meet the requirements for high-quality development. In order toachieve long-term economic and social development goals and build China into amodern socialist country, we still need to work hard and make unremittingefforts. Thank you.

路透社记者:

Reuters:

2020年社会消费品零售总额下降3.9%,12月份的增长也比较乏力,这是不是和疫情情况有关?请问2021年会出台哪些刺激消费的政策?2021年投资和出口的情况会如何?谢谢。

In 2020, China's total retail sales of consumer goods dropped by3.9% and growth in December was also weak. Does this have to do with theCOVID-19 epidemic? Will China introduce any measures to stimulate consumptionin 2021? How do you predict the rates for investment and export in 2021? Thankyou.

宁吉喆:

NingJizhe:

你及时阅读了数据,提出了问题。正像你所指出的,消费在经济当中起到基础的作用。过去一年,社会消费品零售总额从全年看仍然是负增长,但是三四季度已经转正,特别是四季度社会消费品零售总额增长达到了4.6%,这个速度已经开始接近前几年的正常水平。12月份社会消费零售总额增速略有一点波动,确实也是受到几个地方散发疫情的影响。但是从整个大势来看,我国消费在生产供给不断增强的同时,还是能够发挥对经济发展的基础性因素。从2021年的情况看,支撑经济稳定恢复的有利因素是比较多的,我国经济有基础也有条件延续稳健复苏态势。虽然当前疫情防控“外防输入、内防反弹”的压力仍然较大,但我国经济长期向好的基本面没有改变,而且正在显现。

I can see that you read our statistics before raising thisquestion. As you know, consumption plays a basic role in economic development.In the past year, the total retail sales of consumer goods registered negativegrowth but its growth in Q3 and Q4 had trended positive. In Q4, rates grew by4.6%, which is close to normal levels in recent years. The fluctuations inDecember were caused by the resurgence of COVID-19 cases in several domesticlocations. But if we look at the whole picture, as production supplies continueto increase, domestic consumption can still play a basic role in boostingeconomic development. In 2021, we can see many positive factors supportingstable economic recovery. China's economy is well-conditioned to maintain itsrecovery momentum. Though we are facing relatively high pressure in preventinginbound cases and a domestic resurgence, our economy is still growing on strongfundamentals.

一是物质基础雄厚。目前我国农业基础地位是巩固的,粮食总产量连续6年都超过1.3万亿斤。工业主导作用增强,工业增加值超过30万亿元。基础设施日益完善,交通通信、能源水利保障作用增强。这是2021年我们应对各类风险挑战、支持经济持续恢复,确保人民基本生活的强大物质基础。

First, we have a solid material foundation. Agriculturalfoundations are growing stronger, with total grain output exceeding 1.3trillion jin (650 million tons) for six consecutive years. Meanwhile, theindustry is playing a more dominant role in the national economy, and our totalindustry added value is over 30 trillion yuan. Infrastructure is also improvingas transportation, telecommunications, energy, and the water conservationsector play a more important role in supporting the economy. These are strongmaterial foundations for us to guard against various risks, maintain steadyeconomic recovery, and ensure the basic well-being of the Chinese people.

二是产业体系完整。经过多年努力,我国已建成了世界上最为完整的产业体系,是全世界唯一拥有联合国产业分类中全部工业门类的国家。货物贸易总量居世界第一,是120多个国家和地区的最大贸易伙伴。过去一年,面对疫情的冲击,产业体系显示出强大的组织调整能力和韧性。2021年,面临不确定性的考验,我国完整的生产协作体系和配套能力将会继续发挥有效作用。

Second, we have a complete industrial system. After years ofeffort, China has become the only country in the world to obtain all industrialcategories listed in the United Nations industrial classification. Our totaltrade in goods ranks first in the world, and the country is the largest tradingpartner of 120 countries and regions. In the past year, in the face ofCOVID-19, China's industrial system has demonstrated a strong ability forself-adjustment and resilience. In 2021, China's complete productioncoordination system and its supporting capacity are bound to play a majoreffective role in dealing with various uncertainties.

三是市场空间广阔。我国14亿人口、4亿多中等收入群体、960万平方公里国土面积,拥有全球最具成长性的内需市场,超大规模市场的优势是明显的,随着人均收入水平的提高,消费结构的调整升级将拉动产业结构、投资结构和区域经济结构调整升级,为经济持续发展注入内生动力。新的一年,无论国际风云如何变化,广阔的国内市场都是我们发展的立足之地和回旋空间。

Third, we have a hugemarket. With a population of 1.4 billion people, including a middle-incomepopulation of 400 million, and a total land area of 9.6 million squarekilometers, China boasts the world's fastest-growing domestic market. Theadvantages of the huge market are obvious. With increased per capita income,the structural adjustment and upgrades in consumption will drive upgrades tothe industrial, investment, and regional economic structures, providing a hugeforce for sustainable economic development. In 2021, our vast domestic marketwill provide enough room for economic growth and manoeuvre.

四是科技实力强大,我国科技创新日趋活跃,研发投入总量已达到世界第二,创新成果竞相涌现,已成为世界最大的国际专利申请国,高技术产业和战略性新兴产业加快发展。我们的新兴产业发展势头良好,无论是前几年经济下行压力,还是去年疫情冲击,这点都没有改变。产业的数字化、数字的产业化趋势明显,反过来也促进更多线上消费的实现。这是我国经济高质量发展的创新驱动力。

Fourth, we have built strong technological power. China is provingits strong momentum in technological innovations, boasting the world'ssecond-largest R&D investment and a top filer of international patents,both driven by the development of hi-tech industries and emerging industrieswith strategic importance. China's emerging industry maintains strong momentumdespite the economic headwinds over the past several years as well as theCOVID-19 pandemic. The industry digitalization and the industrialization of thedigital economy are also in full swing, which in turn will boost additionalonline consumption. These are the driving forces of China's high-qualityeconomic development.

五是人力资源丰富。我国劳动力供给规模居世界前列,16-59岁的劳动年龄人口近9亿,技能人才达到2亿人,研发人员总量也居世界首位。这为我国经济高质量发展提供了源源不断的人力资本和智力支撑。

Fifth, we have abundant human resources. China has the world'slargest workforce, with nearly 900 million people of working age (16 to 59years old), 200 million skilled workers, and the world's largest population ofresearch personnel. These also give continuous intellectual support to thecountry's high-quality development.

特别是党的坚强领导、显著的制度优势是经济行稳致远、社会安定的根本保证。党中央高瞻远瞩、统揽全局的驾驭能力,中国特色社会主义能够集中力量办大事的制度优势,日臻成熟的经济治理能力,精准有效的宏观调控政策,是统筹疫情防控和经济社会发展不断取得成效的制胜法宝。

The strong CPC leadership and China's institutional advantagesensure stable and long-term economic development and social stability. The CPCCentral Committee's far-sightedness and its sound decisions overall, theinstitutional advantage of socialism with Chinese characteristics that enablesus to pool all resources to complete major missions, the sophistication ofChina's economic governance, and precise and effective macro-control policiesare the keys to successfully preventing and controlling COVID-19 while makingachievements in socio-economic development.

尽管近期一些地方疫情散发,但总的看,对经济的影响是可控的。当前,全球新冠肺炎疫情扩散蔓延的态势仍在持续,近期国内一些地方出现散发病例乃至局部聚集性疫情,这对经济持续恢复带来了一些不确定性。你刚才讲12月份市场零售增速回落,也是一个反映。

Despite the recent COVID-19 resurgence in some areas, the impactof COVID-19 on the economy is generally controllable. As the pandemic continuesto spread around the globe, China's outbreak of locally-transmitted cases andcluster infections is posing some uncertainties to economic recovery, which isreflected in the slowed growth rate of December's retail sales.

总的看,我们有条件、有能力控制疫情蔓延。前期疫情防控积累了丰富经验,发生疫情的地方迅速采取行动有利于遏制疫情的扩散,推行科学防控手段有利于控制新冠病毒的传播,实行精细化防控举措降低了对生产生活的影响。目前,大多数地区生产生活正常运转,经济运行总体稳定,疫情影响可控。当然,保持经济运行在合理区间,需要继续努力。你刚才问到今年的投资政策、消费政策,都会按照党的十九届五中全会和中央经济工作会议的要求,更加精准有效实施财政、货币、就业、投资、消费、区域、产业等政策,克服前进道路上的困难和问题,把经济运行保持在合理的区间,实现中国经济的持续健康发展。

Generally speaking, we havethe abilities and the conditions to contain the spread of COVID-19. Thanks toour rich experience in COVID-19 response in the early stage of the pandemic, wehave adopted swift, effective, and scientific measures to contain the spread ofthe coronavirus in areas experiencing a resurgence in COVID-19 and reduce theimpact of lockdown measures on production and life. Currently, production andlife in most regions are back on track, economic operations are generallystable, and the impact of COVID-19 is controllable. Of course, we will continueto work hard and keep economic operations within a reasonable range. Inresponse to your question about our investment and consumption policies, wewill follow the instructions put forward during the fifth plenary session ofthe 19th CPC Central Committee as well as the Central Economic Work Conference,implement our financial, monetary, employment, investment, consumption,regional, and industrial policies more precisely, overcome difficulties thatarise, keep economic operations within a proper range, and promote thesustainable and healthy development of China's economy.

总的看,2020年,消费发挥了基础性作用,投资发挥了关键性作用。全年的固定资产投资、三次产业投资、社会领域投资、基础设施投资都实现了正增长。在新的一年,关于投资政策,还是要继续发挥投资补短板的作用。中央经济工作会议都作了部署,确保投资强弱项、上水平发挥应有的作用。

In general, consumption and investment played key roles ineconomic development in 2020. The overall fixed-asset investment, investment inthe tertiary industry, and investment in the social sector and infrastructuresall achieved positive growth. In 2021, we will continue to increase ourinvestment in areas of weakness. Following the instructions of the CentralEconomic Work Conference, we will ensure to balance investment in both strong andweak areas and boost the overall quality of our investment.

进出口去年是逆势增长,前两天海关总署已经专门举行了新闻发布会,去年前两个季度进出口形势受到疫情冲击影响很大,后来采取了一系列有效的措施。另外,我刚才介绍的这些优势,我们的产业体系比较完整,保证了畅通的物流体系,满足世界上一些国家对防疫产品、居家生活和办公用品的需求,所以三四季度进出口就回升了,全年难得实现了正增长。今年疫情仍然在世界上蔓延,世界各国对防疫产品、对生产生活用品的需求还是比较大的,我们在立足内需的情况下,还要适应国际需求,拓展外需,预计进出口有望延续目前态势。谢谢。

Imports and exports buckedthe trend and increased last year. The GACC held a press conference two daysago to introduce the situation. Imports and exports in the first two quartersof last year were severely affected by COVID-19 but a series of effectivemeasures were later adopted to tackle the issues. In addition, China'srelatively complete industrial system ensures logistics services and meets thedemands of epidemic prevention products, household goods, and office suppliesfor some countries in the world. Because of the advantages that I have justintroduced, China's imports and exports rebounded in the third and fourthquarters and the economy achieved positive growth throughout the year. Thisyear, the coronavirus has continued to spread globally and nations around theworld have relatively large demands for epidemic prevention products and dailynecessities. Based on boosting domestic demand, we should also meet the needsof foreign markets and expand external demand. It is expected that imports andexports will maintain current momentum. Thank you.

香港紫荆杂志记者:

HongKong Bauhinia Magazine:

2020年,我国在高质量发展方面进展如何?有哪些具体表现?在您看来,2021年推动高质量发展有哪些着力点?谢谢。

How is the progress in China's high-quality development in 2020?Could you elaborate on that? In your opinion, what is the focus of promotinghigh-quality development in 2021? Thank you.

宁吉喆:

NingJizhe:

你的问题水平很高。去年,新冠疫情对经济的增长和发展带来一些影响。但是,各地区各部门在稳就业保民生,稳住经济基本盘的同时,坚定不移地贯彻新发展理念和推动高质量发展,持续深化改革,扩大开放,培育壮大新动能,经济增长的质量和效益稳步提升。

This is a good question. Last year, the coronavirus affected oureconomic growth and development. However, while stabilizing employment,ensuring people's livelihoods, and maintaining the fundamentals of the economy,all regions and departments have been unswervingly implementing new developmentconcepts and promoting high-quality development, continuing to deepen reforms,expanding opening up, and cultivating new drivers of growth. The quality andefficiency of economic growth have been steadily improved.

一是创新的第一动力持续增强。新产业、新业态、新产品快速发展,2020年1-11月份,规模以上战略性新兴服务业企业营业收入同比增长8.6%,快于规模以上服务业7个百分点。实物商品网上零售额比重达到了24.9%,比上年提高;工业机器人、新能源汽车、集成电路的产量都是高位增长,分别为19.1%、17.3%、16.2%。科技型中小企业、高新技术企业的数量突破了20万家;刚才我介绍的上天下海的科学探测都实现了重大突破。

First, innovation, the primary driving force of development,continues to be stimulated. New industries, new forms of business, and newproducts are developing rapidly. From January to November in 2020, theoperating income of strategic emerging service enterprises above the designatedsize increased by 8.6% year-on-year, 7 percentage points higher than that ofthe service industry above the designated size. The proportion of online retailsales of physical goods reached 24.9%, up 4.2% over the previous year; theoutput of industrial robots, new energy vehicles, and integrated circuits allachieved rapid growth and increased by 19.1%, 17.3%, and 16.2%, respectively.The number of small and medium-sized tech enterprises and high-tech enterpriseshas exceeded 200,000. Finally, major breakthroughs have been made in thescientific exploration of space and the sea, as I mentioned earlier.

二是协调内生的特点日益凸显。产业结构转型迈出新步伐,全年装备制造业、高技术制造业增加值分别增长6.6%、7.1%,高于全部规模以上工业3.8和4.3个百分点。第三产业增加值占国内生产总值的比重为54.5%,比上年提高0.2个百分点。需求结构的调整取得新的进展,高技术产业、社会领域的投资均比上年增长10%以上,为10.6%、11.9%,分别快于全部投资7.7、9个百分点。城乡区域发展的差距继续缩小,农村居民收入增长快于城镇居民收入增长,常住人口城镇化率超过60%。

Second, coordination has increasingly become an endogenousfeature. New steps have been taken in the transformation of the industrialstructure. The added value of the equipment manufacturing industry and thehigh-tech manufacturing industry increased by 6.6% and 7.1%, respectively, 3.8and 4.3 percentage points higher than that of all industries above thedesignated size. The added value of the tertiary industry accounted for 54.5%of China's GDP, up 0.2 percentage point over the previous year. New progresshas been made in the adjustment of the demand structure. Investment inhigh-tech industries and social fields climbed by more than 10% over theprevious year to 10.6% and 11.9%, which are 7.7 and 9 percentage points higherthan the total investment, respectively. The gap between urban and ruraldevelopment continued to narrow. The income of rural residents has grown fasterthan that of urban residents, and the urbanization rate of permanent residentshas exceeded 60%.

三是绿色发展的底色相当亮丽。节能降耗取得成效,全年单位GDP能耗下降,天然气、水核风光电等清洁能源的消费量占能源消费总量的比重比上年提高了1个百分点。环境质量也明显改善,全年全国337个地级及以上城市PM2.5浓度比上年下降8.3%。水环境方面,1940个国家地表水考核断面中,水质优良(Ⅰ-Ⅲ类)断面比例提高了8.5个百分点。

Third, we made major headway toward green development. Energyconservation and consumption reduction efforts have delivered results. Theannual energy consumption per unit of GDP has dropped. The proportion ofconsumption of natural gas, water, nuclear, wind, solar energy, electricity,and other clean energies has increased by 1 percentage point over the previousyear. The environment has also improved significantly. The PM2.5 concentrationof 337 cities at or above the prefecture level across the country dropped by8.3% compared with the previous year. In terms of water environment, among the1940 national surface water assessment sections, the proportion of water withgood quality (Grade I-III) increased by 8.5 percentage points.

四是开放必由之路十分开阔。2020年我们隆重庆祝深圳等经济特区建立40周年,上海浦东开发开放30周年,先行先试变成了示范引领,激发出经济发展的蓬勃动力。在全球贸易和跨境投资萎缩的背景下,我国货物进出口总额和实际利用外资双双实现正增长,全国实际使用外资额最后一个月的数还没有正式公布,1—11月份增长6.3%,对稳住经济基本盘发挥了重要作用。过去一年,海南自由贸易港建设也在加快推动,我们与“一带一路”沿线国家的经贸交往活跃,《区域全面经济伙伴关系协定》(RCEP)正式签署,中欧投资协定谈判完成,这些都为开放发展提供了强大的动力。

Fourth, the path to opening up has become broader. In 2020, wecelebrated the 40th anniversary of the establishment of Shenzhen SpecialEconomic Zone and other special economic zones, and the 30th anniversary of thedevelopment and opening up of Shanghais Pudong district. Pilot projects areexemplary and stimulate economic development. In the context of shrinking worldtrade and cross-border investment, China's total import and export of goods andthe actual use of foreign capital have both achieved positive growth. Theactual use of foreign capital during the last month of 2020 has not beenofficially announced. From January to November, the figure increased by 6.3%.The actual use of foreign capital has played a major role in stabilizingeconomic fundamentals. In the past year, the construction of the Hainan FreeTrade Port has also been accelerated. We have had active economic and tradeexchanges with countries along the Belt and Road. The Regional ComprehensiveEconomic Partnership Agreement (RCEP) was officially signed and the China-EUInvestment Agreement negotiations were completed. These all provide a strongimpetus for open development.

五是共享根本目的更加鲜明。脱贫攻坚成效显著,既消除了绝对贫困,又消除了区域性整体贫困。就业形势总体稳定,调查失业率已恢复到上年同期水平,全国城镇调查失业率2月份最高的时候达到了6.2%,12月份降到了5.2%。居民生活质量显著提升,耐用消费品拥有量快速增长。多层次社会保障体系加快构建,教育、文化、卫生等社会事业繁荣发展,基本公共服务保障能力持续加强。

Fifth, sharing as the fundamental goal has been furtheremphasized. Poverty alleviation has achieved remarkable results. We haveeliminated both absolute poverty and overall regional poverty. The employmentsituation is generally stable, and the surveyed unemployment rate has returnedto the level of the same period of the previous year. The nationwide surveyedunemployment rate in urban areas peaked in February, reaching 6.2%, but inDecember, the number dropped to 5.2%. The quality of the life of residents hasimproved significantly, and the ownership of consumer durables has grownrapidly. The construction of a multi-level social security system has beenaccelerated. The development of education, culture, health, and other socialsectors have been stimulated and the ability to guarantee basic public serviceshas been continuously strengthened.

2021年是“十四五”规划的第一年,“十四五”规划的主题就是推动高质量发展。要坚持把发展作为党执政兴国的第一要务,坚定不移贯彻创新、协调、绿色、开放、共享新发展理念,不断巩固疫情防控和经济稳定恢复发展态势,努力保持经济运行在合理区间,为高质量发展创造有利的环境,着力提升发展的质量和效益,实现发展质量、结构、规模、速度、效益、安全相统一,把高质量发展贯穿到经济社会的各个领域和全过程。谢谢。

2021 is the first year of the 14th Five-Year Plan, the theme ofwhich is to promote high-quality development. We must continue to takedevelopment as the Party's top priority in governing and rejuvenating thecountry, unswervingly implement the new development concepts of innovation,coordination, greenness, openness, and sharing, and continue to consolidateepidemic prevention and control and restore economic stability and boostdevelopment. We strive to maintain economic operations within a reasonablerange and create a favorable environment for high-quality development. Focusingon improving the quality and efficiency of development, we will seekcoordinated development of economic quality, structure, scale, speed,efficiency, and safety, and integrate high-quality development concepts intoall fields and levels of economic society. Thank you.

彭博社记者:

Bloomberg:

有两个比较技术性的问题,第一,进出口、消费和投资这三项对于经济增长的拉动情况分别怎样?第二,中国的人口出生率什么时候能够公布?谢谢。

We have two technical questions. I'm wondering what the breakdownis for the contribution to growth from net exports, consumption, andinvestment? Were also interested in when China's birth rate figure will bereleased? Thank you.

宁吉喆:

NingJizhe:

刚才讲到投资、消费、进出口被称为三驾马车,你这个问题问得更加直接。我们明天会公布三驾马车情况。判断三大需求对经济的影响,我首先要向你介绍总量。

Just now I mentioned that investment, consumption, and exports arereferred to as a troika of growth, and you brought up a direct question. Wewill announce the breakdown of the troika tomorrow. To evaluate the impact ofthe three major demands on the economy, I would like to first introduce thetotal amount. 

第一,从总量看,2020年最终消费率接近55%,2011-2019年,我国的消费率平均为53.4%,2020年尽管受到新冠肺炎疫情的冲击,但最终消费支出占GDP的比重仍然达到54.3%,高于资本形成总额11.2个百分点,为近年来的较高水平,消费仍然是经济稳定运行的压舱石。

First, in terms of total volume, the final consumption rate in2020 was close to 55%. From 2011 to 2019, China's consumption rate averaged53.4%. Despite the impact of the coronavirus in 2020, the final consumptionexpenditure still accounted for 54.3% of GDP, 11.2 percentage points higherthan the total capital formation, the highest proportion in recent years.Consumption is still the anchor of a stable economy.

第二,从增量看,消费对经济增长的拉动作用也是逐季增强的。随着我国经济运行稳步恢复,消费对经济增长的拉动力度逐季回升。四季度,社会消费品零售总额同比增长4.6%,增速比三季度加快了3.7个百分点;最终消费增长拉动经济增长2.6个百分点,比三季度上升了1.2个百分点。随着疫情进一步得到有效控制,消费需求的动力也将进一步恢复。货物与服务贸易净出口在过去一年对经济增长的贡献率仍然是正的。现在衡量进出口对经济发展的作用,不能光看增速或贡献率,也要看总量。增量首先是正增长,正的贡献因素,从总量上看,进出口总额相当于GDP的比重,中国在各个大国当中是比较高的,占到30%以上。大国一般都是以内需为主,在开放的条件下,实现经济循环,我们这个比重比美国、日本这些经济大国还要高。所以综合两个方面来看,进出口的作用还是相当重要的。

Second, from the perspective of incremental growth, the role ofconsumption in stimulating economic growth has also increased each quarter.With the steady recovery of China's economic operations, consumptions drivingforce on economic growth has increased quarter by quarter. In the fourthquarter, the total retail sales of consumer goods increased by 4.6% year onyear, and the growth rate was 3.7 percentage points higher than that in thethird quarter; and final consumption growth drove economic growth by 2.6percentage points, an increase of 1.2 percentage points from the third quarter.As the epidemic is more effectively controlled, the momentum of consumer demandwill be further restored. The contribution rate of net exports of the trade ingoods and services to economic growth during the past year had still beenpositive. Now, in order to measure the impact of imports and exports oneconomic development, we should not only look at the growth rate orcontribution rate, but also the total amount. First of all, incremental growthhas been a positive contributing factor. Looking at the total amount, the totalimport and export volumes are equivalent to the proportion of China's GDP,which is relatively high among major countries, accounting for more than 30%.Major countries generally focus on domestic demand. Under open conditions, inorder to achieve economic circulation, China's proportion is higher than thatof strong economies such as the United States and Japan. Therefore, consideringthe two aspects, the role of imports and exports is still relatively important

经济增长要依靠内需,符合经济发展规律,构建双循环的新发展格局需要在开放中更好发挥国内超大规模市场的优势。从我国的情况看,发挥消费基础性作用仍然有较大的提升空间。最终消费支出对经济增长的平均贡献率,2013-2019年为60%左右,如果和发达经济体70%、80%的水平相比,还是有较大的提升空间。发展阶段不一样,所以必须提高居民消费能力,完善消费政策,改进消费环境,开拓更多的消费增长点。发挥投资的关键性作用也很重要,2020年投资在促进经济恢复中发挥了积极作用。下一步,还要加大有效投资的力度,把我国较高的国民储蓄率转化为实际投资的成果,同时必须坚定不移扩大开放,更好地发挥三驾马车在构建双循环新发展格局中的积极作用。

Economic growth depends on domestic demand, which conforms to thelaws of economic development. The construction of a new dual-circulationdevelopment pattern requires better use of the advantages of the domesticsuper-large-scale market in China's opening-up. Looking at China's situation,there is still a lot of room for improvement in utilizing the fundamental roleof consumption. The average contribution rate of final consumption expenditureto economic growth was around 60% from 2013 to 2019. If compared with thelevels of 70% and 80% for developed economies, there is still much room forimprovement. As the development stages are different, it is necessary toimprove people's consumption abilities, improve consumption policies, improvethe consumption environment, and find more areas for consumption growth.Utilizing the key role of investment is also very important. In 2020,investment played an active role in promoting economic recovery. Going forward,we must increase the intensity of effective investment and transform China'srelatively high national savings rate into actual investment results. At thesame time, we must unswervingly expand opening-up and make better use of theactive role of the "three drivers of growth" consumption, exports andinvestment in building a new dual-circulation development pattern.

你刚才还问到人口的问题,全国第七次人口普查去年11月1日全面展开,700多万普查员深入社区、城乡,经过一段时间的努力,现场登记已经完成,目前在进行质量抽查核实和初步汇总过程中。人口普查是十年一次,第六次人口普查也是在11月份进行的,于第二年4月份公布。今年人口普查的结果也将在4月份向全社会公布,今天提供不了数据,请理解。

Just now, you asked about the population. The seventh nationalpopulation census was launched on Nov. 1 last year. More than 7 million censustakers went into communities, urban and rural areas. After much hard work,on-site registration has now been completed and the process of carrying outrandom quality checks and verifications, as well as preliminary summary is nowunderway. The census is conducted once every 10 years, and the previous sixthcensus was also conducted in November, with the results released in April ofthe following year. The results of this year's census will also be announced tothe whole society in April. As such, we cannot provide the data today. I hopeyou can understand.

党的十九届五中全会对人口发展战略和政策都提出了五年要求,统计部门通过人口普查和日常调查,把人口数据搞得真实、准确、可靠,为制定人口发展的战略规划政策提供科学依据。谢谢。

The fifth plenary session of the 19th CPC Central Committee hasput forward requirements for population development strategies and policies forthe next five years. The statistics departments will ensure the population datais true, accurate and reliable through population censuses and daily surveys,and provide a scientific basis for formulating strategic planning policies forpopulation development. Thank you.

CNBC记者:

CNBC:

对于今年经济考虑到的一些重要挑战,比如去年消费的情况,消费在中国的发展中,有一些经济学家希望占更多,更多发挥能力。疫情在国内或者国外的蔓延,有很多分析,会产生对中国经济的担忧。您怎么看这些?谢谢。

In terms of the economy this year, considering some importantchallenges, such as last year's consumption situation, some economists hopethat consumption will account for a bigger part of China's development and playa larger role. There has also been much analysis into the spread of thepandemic at home and abroad, which has raised some concerns about the Chineseeconomy. What is your take on these issues? Thank you.

宁吉喆:  

Ning Jizhe:

面临全球疫情蔓延,增强风险忧患意识是极为必要的。现在遍观全球,疫情在一些国家二次、三次反弹,国际环境的不确定性是在加大的。国内经济恢复的基础也尚不牢固。总的指标是稳定回升、好于预期的,但是有一些结构性指标不是那么理想,有一些问题不是短期内可以解决的,都必须坚持稳中求进的工作总基调,继续促进经济稳定复苏,保持在合理区间。我们既要看到挑战、困难、风险的一面,也要看到机遇、有利和希望的一面,挑战是前所未有的,机遇也是前所未有的,总体上看,机遇仍然是大于挑战的。从去年宏观调控和企业恢复的情况看,有一些挑战一旦战胜了就会转化为机遇。比如,应对新冠疫情本来是一个很大的挑战,由于我们坚持科技创新、改革开放,各种市场主体都发挥了作用,发展了数字经济、创业创新,这就变成了机遇。网上零售额,包括线上的教育、医疗等,都发展得很好,线上和线下结合,优势就更大了。全球疫情本来也是一个很大的挑战,特别是我们现在外防输入、内防反弹的压力很大。受国际疫情影响,使得对防疫产品,包括口罩、防护服、居家办公用品等都有很大的需求。我们有完整的产业体系,有国际物流的保证,促进物流的畅通,所以使得挑战也变成了机遇,实现了贸易的正增长。不光是数据,最主要还满足了世界人民抗疫的需要,救命大于天;不光是经济意义,还有人道主义等,发挥了对全球的积极作用。我们国内更是坚持人民至上、生命至上,所以要把经济数据和挑战、机遇结合起来分析。我国仍处在发展的战略机遇期,面对挑战,要发挥优势、克服困难,实现经济的持续恢复、稳定运行和健康发展。谢谢。

Facing the spread of the global pandemic, increasing the awarenessof risks and concerns is extremely important. Looking around the world, thepandemic has rebounded two or three times in some countries, and uncertaintiesare growing internationally. The foundation for the recovery of the domesticeconomy is not yet solid. The overall indicators are picking up steadily andare better than expected, but some structural indicators are not ideal, whilevarious problems cannot be solved in the short term. We must adhere to thegeneral tone for work, which is seeking progress while maintaining stability,continue to promote stable economic recovery, and keep it within a reasonablerange. We must look from the aspect of challenges, difficulties and risks, aswell as the aspect of opportunities, advantages and hope. The challenges areunprecedented, as are the opportunities. On the whole, the opportunities arestill greater than the challenges. Judging from the situation of macro-controland corporate recovery last year, some challenges will be transformed intoopportunities once they have been overcome. For example, responding to theCOVID-19 pandemic was originally a big challenge. However, due to our insistenceon technological innovation and reform and opening-up, various market entitieshave played their parts, and development of the digital economy,entrepreneurship and innovation have become opportunities. Online retail sales,including online education and medical care, have developed well, while thecombination of online and offline businesses has created even greateradvantages.

The global pandemic is also a big challenge, and especially now weare under huge pressure to prevent imported infections and a domesticresurgence. Due to the pandemics impact, there has been large demand foranti-pandemic products, including face masks, protective suits and home officesupplies. We have a complete industrial system and guaranteed internationallogistics, and are promoting the smooth flow of logistics, so that challengeshave become opportunities, and positive trade growth has been achieved. We aresatisfied by the data, but more importantly, we are also meeting the needs ofpeople around the world in fighting the pandemic. Saving lives is moreimportant than anything else. This is not only significant for the economy, butalso for humanity. We have played a positive role in the world. In China, weinsist on putting people and life first, so we must combine economic data withchallenges and opportunities in our analysis. Our country is still in a periodof strategic opportunities for development. Faced by challenges, we must givefull play to our advantages and overcome difficulties to achieve sustainedeconomic recovery, stable operations and healthy development. Thank you.

香港商报记者:

HongKong Commercial Daily:

2020年民生领域的保障成效怎么样?全国居民人均可支配收入增长乏力,对此您怎么看?另外,城市与农村不同收入水平群体之间收入有什么变化?谢谢。

What progress has been made in ensuring people's livelihoods in2020? The growth of China's per capita disposable income has been weak, how doyou regard this situation? What changes have there been in income levels inurban and rural areas? Thank you

宁吉喆:

NingJizhe:

民生大于天,是最重要的领域。过去一年,民生的保障是有力有效的,突出表现在三个比较重要的方面,一是就业扩大,二是价格总体稳定,三是收入继续增长。前面我介绍了不少就业的数据,应该说就业情况达到了预期目标,好于预期。在经济恢复和就业优先政策的支撑下,城镇新增就业1186万人,比预期900万人的目标增长了不少,城镇调查失业率和登记失业率都在预期目标之下,说明去年把稳就业、保就业作为宏观调控的首要目标,坚持实施就业优先政策,各级政府、各市场主体都起到了重要的作用。

People's livelihoods are the top priority. Last year, notableresults were achieved in ensuring people's wellbeing, as demonstrated in threekey aspects: first, job growth continued to expand; second, prices remainedgenerally stable; and third, incomes continued to rise. As I said before, weachieved the year's employment rate target, and the employment situation wasbetter than expected. With support from economic recovery and employment-firstpolices, the number of newly employed people in urban areas totaled 11.86million in 2020, well exceeding the goal of 9 million. The surveyedunemployment rate and registered unemployment rate, both for urban areas, werelower than expected. It shows that governments at all levels and marketentities have all played a vital role in stabilizing and ensuring employment asthe main macro-regulation target, and implementing the employment-firstpolicies.

再就是物价总体稳定。去年年初受到多种因素的影响,食品价格,特别是猪肉价格上涨比较快,在疫情条件下,各地方、各部门、各市场主体一起努力增加食品的供应,特别是生猪生产流通和消费保障。经过大半年的努力,到四季度,生猪存栏、出栏都得到明显改善,我们加大了猪肉的进口,保障了国内的供应,使得猪肉价格四季度明显回落。猪肉价格去年年初涨幅超过100%,之前连续上涨19个月,到了10-12月份,同比分别下降2.8%、12.5%、1.3%,同比是下降的趋势。整个食品价格也得到了有效控制,呈回落态势。

In addition, consumer prices remained generally stable. Affectedby many factors, food prices, especially the price of pork, rose quicklystarting around the beginning of last year. Faced with the epidemic, localgovernments, departments and market entities worked together to boost foodsupplies, in particular guaranteeing the production, distribution, and supplyof hogs. After more than half a year of efforts, the number of hogs bothavailable for slaughter and supplied to the market improved significantly inthe fourth quarter. We increased pork imports and ensured domestic supply,resulting in a significant drop in prices during the fourth quarter. Porkprices rose by more than 100% at the beginning of last year, and increased for19 consecutive months. Between October and December, pork prices then droppedby 2.8%, 12.5% and 1.3%, respectively. Food prices on the whole have also beeneffectively controlled, showing a downward trend.

还有居民收入增长好于预期,实现了与经济增长的基本同步。一至四季度,全国居民人均可支配收入累计实际增速分别为-3.9%、-1.3%、-0.6%、2.1%,逐季好转,全年实现了与经济增长率基本同步。居民收入增长有几个特点:一是居民转移净收入较快增长,带动了居民收入稳定增长。转移净收入反映了保底的政策,上调养老金、退休金标准,加大社会救济、临时救助,使得全国居民人均转移净收入全年增长了8.7%,其中居民人均养老金和离退休金增长了7.8%,社会救济和补助收入增长了18.7%,政策性生活补贴收入增长了12.7%。二是保就业的政策促进了工资收入的回升。包括强化稳岗就业、鼓励农村劳动力外出就业,全年全国居民人均工资性收入比上年增长4.3%,高于整个居民收入2.1%。农民工月均收入增长2.8%。三是市场主体带动了经营净收入由降转升。税费减免和金融支持政策,使得居民家庭经营状况有所好转。全年全国居民人均经营净收入增长了1.1%,前三季度的数还是下降的,受到疫情的影响比较大。

Personal income growth exceeded expectations and was basically instep with economic growth. The per capita disposable income in the fourquarters changed by -3.9%, -1.3%, -0.6% and 2.1% year on year in real terms,which was generally in step with economic growth. The main characteristics ofthe growth in residents' incomes can be seen from three aspects: First, nettransfer income of residents has grown quickly. This resulted from the policiesto ensure and improve people's basic livelihood, such as increasing the pensionfor retirees and strengthening social relief and temporary aid. The per capita nettransfer income of residents nationwide grew 8.7% year on year; per capitaold-age pension and retirement pension posted an 7.8% increase year on year;per capita income from social relief and subsidies grew 18.7%; and per capitaincome from policy-based living subsidies rose by 12.7%. Second, residents'income from salaries showed accelerated recovery through the policies ofensuring employment, including stabilizing employment and encouraging rurallabor to move to other areas for employment. The per capita salary-based incomeof residents increased by 4.3% year on year, which was higher than the growthrate of China’s per capita disposable income, which was 2.1%. The averagemonthly income of migrant workers also rose by 2.8% over the previous year. Third,market entities improved net operating income, moving from decline to growth.Thanks to the measures including reducing taxes and fees, and providingfinancial support, household operations improved. The per capita net operatingincome grew 1.1% year on year in 2020, despite decline during the first threequarters due to the epidemic.

关于第二个问题,城乡区域和不同群体收入差距有所改善。城乡居民收入差距继续缩小。刚才我已经介绍了,城乡居民人均可支配收入比值为2.56,比上年缩小0.08。西部地区居民收入增长快于东部。东部去年增长4.6%,西部增长6%,东西部地区居民收入相对差距缩小。低收入群体的增长快于全体。按居民五等分收入分组,全国居民低收入组人均可支配收入名义增长6.6%,增速高于全国居民名义增速1.9个百分点,其中农村低收入组人均可支配收入增长9.8%,增速高于全国居民平均水平5.1个百分点,所以从就业、物价、收入这方面统计的数字可以看出,民生保障政策有力有效,实际效果彰显。

As for your second question, the income gap between urban andrural residents as well as people from different social groups continued tonarrow. As I said before, the ratio between urban and rural residents percapita disposable income stood at 2.56, 0.08 lower than in 2019. The income ofresidents in western regions of the country grew by 6%, faster than 4.6% ineastern regions, showing that the income gap between different regions is alsonarrowing. The income growth rate of the low-income group was higher than thatof residents nationwide. The per capita disposable income of the low-incomegroup increased by 6.6% year on year in nominal terms, 1.9 percentage points higherthan that of residents nationwide. The per capita disposable income of thelow-income group in rural areas increased by 9.8% over the previous year, 5.1percentage points higher than that of residents nationwide. As such, data onjob creation, consumer prices and income show that the policies to ensure andimprove people's livelihoods have yielded positive results.

下一步,要进一步推动经济稳定恢复,加强重点群体就业帮扶,进一步稳定就业,做好保供稳价工作,加强困难群体基本生活保障,扎实做好保市场主体的工作,巩固城乡居民收入增长的基础,深化收入分配制度改革,推动居民收入差距继续缩小。谢谢。

In the next step, we will continue to promote steady economicrecovery and provide stronger employment support for key groups. We will take moremeasures to stabilize employment, ensure supply and price stability, andstrengthen basic living guarantees for disadvantaged groups. There should besolid progress in protecting market entities, sustaining the growth of urbanand rural personal income, deepening the reform of the income distributionsystem, and further narrowing the income gap between urban and rural residents.Thank you.

中国日报记者:

ChinaDaily:

请问宁局长,2020年三次产业均实现正增长,出现了哪些新情况和新特点?四季度工业生产是否已回到正常区间?谢谢。

My questions are for Mr. Ning. All three industries registeredpositive growth in 2020. What were the new situations and characteristicsencountered during the year? Did industrial production return to a normal rangein Q4? Thank you.

宁吉喆:

NingJizhe:

你这个题目反映了结论。2020年经过全国上下的努力,不仅实现了总体经济的正增长,而且三次产业也都实现了协同恢复发展。企业复工复产复商复市的水平,全年看是稳步提升的。

Your question is a request to provide a conclusion for 2020. Withnationwide efforts, we not only saw overall positive growth but alsocoordinated recovery and development in all three industries. Viewing the yearas a whole, the economy reopened in a steadily improving manner.

一是农业基础地位更加稳固。2020年,农业生产克服疫情冲击、洪涝灾害等影响,粮食生产再获丰收,生猪产能快速恢复,禽蛋奶产量稳定增长,农业生产好于预期。全年第一产业增加值同比增长3%,从历年情况看,3%在农业就是一个比较好的增速。分季度看,一季度为-3.2%,二三四季度分别达到了3.3%、3.9%、4.1%。现代农业发展也比较好,选育出多个亩产超过1000公斤的超级稻新品种。

First, the position of agriculture as the foundation of theeconomy was further strengthened. Despite the COVID-19 epidemic and severeflooding, 2020 saw another bumper grain harvest. Hog production capacitiesrecovered quickly and the output of poultry, eggs, and milk increased steadily.Agricultural production was better than expected and the value added ofagriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, and fishery went up by 3% year on yeara good performance compared with previous years. Growth was -3.2% for the firstquarter, and 3.3, 3.9, and 4.1% for the second, third, and fourth quarters, respectively.Modern agriculture also performed well with several new super rice varietiesdeveloped, which have a yield of 1,000 kilograms per mu.

二是工业生产企稳回升。工业特别是制造业总体呈现稳步恢复、逐季回升的态势。2020年规模以上工业增加值比上年增长2.8%,其中制造业增长3.4%,制造业快于整个工业。分季度看,规模以上工业增加值一、二、三、四季度同比增速分别为-8.4%、4.4%、5.8%、7.1%,从季度看,回到了正常的增长水平。特别是支柱产业的支撑作用在增强,装备制造业加快恢复,2020年,装备制造业增加值比上年增长6.6%,高于全部规上工业平均水平3.8个点,对全部规上工业增长的贡献率达到了70.6%。三四季度均实现了两位数的增长。新产业新产品蓬勃发展。2020年,规模以上高技术制造业增加值比上年增加7.1%,快于全部规上工业4.3个百分点。很多产品大幅增产,比如3D打印设备、智能手表、民用无人机、集成电路圆片,这些新兴产品增速都达到1倍以上,市场需求很大。

Second, industrial production stabilized and rallied. Industry asa whole, especially manufacturing, saw steady recovery quarter by quarter. Thevalue added of industrial enterprises above designated size grew 2.8% year onyear in 2020. The growth for the manufacturing sector was 3.4%, faster than thegeneral growth. The growth for the first, second, third, and fourth quarter was-8.4, 4.4, 5.8, and 7.1%, respectively, and demonstrate that growth is alreadyreturning to normal. In particular, the role of pillar industries strengthenedand the recovery of equipment manufacturing quickened. In 2020, value added tothe equipment manufacturing sector grew 6.6% year on year, 3.8 percentagepoints higher than the general growth of industrial enterprises abovedesignated size. The sector contributed 70.6% of the overall growth ofindustrial enterprises above designated size. It reported double-digit growthin both the third and fourth quarters. New industries and products thrived. In2020, the value added of high-tech manufacturing enterprises above designatedsize expanded 7.1% from the previous year, 4.3 percentage points higher thanthe general growth of all industrial enterprises above designated size. Manyproducts saw their production increase significantly. New products such as 3Dprinting equipment, smart watches, civilian UAVs, and IC wafers saw theirproduction more than double in response to huge market demand.

三是服务业逐步恢复。服务业生产经营在年初大幅下滑后,呈现逐季恢复态势,主要指标持续改善,新动能表现活跃,市场信心不断增强。2020年,服务业增加值比上年增长2.1%,分季度看,一季度是-5.2%,二季度恢复到正增长,为1.9%,三季度为4.3%,四季度为6.7%。以新技术为引领的现代服务业领域增势较好。1-11月,规模以上高技术服务业、科技服务业、战略性新兴服务业营业收入增长分别达到12%、11%、8.6%。新业态新模式快速扩张。疫情催生了新型商业模式,推动了线上线下加速融合,5G、人工智能、物联网等新技术得到了广泛应用,短视频、直播带货等在线娱乐、在线营销逆势增长,远程办公、在线教育、互联网医疗等新模式成长壮大,为经济发展注入新的活力,今年还要继续发挥作用。

Third, the service industry gradually recovered. The sharp declineat the beginning of the year was followed by a gradual recovery quarter byquarter. Major indicators improved continuously, new growth drivers wereactive, and market confidence was constantly enhanced. In 2020, the value addedto the service industry grew 2.1% from the previous year. The gain for thefirst, second, third, and fourth quarters were -5.2, 1.9, 4.3, and 6.7%,respectively. The modern service industry, led by new technologies, showedrelatively good growth. From January to November, business revenues forhigh-tech service enterprises, technology service enterprises, and enterprisesof emerging service sectors of strategic importance increased 12, 11, and 8.6%,respectively. New business forms and models expanded quickly. The COVID-19epidemic gave rise to new business models. The integration of physical andonline stores picked up speed; new technologies such as 5G, AI, and Internet ofThings were used widely, and online entertainment and commerce like shortvideos and live commerce saw trend-bucking growth. Working from home, onlineeducation, online healthcare and other new business models boomed, injectingnew vitality into the economy and are bound to continue growing this year.

2020年12月份,规模以上工业增加值同比增长7.3%,达到了去年全年的高点。但是从近两年的月度增速来看,仍处于正常区间。比如2019年3月份,规模以上工业增加值月度增速也达到过8.5%。

In December 2020, the value added to industrial enterprises abovedesignated size increased 7.3% year on year, the highest growth of 2020.However, judging from the past two years, December was still within the normalrange. In March 2019, for example, the figure was 8.5%.

观察产业发展,传统产业的改造步伐也在加快,主要是适应需求,加大研发销售,促进服务业与工业、农业的融合。我们的产业发展前景广阔,还会迸发出新的潜力。谢谢。

The transformation of traditional industries also quickened tobetter meet demand, to further strengthen R&D and sales, and to promote theintegration of the service sector through industry and agriculture. China'sindustries have broad prospects and are bound to unleash new potential. Thankyou.

胡凯红:

HuKaihong:

发布会到此结束,谢谢宁局长,谢谢各位。

Today's press conference ends here. Thank you, Mr. Ning. Thankyou, everyone.


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