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CATTI备考:国家人权行动计划(2021-2025年)

国新办 2021-09-10 55次

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国家人权行动计划(2021-2025年)

Human Rights Action Plan of China (2021-2025)

中华人民共和国国务院新闻办公室

The State Council Information Office of the People’s Republic of China

2021年9月

September 2021

目录

Contents

导言

Introduction

一、经济、社会和文化权利

I. Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

(一)基本生活水准权利

1. Right to Basic Standard of Living

(二)工作权利

2. Right to Work

(三)社会保障权利

3. Right to Social Security

(四)财产权益

4. Right to Property

(五)健康权利

5. Right to Health  

(六)受教育权

6. Right to Education

(七)文化权利

7. Cultural Rights

二、公民权利和政治权利

II. Civil and Political Rights

(一)生命权

1. Right to Life

(二)人身权利

2. Personal Rights

(三)个人信息权益

3. Individuals’ Information Rights and Interests

(四)宗教信仰自由

4. Freedom of Religious Belief

(五)选举权和被选举权

5. Rights to Vote and to Stand for Election

(六)知情权和参与权

6. Rights to Be Informed and to Participate

(七)表达权和监督权

7. Rights to Be Heard and to Exercise Public Scrutiny

(八)获得公正审判的权利

8. Right to a Fair Trial

三、环境权利

III. Environmental Rights

(一)污染防治

1. Pollution Prevention and Control

(二)生态环境信息公开

2. Eco-Environmental Information Disclosure

(三)环境决策公众参与

3. Public Participation in Environmental Decision-Making

(四)环境公益诉讼和生态环境损害赔偿

4. Public Interest Environmental Litigation and Eco-Environmental Damage Compensation

(五)国土空间生态保护修复

5. Territorial Eco-Environmental Restoration and Protection

(六)应对气候变化

6. Response to Climate Change

四、特定群体权益保障

IV. Protecting the Rights of Particular Groups

(一)少数民族权益

1. Rights of Ethnic Minority Groups

(二)妇女权益

2. Women’s Rights

(三)儿童权益

3. Children’s Rights

(四)老年人权益

4. Rights of the Elderly

(五)残疾人权益

5. Rights of Persons with Disabilities

五、人权教育和研究

V. Education and Research on Human Rights

(一)学校人权教育

1. On-Campus Education

(二)人权研究

2. Specialized Research

(三)人权知识培训

3. Workplace Training

(四)人权知识普及

4. Promotional Activities for the General Public

六、参与全球人权治理

VI. Participating in Global Human Rights Governance

(一)履行国际人权条约义务

1. Fulfilling Obligations to International Human Rights Conventions

(二)深度参与联合国人权机构工作

2. Engaging Substantially in the Work of UN Human Rights Bodies

(三)开展建设性人权对话与合作

3. Joining in Constructive Dialogue and Cooperation on Human Rights

(四)为全球人权事业作出中国贡献

4. Contributing to the International Cause of Human Rights

七、实施、监督和评估

VII. Implementation, Supervision and Assessment

导言

Introduction

自2009年以来,中国先后制定实施了三期国家人权行动计划,人民的生活水平持续提升,各项权利得到更加切实保障,保护特定群体权益的政策和法律措施更加完善,人权法治保障进一步加强,全面参与全球人权治理,为世界人权事业发展作出了重要贡献。

China has formulated and implemented three action plans on human rights since 2009. During this period, the Chinese people have prospered, their rights have been better protected, the policies and legal measures protecting the rights of particular groups have improved, and the legal safeguards for human rights have been strengthened. China has fully participated in global human rights governance, making a major contribution to the international cause of human rights.

2021-2025年是中国在全面建成小康社会、实现第一个百年奋斗目标之后,乘势而上开启全面建设社会主义现代化国家新征程、向第二个百年奋斗目标进军的第一个五年。

The First Centenary Goal of building a moderately prosperous society in all respects has been realized. The five-year period from 2021 to 2025 will see China set out on a new journey towards the Second Centenary Goal of building a modern socialist country.

全面建设社会主义现代化国家是中国人权事业发展的新起点。中国已经进入高质量发展阶段,中国人权事业发展具备了多方面的优势和条件。同时,社会主要矛盾已经转化为人民日益增长的美好生活需要和不平衡不充分的发展之间的矛盾,人民对美好生活的向往更加强烈,对人权保障的要求不断提高。当今世界正经历百年未有之大变局,叠加全球新冠肺炎疫情大流行,国际环境日趋复杂,不稳定性不确定性明显增强,中国和世界人权事业发展面临新挑战。

This period will also witness a new beginning for human rights in China. China’s economy has moved to a stage of high-quality development, so the country now has more favorable conditions to advance the cause of human rights. The principal challenge facing Chinese society is now the gap between unbalanced and inadequate development and the people’s ever-growing expectation for a better life, including higher expectations for the protection of their human rights. In the international arena, the world today is undergoing a scale of change unseen in a century, exacerbated by the Covid-19 pandemic. The international situation is becoming ever more complex, with mounting instability and uncertainty. The cause of human rights is encountering new challenges not only in China but throughout the world.

在总结前三期国家人权行动计划执行情况和实施经验的基础上,依据国家尊重和保障人权的宪法原则,遵循《世界人权宣言》和有关国际人权公约精神,结合《中华人民共和国国民经济和社会发展第十四个五年规划和2035年远景目标纲要》,立足促进人权事业全面发展,中国政府制定《国家人权行动计划(2021-2025年)》(以下简称《行动计划》),确定2021-2025年尊重、保护和促进人权的阶段性目标和任务。

The Chinese government has reviewed the implementation of the previous three human rights action plans and summarized the experience gained. Now it presents the Human Rights Action Plan of China (2021-2025) (the Action Plan) to define the objectives and tasks of respecting, protecting and promoting human rights in the period from 2021 to 2025.

This Action Plan adheres to the constitutional principle of respecting and protecting human rights, and the Outline for the 14th Five-Year Plan for Economic and Social Development and Long-Range Objectives Through the Year 2035. It follows the spirit embodied in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other international human rights conventions.

制定和实施《行动计划》的指导思想是:坚持以习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想为指导,坚持以人民为中心的发展思想,坚持人民幸福生活是最大的人权,将促进人的全面发展、全体人民共同富裕作为人权事业发展的出发点和落脚点,发展全过程人民民主,维护社会公平正义,着力解决人民群众急难愁盼问题,使全体人民的各项人权得到更高水平的保障,不断增强人民对于人权保障的获得感、幸福感、安全感。

The guidelines for formulating and implementing the Action Plan are:

• Following the guidance of Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era;

• Staying committed to a people-centered philosophy of development, believing that a happy life for the people is the most important human right;

• Promoting well-rounded development of and common prosperity for all the people as the ultimate goal;

• Developing whole-process people’s democracy, safeguarding social fairness and justice, and resolving the most pressing difficulties and problems which are of great concern to the people;

• Ensuring a higher level of human rights protection for all, so that they will have a stronger sense of gain, happiness and security.

制定和实施《行动计划》的基本原则是:依法推进,将人权事业纳入法治轨道;协调推进,使各项人权全面协调发展;务实推进,把人权的普遍原则与中国实际相结合;平等推进,充分保障所有社会成员平等参与、平等发展的权利;合力推进,政府、企事业单位、社会组织共同促进人权事业的发展;智慧推进,充分利用数字技术拓展所有人自由全面发展的空间。

The basic principles in formulating and implementing the Action Plan are:

• incorporating the development of human rights into the legal framework;

• promoting all-round and balanced development of all human rights;

• integrating the general principles of human rights with the real conditions in China;

• fully guaranteeing all social members’ rights to equal participation and development;

• pooling the efforts of governments, enterprises, public institutions, and social organizations;

• tapping the potential of digital technology in expanding the free and well-rounded development of every person.

制定和实施《行动计划》的目标是:

The targets of the Action Plan are as follows:

——将促进全体人民的自由全面共同发展作为人权事业发展的总目标。坚持以人民为中心,将满足人民对人权保障的新需求作为奋斗方向。坚持人民主体地位,坚持发展为了人民,发展依靠人民,发展成果由人民共享,增进人民的获得感、幸福感、安全感。

• Promoting the free, well-rounded and common development of all individuals as the general goal. The Chinese government will hold fast to its people-centered approach, and exert itself to meet the people’s growing expectations for human rights protection. It will guarantee the principal position of the people, and ensure that development is for the people and relies on the people, and that development benefits are shared by the people.

——充分保障人民的经济社会文化权利,不断实现人民对美好生活的向往,为人的全面发展创造更加有利的经济社会文化条件。

• Protecting the people’s economic, social and cultural rights to meet their expectation for a better life, and creating more favorable economic, social and cultural conditions to achieve this goal.

——切实保障公民权利和政治权利,促进人民有效社会参与,为实现人的全面发展提供更为坚实的民主法治基础。

• Safeguarding the civil and political rights and promoting effective participation in social affairs, thus laying a sound democratic and legal foundation for well-rounded development of the people.

——坚持绿水青山就是金山银山理念,坚持尊重自然、顺应自然、保护自然,促进人与自然和谐共生,推进生态文明建设,建设美丽中国,为全人类和子孙后代共享发展创造可持续条件。

• Cherishing clear waters and green mountains as invaluable assets. China will continue to respect, work with, and protect mother nature, and promote the harmonious coexistence of humanity and nature. It will promote eco-environmental progress and work to build a beautiful China, in order to create a sustainable environment for human beings and later generations.

——加强对特定群体权益的平等保护和特殊扶助,促进所有人平等分享发展成果,为实现所有人全面发展提供政策支持。

• Reinforcing the equal protection of the rights and interests of particular groups and providing them with extra assistance, to ensure all have an equal share in the fruits of development, and to provide policy support for the well-rounded development of all.

——广泛开展人权教育、研究、培训和知识普及,营造全社会尊重和保障人权的文化氛围。

• Conducting extensive research, education, and training, and building awareness in this field, to create a social atmosphere of respecting and protecting human rights.

——积极参与全球人权治理,深度参与联合国人权机制工作,推动建设更加公平公正合理包容的全球人权治理体系,共同构建人类命运共同体。

• Participating in global human rights governance. China will engage itself in all work relating to the UN human rights mechanisms, propel the international community to establish a more just, fair, reasonable and inclusive governance system, and work together to build a global community of shared future.

《行动计划》由国务院新闻办公室和外交部牵头编制,经国家人权行动计划联席会议机制审核同意,现授权国务院新闻办公室发布。

Compiled under the leadership of the State Council Information Office and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and reviewed and approved by the joint meeting for the National Human Rights Action Plan, the Human Rights Action Plan of China (2021-2025) is hereby released by the State Council Information Office.

一、经济、社会和文化权利

I. Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

巩固脱贫攻坚成果,开展乡村振兴建设,贯彻就业优先政策,实施健康中国战略,完善社会保障体系,推动教育公平发展,加强公共文化服务,促进全体人民共同富裕,保障公民的经济、社会和文化权利。

China will work to promote common prosperity for its people and protect their economic, social and cultural rights through the following: consolidating its achievements in poverty alleviation, carrying out the strategy of rural revitalization, prioritizing employment, implementing the Healthy China Initiative, improving the social security system, promoting equal access to education, and improving public cultural services.

(一)基本生活水准权利

1. Right to Basic Standard of Living

接续推进脱贫地区发展。保障居民基本住房、用水、食品安全和出行便利。

China will support further development of formerly impoverished areas, by ensuring access to affordable and safe housing, clean water, safe and secure supplies of food, and convenient transport.

——巩固拓展脱贫攻坚成果同乡村振兴有效衔接。建立完善农村低收入人口和欠发达地区帮扶机制,保持主要帮扶政策和财政投入力度总体稳定。做好易地扶贫搬迁后续帮扶,加强大型搬迁安置区新型城镇化建设。

– Connecting poverty alleviation with rural revitalization. Assistance mechanisms for low-income rural populations and undeveloped areas will be improved, and major alleviation policies and financial input will remain steady. Follow-up measures will be taken to help people relocated from inhospitable areas to places with better economic prospects, by accelerating urbanization of the resettlement sites.

——夯实粮食安全基础。保障粮、棉、油、糖、肉、奶等重要农产品供给安全。坚持最严格的耕地保护制度,严守18亿亩耕地红线。建设国家粮食安全产业带,建成10.75亿亩集中连片高标准农田。

– Strengthening food security. The government will secure the supply of major farm produce, including grain, cotton, edible oil, sugar, meat and dairy products. The strictest controls will be put in place to keep the country’s farmland above the red line of 120 million hectares. The government will create 71.7 million hectares of contiguous high-standard farmland, establishing agricultural belts for national food security.

——实施食品安全战略。开展食品安全放心工程建设攻坚行动,着力提升智慧监管能力,推动健全从农田到餐桌全过程食品安全监管体系。

– Promoting food safety. Critical moves will be made to implement the Program for Ensuring Food Safety, focusing on smart supervision throughout the food processing process from farm to table.

——提升用水安全保障水平。新增水利工程供水能力290亿立方米。实施农村供水保障工程和农村饮用水安全工程建设,农村自来水普及率达到88%以上。

– Ensuring access to safe and clean water. China will construct new irrigation facilities with a water supply capacity of 29 billion cu m. By implementing the Program of Water Supply Security for Rural Areas and the Program of Safe Drinking Water for Rural Areas, it will raise the tap water coverage in rural areas to 88 percent or higher.

——完善住房保障体系。加快完善以公租房、保障性租赁住房和共有产权住房为主体的住房保障体系。公租房实行实物保障和货币补贴并举,对低保低收入住房困难家庭应保尽保;推进保障性租赁住房建设,帮助新市民、青年人等群体缓解住房困难问题。发展共有产权住房,帮助有一定支付能力又买不起商品住房的群体拥有产权住房。

– Improving housing security. Housing security will be improved by providing more government-subsidized rental housing and joint-ownership housing. Households in receipt of subsistence allowances or with low incomes that have difficulty finding housing will be provided with both public rental homes and housing subsidies. More subsidized rental housing will be built to help special social groups with housing difficulties, such as new urban residents and young people. The joint house ownership scheme will be further developed to help those who cannot afford to buy commercial homes to own a share in a property.

——加强住房安全保障。继续实施农村危房改造,用三年左右时间完成农村房屋安全隐患排查整治工作,支持地震高烈度设防地区实施农房抗震改造。

– Securing safe housing. China will continue with the renovation of dilapidated homes, identifying and closing all safety loopholes affecting rural houses in the next three years, and supporting seismic retrofit in high seismic zones.

——优化交通条件。推动干线铁路建设,实现国家高速公路贯通互联,加快沿边抵边公路建设,对繁忙路段实施扩容改造。加强乡镇对外公路建设改造,实施自然村(组)通硬化路建设。

– Improving transport facilities. Measures will be taken to build more trunk railway lines, improve nationwide highway connectivity, accelerate the construction of border highways, and expand the traffic capacity of heavily frequented highways. More efforts will be made to build or renovate highways connecting towns and townships with other places, and to build paved roads for villages.

——弥合城乡数字鸿沟。统筹推进智慧城市与数字乡村建设,促进城乡信息化融合发展,提升全民数字素养与技能。

– Bridging the digital divide between urban and rural areas. China will coordinate efforts to build smart cities and villages, promoting integrated development of IT application in cities and the countryside and improving digital literacy and skills among all the people.

(二)工作权利

2. Right to Work

全面贯彻就业优先政策,消除就业和职业歧视,完善工资福利制度,健全劳动关系协调机制,落实安全生产管理制度,加强劳动法律实施监督。

China will prioritize employment, eliminate employment and career discrimination, improve the wage/salary and welfare system, improve mechanisms for coordinating labor relations, implement the safety management system (SMS), and tighten supervision on labor law enforcement.

——促进就业。实现更加充分更高质量就业,城镇调查失业率控制在5.5%以内。增加非全日制就业机会,支持和规范发展新就业形态,为农村外出返乡人员提供创业服务。实施创新创业带头人培育行动,引导建设各类农村创业创新示范园区和孵化实训基地。完善进城务工青年、灵活就业青年等群体的劳动就业合法权益。扩大公益性岗位安置,着力帮扶生育后再就业妇女、残疾人、零就业家庭成员等困难人员就业。

– Increasing employment. China aims to achieve high-level and high-quality employment, with an urban unemployment rate below 5.5 percent. Efforts will be made to increase non-full-time employment, support and develop new forms of employment, and provide startup services for returned rural migrant workers. Moves will be made to train innovation and entrepreneurship leaders, and establish demonstration zones and incubation bases for rural startups. Lawful rights and interests relating to work and employment will be better protected, in particular for groups such as young migrant workers and young people in flexible employment. Measures will be taken to increase subsidized jobs, and help women seeking to return to work after maternity leave, people with disabilities, members of zero-employment households and other disadvantaged groups to find jobs.

——促进脱贫人口稳定就业。加大脱贫人口有组织劳务输出力度。支持脱贫地区在涉农项目建设和管护方面广泛采取以工代赈方式。延续支持扶贫车间的优惠政策。调整优化生态护林员政策。统筹用好乡村公益岗位。

– Securing employment for people raised from poverty. Efforts will be intensified to organize people recently raised from poverty to find employment outside of their home regions. Work-relief programs will be expanded in the construction and management of agricultural projects in former impoverished areas. Preferential policies will be continued to support factory workshops in poverty alleviation. The policies for forest rangers will be adjusted and improved. Rural subsidized jobs will be put to better use through better coordination.

——加强农民工职业技能培训。实施职业技能提升行动和农民工稳就业职业技能培训、百万青年技能培训行动、康养职业技能培训等专项计划。每年培训农民工700万人次。支持企业开展岗前培训、新型学徒制培训和岗位技能提升培训。

– Improving vocational training for rural migrant workers. China will move on with upskilling initiatives and specialized vocational training programs such as those for rural migrant workers, young people and professional caregivers. Some 7 million rural migrant workers will receive employability training every year. Support will be provided to help enterprises to organize pre-employment training, apprenticeship training, and on-the-job training.

——保障劳动者获得合理报酬。健全工资决定、合理增长和支付保障机制,完善最低工资标准和工资指导线形成机制,积极推行工资集体协商制度。规范劳务派遣用工行为,保障劳动者同工同酬。制定互联网平台就业劳动保障政策。完善欠薪治理长效机制,依法纠正拖欠劳动报酬等违法违规行为。

– Providing reasonable remuneration. China will improve the mechanisms for setting, raising and ensuring regular payment of wages/salaries, refine the mechanisms for setting minimum wage levels and wage guidelines, and continue to implement the collective wage bargaining system. Employment agencies will be better regulated to ensure equal pay for equal work. Employment security policies for online jobs will be introduced. Long-term mechanisms will be improved to eliminate the practice of withholding wages/salaries and punish violations in accordance with the law.

——打击和惩处强迫劳动。加强劳动者权益保护,依法惩处强迫劳动犯罪。

– Punishing forced labor. China will redouble its efforts to protect workers’ rights and interests, and punish cases of forced labor according to law.

——健全落实安全生产管理制度。修改安全生产法,制定危险化学品安全法、煤矿安全条例等法律法规。健全企业全过程安全生产管理制度,落实安全生产责任制。实施《工伤预防五年行动计划(2021-2025年)》。重点行业工伤事故发生率降低20%左右。

– Improving the safety management system (SMS). China will amend the Law on Workplace Safety, and enact a law on safe production of hazardous chemicals and a regulation on coal mine safety. The SMS will be enhanced throughout the entire operation of enterprises, and the workplace safety accountability system will be enforced. The Five-year Action Plan on Workplace Injury Prevention (2021-2025) will be implemented, aiming to reduce key industries’ workplace injury incidence rate by around 20 percent.

(三)社会保障权利

3. Right to Social Security

坚持应保尽保原则,按照兜底线、织密网、建机制的要求,加快健全覆盖全民、统筹城乡、公平统一、可持续的多层次社会保障体系。

Under the principle of social security benefits for all eligible, the government will action policy requirements to help those most in need, to build a tightly woven safety net, and to build the necessary institutions, as it works to develop a sustainable multi-tiered social security system that covers the entire population in both urban and rural areas and follows fair and uniform standards.

——完善社会保障体制机制。为参加城乡居民养老保险的缴费困难群体代缴部分或全部保费。落实职工基本养老金合理调整机制。完善企业年金、职业年金制度,推动个人养老金发展。落实职工基本养老保险遗属待遇和病残津贴政策。

– Improving the systems and mechanisms for social security. For rural and non-working urban residents facing financial difficulties, the government will cover part or all of their premiums to the basic pension scheme. The mechanism for adjusting basic pension rates for urban employees will be established. Enterprise annuity (a supplemental retirement savings program for employees of enterprises) and occupational annuity (a supplementary pensions program for employees of government agencies and public institutions) will be improved, and private pension plans will be encouraged. Policies will be enacted on subsidies for family dependents of the deceased and for people with non-work-related illnesses and disabilities, should they be covered by the basic pension scheme for urban employees.

——健全社会救助制度体系。及时有针对性地给予困难群众医疗、教育、住房、就业等专项救助。完善农村特困人员救助供养制度,合理提高救助供养水平和服务质量。健全分层分类的社会救助体系,完善最低生活保障制度,特困人员救助供养覆盖的未成年人年龄从16周岁延长至18周岁。对符合临时救助条件的家庭或个人给予应急性、过渡性生活保障。

– Improving the system for social relief. The state will provide special relief funds on healthcare, education, housing, and employment to people with financial difficulties, in a timely and targeted manner. It will improve financial aid and support for severely impoverished rural residents through higher-quality relief services. It will provide a tiered and categorized social assistance program and improve the subsistence allowance scheme. The eligible age of minors covered by the relief scheme for severely impoverished people will be extended from 16 to 18. Households and individuals eligible for temporary assistance will be provided with interim emergency subsistence allowances.

(四)财产权益

4. Right to Property

贯彻实施民法典,健全产权保护制度,保障农民土地承包经营权流转和宅基地使用权,深入推进农村集体产权制度改革,健全自然资源资产产权体系,完善数据产权保障制度。

China will enforce the Civil Code to better protect property rights, including the transfer of management right of contracted land, and the right to use rural land designated for a residence (rural residential land). It will further reform the system of rural collective property rights, complete the system of property rights in natural resource assets, and better protect property rights in data.

——健全产权保护制度。修改土地管理法实施条例。加强数据、知识、环境等领域产权制度建设,健全自然资源资产产权制度和法律法规。

– Improving institutions for the protection of property rights. China will amend the Regulations on the Implementation of the Land Management Law. Institutional guarantees will be put in place to protect property rights in data, knowledge and the environment. Institutions, laws and regulations concerning property rights in natural resource assets will be improved.

——强化产权司法执法保护。依法平等保护国有、民营、外资等各种所有制企业产权。依法保护企业家的财产权和创新收益。依法严厉打击侵犯公民、企业和组织合法财产权益的盗窃、抢劫、抢夺、诈骗、敲诈勒索和侵犯知识产权等各类犯罪行为。推动涉企冤错案件依法甄别纠正常态化机制化。积极探索中国特色现代企业规制司法制度。

– Strengthening protection of property rights in judiciary and law enforcement. China provides equal protection by law for the property rights of enterprises under diverse forms of ownership, including state-owned enterprises, private businesses and foreign-owned companies. It protects property rights and innovation revenues of entrepreneurs, and punishes in accordance with the law crimes that encroach on the legitimate property rights and interests of individuals, enterprises and organizations, including theft, robbery, forcible seizure, fraud, racketeering and infringement on intellectual property. Long-term mechanisms for identifying and correcting legal errors resulting in wrongful convictions of enterprises will be set up. A modern judicial regulatory system for enterprises suited to China’s needs will be piloted.

——保障农民财产权利。落实第二轮土地承包到期后再延长30年政策,完善农村承包地所有权、承包权、经营权分置制度。探索农村宅基地所有权、资格权、使用权分置实现形式。依法保障进城落户农民农村土地承包权、宅基地使用权、集体收益分配权。深化集体林权制度改革,规范草原承包经营和流转,推进草原确权登记颁证。

– Protecting farmers’ property rights. The current round of rural land contracts will be extended for another 30 years upon expiration, and the system of separating the ownership rights, contract rights and management rights of contracted rural land will be improved. Research will be conducted on the specific ways of separating ownership, entitlement, and the right to use of rural residential land. The government will ensure that people from rural areas who have become permanent urban residents can continue to enjoy their land contract right, homesteading right, and rights to share in the proceeds from rural collective operations. It will advance the reform of collective forest tenure, ensure procedure-based grassland use and transfer based on contract, and proceed with the confirmation, registration and certification of grassland tenure.

——实行严格的知识产权保护制度。完善知识产权案件诉讼制度。健全知识产权侵权惩罚性赔偿制度,加大损害赔偿力度。改革国有知识产权归属和权益分配机制,扩大科研机构和高等院校知识产权处置自主权。

– Tightening the protection of intellectual property rights (IPR). China will refine the litigation system for IPR cases, improve the mechanisms for punitive damages from IPR violations, and increase the compensation amount. It will reform the ownership and proceeds distribution mechanisms for state-owned IPR to give research institutes and higher education institutions greater autonomy in IPR assignment.

(五)健康权利

5. Right to Health

深入实施健康中国行动,为人民提供全方位全生命周期健康服务。重大疫情和突发公共卫生事件应急能力显著增强,人民身心健康素质明显提高,健康公平显著改善。

The Healthy China initiative will be implemented in full to provide a complete range of health services to the people throughout their lifespan. The ability to combat major epidemics and respond to public health emergencies will be considerably reinforced. The Chinese people will be healthier both physically and mentally, and enjoy better and more equal healthcare.

——构建强大公共卫生体系。坚持人民至上、生命至上,有效防控、阻击新冠肺炎疫情,不惜一切代价维护人民生命安全和身体健康。改革疾病预防控制体系,强化监测预警、风险评估、流行病学调查、检验检测、应急处置等职能。加强公共卫生学院和人才队伍建设。扩大国家免疫规划,加强重大传染病防治,强化慢性病预防、早期筛查和综合干预。完善心理健康和精神卫生服务体系。升级改造20个国家重大传染病防控救治基地。依托现有疾控机构建设15个左右区域公共卫生中心。升级改造20个国家紧急医学救援基地。

– Building a strong public health system. Following the principle of putting people and lives first no matter the cost, China will continue to take effective measures to contain the Covid-19 spread. China’s disease prevention and control system will be reformed, with better monitoring, early warning, risk assessment, epidemiological investigation, testing, and emergency response. Measures will be enacted to improve public health colleges and cultivate more professionals. The national immunization program will be expanded to strengthen the prevention and control of major infectious diseases and the prevention, early screening and intervention of chronic diseases. The healthcare system for mental health will be improved. Twenty national bases for the prevention, control and treatment of major infectious diseases and 20 national bases for emergency rescue will be renovated and upgraded. About 15 regional healthcare centers will be built by making use of the resources of existing centers for disease control and prevention.

——完善医疗卫生服务体系建设。加强公立医院建设。完善城乡医疗服务网络,促进乡镇卫生院和社区卫生服务中心的服务能力达到国家标准。推动省市优质医疗资源支持县级医院发展。加快建设分级诊疗体系,积极发展医疗联合体。支持社会办医,鼓励有经验的执业医师开办诊所。

– Improving the healthcare system. Services provided by town, township and community healthcare centers will be raised to national standards by improving public hospitals and medical service networks for urban and rural areas. Provincial and city hospitals will be encouraged to share quality medical resources with their county-level peers. More progress will be made in expanding the tiered diagnosis and treatment model and partnerships between medical institutions operating at different levels. Private healthcare providers and experienced practicing physicians will be encouraged to set up and run clinics.

——完善慢性病、地方病防治体系。国家慢性病综合防控示范区建设覆盖全国20%的县(区)。重大慢性病过早死亡率在2015年基础上降低20%。持续控制和消除地方病、血吸虫病危害。

– Strengthening the prevention and control of chronic and endemic diseases. National Demonstration Areas for Comprehensive Prevention and Control of Chronic Diseases will be expanded to cover 20 percent of China’s counties and county-level districts. The premature mortality rate resulting from major chronic diseases will be reduced by 20 percent compared to 2015. Efforts will continue to control and eliminate endemic diseases and schistosomiasis (bilharzia).

——提升医护人员培养质量与规模。扩大儿科、全科等短缺医师规模,每千人口拥有注册护士数提高到3.8人。加快壮大全科医生队伍,开展人员培训,每万人口平均拥有全科医生3.93人。

– Increasing the scale and quality of medical training. The number of pediatricians and general practitioners will be increased to address the current shortfall, and the number of registered nurses per 1,000 people will be increased to 3.8. Training programs will be carried out to increase the number of general practitioners per 10,000 people, which will be raised to 3.93.

——健全全民医保制度。巩固完善全民医保制度。完善基本医疗保险门诊共济保障机制,健全重大疾病医疗保险和救助制度。将符合条件的互联网医疗服务按规定纳入医保支付范围,落实异地就医结算。稳步建立长期护理保险制度。

– Upgrading the universal medical insurance system. The state will improve the general support mechanism for covering outpatient medical bills under basic medical insurance, and put in place a better system of medical insurance and assistance for major diseases. Qualified online medical services will be covered by medical insurance with due procedures, and real-time settlement of medical expenses for treatment incurred outside the province where the patient resides will be implemented. An insurance system for long-term care will be established.

——提高精神健康服务水平。完善社会化心理健康服务体系,缓解学业、职业、生活和情感等社会压力,加强创伤后心理建设。完善严重精神障碍诊断报告、随访管理服务,严重精神障碍患者管理率达到90%。

– Improving medical services for mental health. A society-wide service system for mental health will be improved to alleviate academic, professional, emotional and life pressure, as well as other social pressure, and provide post-traumatic care and better diagnosis reporting and follow-up management for people with severe mental disorders. The target for the management of patients with severe mental disorders will be 90 percent.

——持续提升青少年健康和体质水平。倡导合理用眼、合理膳食、科学运动等健康生活方式。青少年体质达标率不低于90%,青年学生近视检出率初中生不高于65%、高中生不高于75%。

– Improving teenagers’ health and physique. Teenagers should be encouraged to follow a healthy lifestyle, taking care of their eyes, following a reasonable diet, and taking proper exercise. At least 90 percent of teenagers should reach the physical fitness standard, and the rate of myopia will not exceed 65 percent in junior high schools and 75 percent in senior high schools.

——确保食品药品安全。加强食品药品安全风险监测、抽检和监管执法,强化快速通报和快速反应。构建药品和疫苗全生命周期管理机制,完善药品电子追溯体系。依法严厉打击食品、药品领域违法犯罪行为。探索建立食品药品安全领域民事公益诉讼惩罚性赔偿适用。

– Ensuring food and drug safety. Risk monitoring on food and drug safety, spot checks, supervision and law enforcement will all be strengthened, timely reporting and response will be accelerated, mechanisms will be put in place to manage drugs and vaccines throughout their life cycles, and the electronic traceability system for drugs will be improved. Illegal and criminal acts in the field of food and drugs will be severely punished in accordance with the law, and a punitive compensation system in public-interest civil litigation concerning food and drug safety will be established.

——促进中医药发展。坚持中西医并重和优势互补,大力发展中医药事业。打造30个左右国家中医药传承创新中心,形成一批中医药特色学科和优势学科。

– Promoting traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Equal importance will be attached to TCM and Western medicine with a more vigorous effort to promote TCM so that the two can complement each other. About 30 national centers for TCM practice and innovation will be built, forming a number of unique and leading disciplines.

——推进智慧医疗。完善电子健康档案和病历、电子处方等数据库,加快医疗卫生机构数据共享。推广远程医疗,推进医学影像辅助判读、临床辅助诊断等应用。运用大数据提升对医疗机构和医疗行为的监管能力。

– Promoting intelligent medical service. Efforts will be made to improve electronic health archives and databases such as medical records and e-prescriptions, and speed up data sharing among medical institutions. Application of telemedicine will be promoted, including computer-aided detection in medical imaging and computer-aided clinical diagnosis. Big data will also be used to better supervise medical institutions and medical services.

——广泛开展全民健身运动。完善全民健身公共服务体系,推进社会体育场地设施建设和学校场馆开放共享,提高健身步道等便民健身场所覆盖面,因地制宜发展体育公园。

– Carrying out a nationwide fitness campaign. In order to improve the public service system for fitness and physical activity, efforts will be made to build public sports fields and facilities, open school sports venues to the public, build more community sports facilities such as sports tracks, and build sports parks in line with local conditions.

(六)受教育权

6. Right to Education

提高学前教育普及率、义务教育巩固率、高中阶段入学率。保证教育公平,提升教育质量,促进人的全面发展。

Efforts will be made to increase the coverage of preschool education, the completion rate of compulsory education, and the enrollment rate of senior high schools. Equal access to education will be guaranteed, and education quality will be increased, so that the students can develop in an all-round way.

——加大对原深度贫困地区的教育投入。继续实施中央预算内投资教育专项计划,建设东中西部高校全国性对口支援对接平台,支持原深度贫困地区巩固教育脱贫攻坚成果,阻断贫困代际传递。

– Increasing educational investment in areas formerly classified as extremely poor. Special plans for educational investment in the central budget will continue, to build a national platform for paired-up assistance among colleges and universities in the eastern, central and western regions, and to support areas formerly classified as extremely poor in consolidating their achievements in poverty alleviatin through education, so as to end generational poverty.

——推进学前教育全面普及。继续提升学前教育普及水平,大力发展公办幼儿园,积极扶持普惠性民办幼儿园。学前教育毛入园率提高到90%以上。

– Promoting full coverage of preschool education. Efforts will be made to further increase the coverage of preschool education, develop public kindergartens, and support the development of government-funded and privately-run non-profit kindergartens. The gross enrollment rate of preschool education will be raised to over 90 percent.

——促进义务教育优质均衡发展。推动义务教育优质均衡发展和城乡一体化,加快义务教育学校标准化建设。提升义务教育巩固水平,健全控辍保学工作责任体系。持续改善乡村小规模学校和乡镇寄宿制学校条件。

– Promoting high-quality and balanced development of compulsory education. Measures will be taken to promote quality, balanced compulsory education and urban-rural integration, and to speed up the growth of schools for compulsory education under uniform requirements. A responsibility system will be improved to prevent school dropouts and increase the completion rate of compulsory education. Conditions of small village schools and town/township boarding schools will also be improved.

——提升高中阶段教育普及水平。加强县域普通高中建设,鼓励普通高中多样化特色化发展。加大对中西部贫困地区和高海拔地区高中阶段教育的扶持力度。高中阶段教育毛入学率提高到92%以上。

– Increasing the coverage of senior high school education. The government will improve general senior high schools at county level and below, and encourage diversified development in general senior high schools. Support will be increased for senior high school education in less developed areas of central and western China and high-altitude regions. The gross enrollment ratio for senior secondary education will reach 92 percent or higher.

——完善职业教育体系。构建职业中等教育和职业高等教育有机衔接、职业教育和普通教育相互融通的职业教育体系。推动产教融合发展,完善校企合作制度。逐步分类推进中等职业教育免除学杂费。新增劳动力平均受教育年限不低于14年。

– Improving vocational education. A system with coordinated development of secondary and higher vocational education and integrated development of vocational and general education will be established. The integrated development of industry and education will be promoted, and the system of school-enterprise cooperation will be improved. Students receiving secondary vocational education will be exempted from tuition and other fees on a phased and categorized basis. The average length of schooling for new entrants to the labor force will be no less than 14 years.

——促进高等教育高质量发展。实施高等学校创新能力提升计划,分类建设一流大学和一流学科,高等教育毛入学率提高到60%。实施中西部高等教育振兴计划,扩大“双一流”高校对中西部、民族地区和农村地区招生规模。

– Boosting high-quality higher education. China will continue to implement programs to increase innovation in institutions of higher learning, to develop first-rate universities and academic disciplines on a categorized basis, and to raise the gross enrollment rate of higher education to 60 percent. It will further higher education in central and western regions, and encourage first-rate institutions of higher learning with first-rate disciplines to increase their enrollment from central and western China, ethnic minority areas, and rural areas.

——切实保障困境儿童受教育权利。加强对留守儿童的关爱保护,完善留守儿童教育服务体系。加快城镇学校扩容增位,保障农业转移人口随迁子女平等享有基本公共教育服务。继续实施家庭经济困难学生资助政策和农村义务教育学生营养改善计划。

– Ensuring the right of disadvantaged children to education. Care and protection for children of migrant workers left behind in the countryside will be strengthened, as will the education services for these children. The expansion of urban schools will be accelerated to ensure equal access to basic public education services for children of rural migrants. The policy of financial aid to students from impoverished families and the nutritional improvement plan for rural students receiving compulsory education will continue.

——预防性侵害和性骚扰。建立预防性侵害和性骚扰的工作制度,对未成年人开展符合其年龄的性教育,提高未成年人防范性侵害和性骚扰的自我保护意识和能力。对性侵害和性骚扰未成年人的违法犯罪活动及时向公安机关、教育行政部门报告,为遭受性侵害和性骚扰的未成年人提供保护和维权服务。

– Guarding against sexual assault and harassment. Kindergartens and schools are required to institute measures to prevent sexual assaults and harassment against minors, give minors proper sex education suited to their age, raise their awareness of and ability to protect themselves against sexual assault and harassment, and report any such crimes to the public security organs and educational administration departments in a timely manner. Relevant institutions and government departments should provide victim minors with protection and legal assistance.

——遏制校园欺凌。落实未成年人保护法和《未成年人学校保护规定》。建立学生欺凌防控工作制度,定期对全体学生开展防治欺凌专题教育活动,保障每一位儿童身心健康成长。

– Curbing school bullying. Under the Law on the Protection of Minors and the Regulations on the Protection of Minors in Schools, systems will be established and educational campaigns will be carried out on a regular basis to prevent and control student bullying and protect the mental and physical health of every student.

——有效预防在线教育数字鸿沟。为家庭生活困难的学生提供必要的信息技术设备,确保全体学生公平享有优质在线教育。

– Preventing digital divide in online education. Information technology equipment will be provided to students from impoverished families to ensure equal access to quality online education for all students.

(七)文化权利

7. Cultural Rights

完善公共文化服务体系,提升全民阅读服务水平,加强中华优秀传统文化传承和保护,促进新兴文化产业发展,更充分保障公民文化权利。

To better ensure citizens’ cultural rights, public cultural services will be improved with better services to facilitate a culture of reading among the people, and more measures to pass on and protect fine traditional Chinese culture and promote emerging cultural industries.

——完善公共文化服务基础设施。做好公共图书馆、文化馆、博物馆、美术馆、乡镇(街道)综合文化站、村(社区)综合性文化服务中心等的规划建设。健全各级各类公共文化服务基础设施。

– Improving the infrastructure for public cultural services. Efforts will be made to plan and build more public libraries, cultural centers, museums, art galleries, comprehensive cultural stations in towns, townships and sub-districts, and comprehensive cultural service centers in urban and rural communities. Public cultural infrastructure of all types and at all levels will be improved.

——补齐公共文化服务短板。落实国家基本公共服务标准要求,加强基层文化建设,增加供给总量,优化供给结构,推动优质文化资源向农村地区、革命老区、民族地区、边疆地区倾斜,缩小城乡和地区之间公共文化服务差距。实施广播电视惠民工程,完善农村文化基础设施网络。

– Addressing shortcomings in public cultural services. In line with the requirements specified in national standards on basic public services, the state will promote cultural development at the grassroots, increase total supply, optimize the supply structure, and direct more high-quality cultural resources to rural areas, old revolutionary base areas, ethnic minority areas, and border areas, so as to narrow the gap in public cultural services between urban and rural areas and between different regions. Radio and TV projects in the public interest will be carried out, and the network of rural cultural infrastructure will be improved.

——推动公共数字文化建设。统筹推进公共文化数字化重点工程建设。实施全国智慧图书馆体系建设、公共文化云建设等项目。

– Promoting the application of digital technology in the cultural sector. The state will coordinate major projects in digitizing public cultural services, such as a national smart library system and a public culture cloud platform.

——提升全民阅读服务水平。推进社区图书馆建设,优化基层阅读资源配置,改善公共场所阅读环境和阅读障碍者的阅读条件,推进农家书屋数字化升级,力争国民综合阅读率达到83%。

– Upgrading reading services. Community libraries will be promoted, the allocation of reading resources at the grassroots will be optimized, the reading environment in public places and reading accommodations for the dyslexic will be improved, and rural libraries will be digitalized. Efforts will be made to increase the number of people who read online and paper books, newspapers, periodicals and other publications to 83 percent of the total population.

——构建中华优秀传统文化传承体系。推进国家级非物质文化遗产代表性传承人记录工作,实施中国非物质文化遗产传承人研修培训计划。实施中华典籍整理工程,整理出版300种中华典籍。实施国家古籍数字化工程。

– Establishing a system to carry forward fine traditional Chinese culture. More efforts will be made to record and conserve the knowledge and skills of the bearers of the intangible cultural heritage items on the national representative list, and to advance the research and training program for the bearers. As the project to collate Chinese classics and records proceeds, 300 Chinese classic titles will be compiled and published. The national digitization project of ancient books will also be implemented.

——提升文化遗产系统性保护水平。加强对国家重大文化和自然遗产地、大遗址、重点文物保护单位、历史文化名城名镇名村的保护建设,加大对非国有博物馆业务帮扶。加强安阳殷墟等遗址保护,开展国家考古遗址公园建设。建设20个国家重点区域考古标本库房、30个国家级文化生态保护区和20个国家级非物质文化遗产馆。继续推进各级传统村落保护名录建设。

– Strengthening systematic protection of cultural heritage. Protection and development of key cultural and natural heritage sites, major ruins, key cultural relics sites, and historic and cultural cities, towns and villages will be strengthened, as will the support to non-state-owned museums. The Yin Ruins in Anyang and other historic sites will come under more stringent protection, and national archaeological parks will be built there as appropriate. There will be a program to build 20 archaeological specimen repositories in key areas, 30 state cultural preservation areas, and 20 state intangible cultural heritage museums. The protection list of traditional villages at all levels will be expanded.

——推进国家文化公园建设。整合长城、大运河、长征、黄河沿线等重要文化资源,强化文物和非物质文化遗产真实完整保护传承,打造中华文化重要标志。

– Building state cultural parks. Major cultural resources along the Great Wall, the Grand Canal, the Long March routes and the Yellow River will be integrated, and cultural relics and intangible heritage will be preserved and passed on in their true and complete form as important symbols of Chinese culture.

——促进新兴文化产业发展。推进文化业态创新,发展创意文化产业。发展积极健康的网络文化,推动网络文艺繁荣有序发展。

– Promoting emerging cultural industries. Innovation will be encouraged in the forms of cultural operations, and greater efforts will be made to boost creative culture. Positive and healthy cyber culture will be developed to promote robust and orderly growth of online art and literature.

二、公民权利和政治权利

II. Civil and Political Rights

扩大公民自主参与和自由发展空间,完善人身权利、个人信息权益、财产权利和宗教信仰自由权利保障制度,加强人权法治保障,提升选举权和被选举权、知情权和参与权、表达权和监督权保障水平,切实尊重和保障公民权利和政治权利。

China will work to expand the space for citizens’ independent participation and free development, to improve systems for protecting personal rights, personal information rights, property rights and right to freedom of religious belief, to strengthen legal protection for human rights, to better protect people’s rights to vote and stand for election, to be informed, to participate, to be heard, and to exercise public scrutiny, and to respect and guarantee citizens’ civil and political rights.

(一)生命权

1. Right to Life

保护公民的生命安全和生命尊严在常态和应急状态下均不受非法侵害。

China protects the life and dignity of citizens against illegal infringements under all conditions, normal or emergency.

——全面提高公共安全保障能力。完善和落实安全生产责任制,加强安全生产监管执法,有效遏制重特大安全事故。提高安全生产水平,加强生物安全风险防控。

– Strengthening overall capacity in guaranteeing public security. China will improve and better implement the responsibility system for workplace safety, strengthen supervision and law enforcement in this field, and effectively curb major and serious accidents. The aim is to enhance workplace safety and prevent and control biosafety risks.

——完善应急状态下生命权保障体系。修改突发事件应对法,构建系统完备、科学规范、运行有效的应急管理法律体系,加强应急管理标准化工作。健全应急救助体系,提升自然灾害防御工程标准,加强应急物资保障体系建设,提高应急救助水平和物资保障能力。

– Improving guarantees for the right to life in emergencies. China will revise the Emergency Response Law, and put in place a comprehensive, procedure-based, and effective legal system for disaster management. Efforts will be made to improve the emergency aid system, the standards of natural disaster prevention projects, and the system for guaranteeing emergency supplies, so as to ensure a higher level of disaster response and a greater capacity for guaranteeing essential supplies.

——严格慎重适用死刑。强化死刑复核程序,规范死刑复核监督程序,严格落实死刑案件报备和审查机制。细化死刑案件法律适用标准和诉讼程序规则,确保死刑只适用于极少数罪行极其严重的犯罪分子。

– Strictly controlling and prudently applying the death penalty. China will enforce more rigorous procedures for reviewing capital sentences with standardized procedures for supervising this review, and implement a more stringent mechanism for reporting and reviewing death penalty cases. The application of laws, procedures and rules for capital sentences will be specified further to ensure the death penalty is only applicable to very few criminals guilty of very serious crimes.

(二)人身权利

2. Personal Rights

在立法、执法和司法中充分尊重和保障公民的各项人身权利,坚持依法惩治犯罪与保障人权相统一。

China fully respects and protects citizens’ personal rights in legislation, law enforcement, and judicature, punishing crimes while protecting human rights in accordance with the law.

——依法保障人格权利。实施人格权侵害禁令制度,制定相关指导意见或者司法解释,使人格权得到及时有效的保护。

– Protecting the right to dignity. China will implement the principle of injuncting any (imminent) infringement of the right to dignity, and provide relevant guidance or judicial interpretations, so that citizens’ right to dignity is protected in a timely and effective manner.

——依法惩处“软暴力”犯罪。禁止采取跟踪贴靠、滋扰纠缠、聚众造势等侵害人身权利的手段实施“软暴力”。

– Punishing soft violence, a form of crime. It is forbidden in China to infringe upon personal rights by acts of soft violence such as stalking, harassing, and gathering a crowd to create pressure.

——严禁非法拘禁。对有组织地多次短时间非法拘禁他人的,以非法拘禁罪定罪处罚。加大力度查处国家机关工作人员利用职权实施非法拘禁等侵犯公民人身权利的犯罪。

– Strictly prohibiting illegal detention. Those who repeatedly engage in organized short-term detention of others will be convicted of and penalized for the crime of illegal detention. More efforts will be made to investigate and punish civil servants who violate citizens’ personal rights, by abusing their powers to engage in actions such as illegal detention.

——降低审前羁押率。落实社会危险性条件证明制度,对无社会危险性或者采取非羁押性强制措施足以防止社会危害性的依法不捕。健全羁押必要性审查机制,推进延长羁押期限实质化审查,规范和完善取保候审等非羁押监管措施。

– Reducing the rate of pretrial detention. China implements a system to categorize criminal suspects based on the threat they pose to society. Those who pose no threat to society and those who present a level of risk that is preventable by non-detention measures will not be arrested. The state will improve the mechanism for reviewing the necessity of detention, promote substantive review over the extension of the detention period, and regulate and improve supervision of non-detention measures such as release on bail pending trial.

——严禁刑讯逼供。严禁刑讯逼供和以威胁、引诱、欺骗以及其他非法方法收集证据,不得强迫任何人证实自己有罪。落实执法全过程记录机制。全面覆盖各类执法活动,实现不同执法环节、不同记录方式有机衔接,各类执法记录资料闭环管理。

– Strictly prohibiting extracting confession by torture. It is strictly forbidden in China to extract confession by torture, or collect evidence by threat, inducement, deception and other illegal means, or coerce anyone into proving their guilt. A mechanism is in place to ensure the whole process of all law enforcement activities is recorded by different means, and all records are under closed-loop management.

——健全监督机制。加强对刑事立案和侦查活动的监督。加强对剥夺、限制人身自由强制措施的监督。完善刑事执行监督机制。

– Improving the supervision mechanism. China will strengthen supervision of criminal case filing and investigation activities, and of compulsory measures for deprivation or restriction of personal freedom. It will improve the supervision mechanism of the execution of criminal sentences.

——保障被羁押人、罪犯合法权利。完善看守所管理制度,加强被羁押人权利保障。严禁体罚、虐待、侮辱、殴打罪犯或纵容他人殴打罪犯。加强监所医疗卫生专业化建设,提升医疗救治能力,保障被羁押人的生命和健康。

– Protecting the lawful rights of detainees and criminals. Regulations on detention house management will be improved to better protect detainees’ rights. Corporal punishment, torture, abuse and beating of criminals or connivance in beatings by a third party are strictly banned. Prisoners who abuse other inmates are severely punished. Medical and health care facilities and teams in prisons will be improved, to better protect the lives and health of detainees.

——实施社区矫正法。维护社区矫正对象合法权益。充分发挥社会力量的作用,加强对社区矫正对象的教育帮扶。

– Enforcing the Community Correction Law. China safeguards the legitimate rights and interests of minor offenders under community correction orders. Social forces will be mobilized to strengthen education and assistance for these people.

——保障戒毒人员合法权利。落实禁毒法和戒毒条例,完善自愿戒毒、社区戒毒、强制隔离戒毒、社区康复等多种措施相互补充的戒毒康复工作体制。加强教育戒治工作体系,提升教育矫治、戒毒医疗、生活卫生、安全管理水平,提高教育戒治质量。

– Safeguarding the legitimate rights of people on drug rehabilitation. China will implement the Narcotics Control Law and the Regulations on Drug Rehabilitation. It will refine the mechanism for the rehabilitation of drug addicts, which may consist of voluntary rehab, community-based rehab, mandatory rehab in isolation and/or community-based recovery, and it will strengthen the system of education, rehabilitation and treatment. It will also improve correction through education, medical treatment, sanitation, and safety management.

(三)个人信息权益

3. Individuals’ Information Rights and Interests

加强个人信息保护,完善有关法律制度、监管执法和宣传,切实维护网络和数据安全。

China will strengthen protection of personal information by improving relevant laws and regulations, supervision, law enforcement, and educational campaigns. In addition, it will work hard to ensure internet and data security.

——完善个人信息保护法律制度。制定个人信息保护法,明确处理个人信息应遵循的原则,细化、完善个人信息处理规则,严格限制处理敏感个人信息,明确个人在个人信息处理活动中的权利,强化个人信息处理者的合规管理义务,设置严格的法律责任。制定出台个人信息保护配套法规、标准及司法解释,不断完善个人信息保护制度体系。

– Improving the legal system for protecting personal information. China will introduce a law on protecting personal information. It will define the principles and improve the rules of personal information processing, set strict limits on processing of sensitive personal information, clarify the rights of individuals in such activities, strengthen the compliance management obligations of personal information processors, and define strict legal responsibilities. It will create and issue supporting regulations, standards and judicial interpretations for protecting personal information.

——深入开展个人信息保护监管执法和宣传。加强个人信息保护监管执法工作,通过开展系列专项行动严格查处违法收集、使用个人信息行为,建立个人信息侵权投诉举报制度,加强执法队伍能力和执法水平建设,不断提高执法水平。通过国家网络安全宣传周以及报刊、广播、电视、网络、新媒体等,多渠道、多形式开展个人信息保护普法宣传、教育,推动公民个人信息保护意识的提升。

– Supervision, law enforcement and awareness raising of personal information protection. China will strengthen supervision and law enforcement of personal information protection by launching targeted actions to investigate and punish illegal collection and use of personal information, by establishing a system for reporting personal information infringements, and by building a strong contingent of law enforcement personnel and improving their work efficiency. Publicity and education campaigns to enhance legal awareness of personal information protection will be launched in different forms and through different media channels, including the National Cyber Security Publicity Week, newspapers, radio, television, and new online media.

——维护网络和数据安全。加强网络安全法、数据安全法等法律实施工作,落实网络安全和数据安全保护相关制度措施,保障网络免受干扰、破坏或者未经授权的访问,防止网络数据泄露或者被窃取、篡改,加强网络和数据安全风险监测,及时处置安全事件,严厉打击窃取网络数据、非法买卖个人信息等违法犯罪活动,切实保障网络数据和个人信息安全。

– Safeguarding cyber and data security. China will intensify efforts to implement the Cyber Security Law, the Data Security Law, and other laws, related institutions, and measures for ensuring cyber and data security. Measures will be taken to protect networks from interference, destruction or unauthorized access, and prevent network data leakage, theft and tampering. Security risk monitoring of networks and data will be strengthened; security incidents are to be handled promptly; robust action will be taken against illegal and criminal activities such as theft of network data and illegal trading of personal information. All these will effectively secure network data and personal information.

(四)宗教信仰自由

4. Freedom of Religious Belief

贯彻宗教信仰自由政策,依法保障公民宗教信仰自由,促进宗教关系和谐,依法管理宗教事务,坚持独立自主自办原则,积极引导宗教与社会主义社会相适应,保障宗教界人士和信教群众的合法权益。

China will continue to follow policies on freedom of religious belief, and protect citizens’ freedom of religious belief in accordance with the law. It promotes harmonious religious relations, manages religious affairs in accordance with the law, and supports all religions in upholding the principle of independence and self-management. These efforts will help to guide religions to adapt to socialist society, and protect the legitimate rights and interests of religious practitioners and believers.

——贯彻落实宗教信仰自由政策。完善宗教事务管理制度体系,制定出台《宗教事务条例》配套规章,依法规范政府管理宗教事务的行为,保障宗教界人士和信教群众的合法权益。开展法治宣传教育,引导宗教界和信教群众增强法治观念,依法维护合法权益,在法律范围内开展活动。开展宗教活动场所法人登记,加大宗教活动场所合法权益的保障力度。大力支持宗教团体办好宗教院校,健全宗教人才培养体系。

– Implementing policies on freedom of religious belief. China will improve systems for religious affairs management, and create and release more supporting rules for the Regulations on Religious Affairs to regulate government management of religious affairs by law and protect the legitimate rights and interests of religious practitioners and believers.

More education campaigns will be carried out to improve legal awareness of religious practitioners and believers, protect their legitimate rights and interests, and guide them to keep their activities within the scope prescribed by law.

Venues for religious activities must be registered under their legal persons to better protect the legitimate rights and interests of such venues. More support will be given to religious organizations in running religious schools, so as to improve the system for cultivating religious professionals.

——维护和保障宗教界合法权益。维护佛道教界合法权益,支持佛道教界提升信仰建设、文化建设,维护佛道教活动场所清净庄严氛围。保障穆斯林群众合法权益,支持中国伊斯兰教协会组织穆斯林群众赴沙特朝觐。加大对天主教、基督教神学思想建设及成果转化的支持和保护。支持和鼓励各宗教依法依规开展公益慈善活动。

– Safeguarding and protecting the legitimate rights and interests of religious circles. China safeguards the legal rights and interests of the Buddhist and Taoist circles, supporting their efforts to heighten their commitment, build on their cultures and maintain a clean and sacrosanct atmosphere at their venues.

China protects the legitimate rights and interests of Muslims, supporting the China Islamic Association in organizing Muslims to travel to Saudi Arabia on pilgrimage.

It supports and protects Christian denominations in their efforts to adapt Christian theology to the Chinese context and communicate it to the believers.

It supports and encourages all religions to carry out charitable activities in accordance with laws and regulations.

——开展宗教领域国际交流。支持和鼓励各宗教在独立自主、平等友好、相互尊重的基础上开展对外交流,建立、发展、巩固同海外宗教界的友好关系。

– Carrying out international exchanges in the field of religion. China supports and encourages all religions to conduct international exchanges on the basis of independence, equality, friendship, and mutual respect, and to establish, develop, and consolidate friendly relations with overseas religious circles.

——抵制宗教极端主义。反对宗教极端思想,帮助信教群众抵御极端思想侵害。依法惩治冒用宗教名义从事暴力恐怖和民族分裂活动的违法犯罪行为。

– Resisting religious extremism. China opposes extremist religious thought, and helps to protect religious believers from such thought. It punishes those engaging in illegal and criminal acts such as violent terrorist and ethnic separatist activities in the name of religion in accordance with the law.

(五)选举权和被选举权

5. Rights to Vote and to Stand for Election

保障公民依法行使选举权和被选举权。采取直接选举和间接选举相结合的方式,选举产生全国人民代表大会代表和地方各级人民代表大会代表。

The state protects the rights to vote and to stand for election as prescribed by law. The National People’s Congress (NPC) and local people’s congresses at all levels are created through the combination of direct and indirect elections.

——完成五级人民代表大会换届选举。严格落实选举法,最广泛动员和组织全国10亿多选民参加选举,直接选举产生200多万名县乡两级人大代表,并逐级选举产生设区的市级人大代表、省级人大代表、全国人大代表。

– Organizing elections of the people’s congresses at five levels. In implementing the Electoral Law, the state will mobilize over 1 billion constituents to the greatest extent possible, to cast votes for more than 2 million deputies to the people’s congresses at county and township levels. These deputies then elect deputies to the people’s congresses at city/prefectural, provincial and national levels.

——增加基层人大代表数量。保证各级人大代表中有适当数量的工人、农民、专业技术人员基层代表。依照2020年修改的选举法,重新确定县乡人大代表名额,新增县乡人大代表名额向基层群众、社区工作者等倾斜。

– Increasing grassroots representation in the people’s congresses at all levels. The electoral system ensures that each people’s congress has a certain proportion of deputies representing workers, farmers, and professional groups. In accordance with the Electoral Law amended in 2020, the numbers of deputies to the people’s congresses at county and township levels will be revised, with an emphasis on increasing grassroots representation.

——保障流动人口的选举权和被选举权。为流动人口参选创造便利条件。放宽流动人口特别是已经取得居住证的流动人口在现居住地参选的条件。

– Ensuring the migrant population’s rights to vote and to stand for election. The state will facilitate their participation in elections, and allow more migrant workers, especially those with residence permits in their current location to vote and stand for election locally.

(六)知情权和参与权

6. Rights to Be Informed and to Participate

保障公民、法人和其他组织依法获取政府信息,保证人民依法通过各种途径和形式管理国家事务、经济文化事业和社会事务,切实保障公民的知情权和参与权。

In protecting the rights to be informed and to participate, the state guarantees legitimate access to government information for citizens, legal persons and other organizations, and ensures that people participate, in accordance with the law and in various ways and forms, in the management of state, economic, cultural, and social affairs.

——加强基层政务公开标准化规范化建设。全面推进基层政务决策公开、执行公开、管理公开、服务公开、结果公开。建设全国统一的基层政务公开标准体系。加强和改善信息无障碍服务环境,为老年人、残疾人等网上获取政务信息、办理服务事项、享有公共服务提供便利。

– Standardizing and regulating government transparency at the grassroots level. The state is building a unified nationwide system of standards for grassroots government transparency, and promotes transparency in decision-making, enforcement, administration, services, and work results. The state will make information more accessible throughout society, and make additional efforts to ensure online access to government information and public services for the elderly and people with disabilities.

——加强突发事件信息发布。健全公共安全、重大疫情、灾害事故应急报道机制,及时准确发布权威信息,主动回应社会关切。

– Improving information transparency in public emergencies. The state will improve mechanisms for reporting public security incidents, major epidemics, natural disasters, and serious accidents to provide accurate information and respond to public concerns in a timely manner.

——全面推进司法公开。完善审判公开、检务公开的内容、程序和方式并动态调整。各级检察机关设立新闻发言人,健全新闻发布常态化机制,落实重大案件信息发布制度。

– Increasing judicial transparency. The state will refine the mechanisms and processes for making court and prosecution proceedings more transparent, and adjust them as required. Prosecuting organs at all levels have public spokespersons in place. They will implement and improve the systems for holding regular press conferences and for publishing information on major cases.

——完善公民对立法、监督工作的参与机制。完善法律法规规章制定、国民经济和社会发展规划纲要编制等重大公共决策的公众参与机制。法律草案公开征求意见,完善公众意见采纳情况反馈机制。发挥全国人大常委会法工委基层立法联系点、预算工委基层联系点作用,充分听取人民群众对相关工作的意见建议。

– Optimizing public participation in legislation and oversight. The state will improve the mechanisms for public participation in making laws, regulations and rules, in formulating national plans for economic and social development, and in other major decision-making processes. In soliciting public opinions on draft laws, the NPC will improve the feedback mechanism. The Legislative Affairs Commission and the Budgetary Affairs Commission of the NPC Standing Committee will continue to solicit public views and suggestions regarding their work through their grassroots offices.

——推动协商民主广泛、多层、制度化发展。统筹推进政党协商、人大协商、政府协商、政协协商、人民团体协商、基层协商以及社会组织协商。全国政协通过双周协商座谈会、提案办理协商、网络议政、远程协商、对口协商、界别协商等形式,拓展协商广度和深度。健全城乡社区协商制度,拓宽群众参与基层治理的制度化渠道。

– Advancing extensive, multilevel, and institutionalized development of consultative democracy. The state takes a coordinated approach to promoting consultation carried out by political parties, people’s congresses, government departments, Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC) committees, people’s organizations, communities, and social organizations. The CPPCC is expanding consultative democracy in an all-round way through biweekly consultative forums, consultations on the handling of proposals, online deliberation of state affairs, remote consultations, and consultations with relevant Party and government departments and specific social sectors. The state will further institutionalize grassroots consultation and broaden the channels for public participation in community-level governance.

——完善基层群众自治制度。推进基层直接民主制度化、规范化、程序化。鼓励制定居民自治章程、居民公约、村规民约、村民自治章程。落实村(居)务公开制度。

– Enhancing the system for community-level self-governance. The state will improve the institutions, standards, and procedures of direct democracy at the grassroots level, and encourage urban and rural communities to draw up their own rules and regulations on self-governance. The state will step up efforts to implement the system for making community affairs more transparent.

——健全企事业单位民主管理制度。深入推进厂务公开,规范民主程序,保障职工知情权、参与权、表达权和监督权,有效参与企事业单位民主管理。发挥职工代表大会在涉及职工福利及社会保险制度政策落实过程中的积极作用。企业制定、修改或者决定直接涉及劳动者切身利益的规章制度或者重大事项方案,必须提交职代会审议,并向职工公开。

– Improving democratic management of enterprises and public institutions. The state will continue to provide open access to the affairs of enterprises and public institutions and improve procedures for democracy. In doing so it guarantees the rights of employees to be informed, to participate, to be heard and to exercise public scrutiny, and facilitate their effective participation in the democratic management of their enterprises and institutions. The role of employee congresses will be reinforced to support policies concerning welfare and social security for employees. When formulating, revising or determining rules, regulations or major programs concerning the immediate interests of employees, enterprises must bring the issues to employee congresses for deliberation and keep the employees informed.

——鼓励社会力量参与社会治理。发挥群团组织和社会组织在社会治理中的作用,畅通和规范市场主体、新社会阶层、社会工作者和志愿者等参与社会治理的途径。

– Encouraging nongovernmental actors to participate in social governance. The state gives full play to the role of people’s organizations and social organizations in the governance of society. It supports and properly regulates the channels for market entities, new social groups, social workers, and volunteers to participate in social governance.

(七)表达权和监督权

7. Rights to Be Heard and to Exercise Public Scrutiny

依法保障公民的表达权和监督权,丰富表达手段,畅通公民诉求表达渠道,发挥公民监督在监督体系中的作用。

The state protects citizens’ rights to be heard and to exercise public scrutiny in accordance with the law, providing them with diverse and convenient channels to express their views, and strengthening the role of the public in the national system for supervising the exercise of power.

——依法保障和规范网络表达。依法建好用好互联网,为公民通过网络反映问题、表达诉求、建言献策提供充分的便利。运用大数据、云计算、人工智能等技术手段,全面收集、及时回应民众的意见建议。

– Enabling and regulating online expression of views. The state will make full use of the internet in accordance with the law to facilitate citizens’ expression of concerns, complaints and suggestions, and employ big data, cloud computing, artificial intelligence and other technologies to collect and respond to public opinion and proposals in a timely manner.

——完善信制度。完善和落实信访制度,依法及时就地解决群众合理诉求。推进诉访分离和分类处理工作,将信访纳入法治化轨道。构建汇集社情民意工作平台,健全人民建议征集制度,及时了解民情、听取民意、汇集民智。完善网上受理信访制度,有序推进信访信息系统互联互通、信息共享。健全集中解决信访突出问题长效机制,落实信访工作责任制,加大解决信访问题的力度,切实维护公民合法权益。

– Better addressing public complaints. The state will improve the system for handling people’s complaints, and take prompt action to address their legitimate concerns in situ in accordance with the law. Greater efforts will be made to separate litigation from complaints, and establish a legal framework for managing complaints. To understand the people’s needs and concerns and pool their wisdom and strength, the state will build a platform for collecting public opinion and improve the system for soliciting public proposals.

Online channels for receiving complaints will be improved, and public complaint information systems will be connected nationwide to strengthen information-sharing among the government departments concerned. The state will improve the long-term mechanism for solving prominent problems in handling public complaints and implement accountability, to strengthen the protection of citizens’ statutory rights.

——完善人大监督制度。加强宪法实施和监督,落实宪法解释程序机制,推进合宪性审查,建立健全涉及宪法问题的事先审查和咨询制度,完善备案审查制度。

– Strengthening supervision by the people’s congresses. The NPC and its Standing Committee will work harder to ensure the application of the Constitution, improve procedures and mechanisms for interpreting the Constitution, and reinforce constitutionality reviews. A system for advance review and consultation concerning constitutional issues will be established, and the system for recording and reviewing normative documents will be improved.

——加强对行政权力的监督。研究起草行政程序法,修改行政复议法,加大对行政行为的监督纠错力度。保障公民和社会组织通过申请行政复议、提起行政诉讼对行政机关进行监督的权利。

– Increasing supervision over the exercise of administrative power. An administrative procedure law will be drafted, and the Law on Administrative Review will be amended, to intensify supervision over the exercise of administrative power and rectify administrative malpractices. The state protects the rights of citizens and social organizations to supervise administrative bodies by requesting administrative review and initiating administrative litigation.

——强化社会监督。鼓励媒体和公民通过新闻报道和舆论进行社会监督。完善人民监督员监督制度。细化保护检举控告人情形的法律规定,明确界定打击报复行为及其法律后果。

– Improving public scrutiny. The state encourages media and citizens to exercise supervision through news reports and public opinion, and improves the system of people’s supervisors. Relevant laws will be elaborated to better protect people who file reports or accusations of wrongdoing, and to make clear the legal consequences of retaliation against them.

——加强基层监督。建立健全村(居)务监督委员会,促进村级事务公开公平公正,切实保障村(居)民合法权益和村(居)集体利益。编制村级小微权力清单,建立健全小微权力监督制度,形成群众监督、村务委员会监督、上级党组织和有关部门监督与会计核算监督、审计监督等全程实时、多方联网的监督体系。

– Enhancing grassroots supervision. Village supervision committees will be strengthened to ensure greater transparency, equity and justice in village affairs, and to protect the lawful rights and interests of villagers and village collectives. The introduction of a list of powers for village work will help to install a system for overseeing the exercise of power at village level, and to form a complete, thorough and coordinated supervision network involving the villagers, village affairs supervision committees, Party organizations at the next level up, accounting and auditing bodies, and other relevant authorities.

(八)获得公正审判的权利

8. Right to a Fair Trial

全面落实司法责任制,推进审判体系和审判能力现代化,保障当事人获得公正审判的权利,努力让人民群众在每一个司法案件中感受到公平正义。

The state will enforce full judicial accountability, modernize China’s judicial system and capacity, and guarantee the right to a fair trial, so that equity and justice are served in every judicial case.

——全面落实司法责任制。确保人民法院依法独立公正行使审判权,健全司法履职保障和违法审判责任追究机制。构建公正高效的检察权运行机制和公平合理的司法责任认定、追究机制,强化检察机关法律监督职能。

– Enforcing full judicial accountability. The state is committed to ensuring that the people’s courts exercise adjudicative power independently and impartially in accordance with the law, and is working to improve the mechanisms for guaranteeing the fulfillment of statutory judicial duties and enforcing accountability for unlawful judgment. To strengthen legal oversight by prosecuting bodies, the state is also building a mechanism for the impartial and efficient exercise of prosecuting powers and a mechanism for the fair determination of judicial liabilities and ensuing punishments.

——完善执法司法制约监督体系改革和建设。推进公安机关受立案制度改革,切实落实执法过错责任追究制度。加强检察机关对刑事立案、侦查、审判活动的监督。

– Reforming and improving checks and oversight of judicial and law enforcement activities. Public security agencies will further reform the case filing system, and ensure accountability in law enforcement. The prosecuting bodies will increase oversight of the filing, investigation and prosecution of criminal cases.

——深化以审判为中心的刑事诉讼制度改革。保护当事人诉讼权利。严格执行庭前会议、非法证据排除、法庭调查三项规程,推进庭审实质化。完善对证人、鉴定人、被害人、报案人等的保护措施。完善认罪认罚从宽制度。

– Advancing reform to establish a criminal procedure system with a focus on court proceedings. The rights of all parties involved are protected. The mandatory procedures of pretrial hearings, exclusion of illegally obtained evidence, and court investigation will be strictly implemented, to ensure that court trials play the decisive role in judicial decisions. Measures for protecting witnesses, authenticators, victims, and those who report offences will be improved. Leniency will be better applied to those who confess their crimes and submit to punishment in criminal proceedings.

——加强律师执业权利保障。推进刑事案件律师辩护全覆盖。保障刑事辩护律师依法执业权利。加强和改进看守所律师会见工作,进一步增加律师会见室数量,完善预约会见机制。

– Reinforcing protection of lawyers’ right to practice. Legal defense will be provided in all criminal cases, and defense lawyers’ lawful rights are protected. Measures will be taken to better facilitate meetings between lawyers and detainees at detention houses, including providing more meeting rooms, and improving the meeting appointment mechanism.

——促进和规范法律援助工作。制定法律援助法。向经济困难公民和符合法定条件的其他当事人无偿提供法律咨询、代理、刑事辩护、值班律师法律帮助等法律服务。落实刑事诉讼法及相关配套制度关于法律援助规定,提升刑事法律援助服务的可及性和实效性。

– Enhancing and regulating legal aid. A new law on legal aid is being formulated. Citizens in financial difficulties and others eligible for legal aid will be provided with legal advice, legal representation, criminal defense, and duty counsel services for free. Provisions on legal aid prescribed in the Criminal Procedure Law and related regulations will be better applied to raise the availability and effectiveness of legal aid in criminal cases.

——推进人民陪审员制度改革。实施人民陪审员法,落实人民陪审员选任新机制,完善人民陪审员参审和管理保障机制,强化人民陪审员实质参审能力,细化人民陪审员参审案件范围。

– Improving the system of people’s jurors. The state will strengthen implementation of the Law on People’s Jurors and the new mechanism for selecting and appointing people’s jurors. The management of people’s jurors will be improved to guarantee their participation in trials and increase their capacity to perform their functions. The scope of cases for their participation will be better defined.

——加强诉讼服务体系建设。努力提供普惠均等、便捷高效、智能精准的诉讼服务。探索建立民生案件“绿色通道”,对涉及弱势群体和基本民生的案件实行快立、快审、快结、快执。

– Strengthening litigation services. The goal is to make litigation services universally available, equally accessible, convenient, efficient, smart and targeted. Processes for filing, court proceedings, settlement, and enforcement of rulings will be expedited for cases concerning vulnerable groups or infringements of citizens’ fundamental rights and interests.

——推进智慧诉讼服务建设。研发智能辅助软件,为当事人提供诉讼风险评估、诉前调解建议、自助查询咨询、业务网上办理等服务,切实减轻人民群众诉累。

– Developing smart litigation services. To make litigation easier for the public, intelligent software will be developed to provide citizens with litigation risk assessment, advice on pretrial mediation, information searching and counseling, and access to online judicial services.

——完善公益诉讼法律制度。拓展公益诉讼案件范围,探索建立生态环境、食品药品安全领域民事公益诉讼惩罚性赔偿制度。

– Optimizing public-interest litigation. The scope of public-interest cases will be expanded. A punitive compensation system will be introduced into public-interest civil litigation concerning the eco-environment and food and drug safety.

——完善国家赔偿和司法救助制度。完善国家赔偿和司法救助制度,加强国家赔偿审判工作,依法维护赔偿请求人合法权益。建立健全司法救助与社会救助的衔接机制。

– Improving the state compensation and judicial assistance systems. Greater efforts will be made to handle cases involving state compensation, and to protect the lawful rights and interests of applicants for state compensation. A mechanism will be established to enhance judicial assistance and better coordinate it with social assistance.

三、环境权利

III. Environmental Rights

实施可持续发展战略,落实减污降碳总要求,推动绿色发展,构建生态文明体系,完善生态环境法律法规制度体系,加快推动绿色低碳发展,改善生态环境质量,不断满足人民群众日益增长的优美生态环境需要,促进人与自然和谐共生。

China will implement a strategy of sustainable development, follow the general principle of reducing pollution and carbon emission, and promote green development. It will build a system to secure eco-environmental progress, improve the legal system for environmental protection, and accelerate green and low-carbon development. It will improve the environment, constantly meet people’s increasing demands for a beautiful environment, and ensure harmony between man and nature.

(一)污染防治

1. Pollution Prevention and Control

深入打好污染防治攻坚战,持续改善生态环境质量。

China will fight and win the battle against pollution and continuously improve the eco-environment.

——推进空气质量持续改善。继续开展大气污染防治行动,统筹大气污染物与温室气体协同减排,推进全国空气质量持续改善,基本消除重污染天气。地级及以上城市PM2.5平均浓度下降10%,氮氧化物和挥发性有机物排放总量分别下降10%以上。

– Improving air quality. The state will take further actions to prevent and control atmospheric pollution, and coordinate its commitments to reducing air pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions. It will keep improving air quality across the country and largely eliminate heavy pollution. Specific targets include: the average PM2.5 intensity in cities at or above the prefectural level to fall by 10 percent; the total emissions of nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds both to drop by more than 10 percent.

——持续强化水污染防治。开展城市黑臭水体治理环境保护专项行动,基本消除城市建成区内黑臭水体。加强城镇(园区)污水处理环境管理,推进乡镇级集中式饮用水水源保护区划定。开展重点海域综合治理,推进美丽海湾保护与建设。

– Strengthening water treatment and protection. China will continue the environmental protection campaign to treat black and malodorous water bodies in cities and largely eliminate such phenomena in urban built-up areas. More efforts will be made to treat sewage in cities, towns and industrial parks and designate township-level concentrated drinking water source protection areas. The state will carry out comprehensive environmental improvement projects in key waters and preserve and enhance beautiful bays.

——推进土壤污染防治。巩固提升农用地安全利用水平,实施农药化肥减量行动,治理农膜污染。推动土壤污染重点监管单位落实土壤污染防治义务。

– Intensifying soil conservation. China will consolidate and improve the safe use of agricultural land, reduce the use of pesticides and chemical fertilizers, and treat the pollution caused by agricultural plastic film. Departments taking major responsibility for supervision will be urged to fulfill their obligations in soil pollution prevention and control.

——加强污水和废弃物治理。推进城镇污水管网全覆盖,城市污泥无害化处置率达到90%,地级及以上缺水城市污水资源化利用率超过25%。以主要产业基地为重点布局危险废弃物集中利用处置设施。加快建设地级及以上城市医疗废弃物集中处理设施,健全县域医疗废弃物收集转运处置体系。

– Improving the treatment of sewage and solid waste. China will achieve full coverage of sewage pipe networks in urban areas, and ensure that treatment to render sewage sludge harmless reaches 90 percent and that the rate of utilizing municipal sewage as a resource exceeds 25 percent in water-constrained cities at the prefectural level and above. Centralized hazardous waste reuse and disposal facilities will be built with major industrial bases as the main locations. Efforts will be made to speed up the construction of centralized medical waste disposal facilities in cities at the prefectural level and above, and improve the collection, transport and disposal system for medical waste in every county.

——优化城乡垃圾治理。地级及以上城市基本建立生活垃圾分类投放、分类收集、分类运输、分类处理系统,全国城市生活垃圾回收利用率达到35%以上。全面推进农村生活垃圾治理,基本实现收运处置体系全覆盖。

– Improving garbage disposal in urban and rural areas. A basic system for dropping, collecting, transporting and disposing of sorted household garbage will be established in cities at the prefectural level and above. The national urban household garbage recycling rate will exceed 35 percent. Rural household garbage disposal will be advanced comprehensively, to realize extensive coverage of the waste collection, transport and disposal systems.

——加强环境法治建设。完善生态环境法律法规制度体系。推动黄河治理、噪声污染防治、海洋环境保护、碳排放权交易管理、生态环境监测等法律法规的制修订工作。稳步推进生态环境标准制修订。推进生态环境保护综合执法改革。依法严厉打击生态环境领域违法犯罪行为。

– Improving law-based environmental governance. China will improve its eco-environmental legal system. It will formulate and revise laws and regulations on Yellow River harnessing, noise pollution prevention and control, marine environmental protection, carbon emission trading management and eco-environmental monitoring. It will steadily push forward the formulation and revision of environmental standards, carry on the reform of comprehensive environmental law enforcement, and take resolute action against illegal and criminal activities in the eco-environmental field in accordance with the law.

(二)生态环境信息公开

2. Eco-Environmental Information Disclosure

加大环境信息公开力度,切实保障公众知情权。

China will make environmental information more transparent, and effectively guarantee people’s right to be informed.

——加强政府环境信息公开。负有生态环境保护职责的部门通过政府网站、公报、新闻发布会以及媒体等便于公众知晓的方式,主动向社会公开生态环境信息。

– Strengthening government information release. Eco-environmental protection departments will disclose timely eco-environmental information to the public through government websites, press briefings, media and other means that are convenient for the public.

——完善企业环境信息依法披露制度。制定环境信息依法披露管理办法,推进环境信息依法披露制度改革,确定强制性披露主体和披露内容,完善披露形式,及时披露主要环境信息。规范上市公司、发债企业环境信息依法披露,强化环境信息强制性披露行业管理,建立环境信息共享机制。

– Improving law-based disclosure of corporate information. The state will formulate regulatory measures for and promote the reform of law-based disclosure of environmental information, and clarify the responsibility for and content of mandatory disclosure. The forms of disclosure will be improved and major environmental information will be released in a timely manner. Relevant departments will standardize environmental information disclosure by listed companies and bond issuing enterprises in accordance with the law, strengthen the sector-specific management of mandatory environmental information disclosure, and establish a mechanism for sharing environmental information.

(三)环境决策公众参与

3. Public Participation in Environmental Decision-Making

制定实施环境影响评价法,落实环境影响评价公众参与办法,促进公众有效参与环境决策。

China will formulate and enforce environmental impact evaluation law and implement the measures for public participation in environmental impact evaluation, to facilitate effective public participation in environmental decision-making.

——鼓励公众参与环境影响评价。对于可能造成不良环境影响并直接涉及公众环境权益的专项规划,鼓励公众参与环境影响评价。

– Encouraging public participation. The state encourages the public to participate in the environmental impact evaluation of special plans that may cause adverse environmental impact and directly affect the environmental rights of the public.

——健全公众环境监督机制。支持全国各地“12369环境保护投诉举报电话”与“12345政务服务便民热线”归并运行工作。做好微信网络环保举报工作,督促解决公众身边突出生态环境问题。

– Improving supervisory mechanism. Measures will be taken to support the integration of the 12369 hotline for reporting environmental problems and the 12345 service hotline across the country. Complaints and reports of environmental problems via the WeChat platform will be handled promptly to help resolve prominent environmental problems affecting the immediate interests of the public.

(四)环境公益诉讼和生态环境损害赔偿

4. Public Interest Environmental Litigation and Eco-Environmental Damage Compensation

深入开展环境公益诉讼,拓宽环境公益诉讼受案范围,完善环境公益诉讼制度和生态环境损害赔偿制度。

China will encourage and expand the scope of public interest environmental litigation, and improve the systems of public interest environmental litigation and compensation for eco-environmental damage.

——加强环境公益诉讼制度建设。探索开展预防性环境公益诉讼,研究制定环境保护禁止令制度相关规则,发布环境公益诉讼指导性案例。

– Improving the litigation system. China will explore the scope of preventative public interest environmental litigation, formulate rules on implementing environmental bans, and publicize exemplary cases of public interest environmental litigation.

——完善生态环境损害赔偿制度。省级、地级政府作为本行政区域生态环境损害索赔权利人,依法追究损害生态环境责任者的赔偿责任,修复生态环境,维护国家生态安全。

– Improving damage compensation system. Provincial and prefectural governments, as the claimants of eco-environmental damages within their respective jurisdiction, will hold those who cause damage accountable in accordance with the law, restore the eco-environment, and safeguard ecological security of the nation.

(五)国土空间生态保护修复

5. Territorial Eco-Environmental Restoration and Protection

坚持山水林田湖草系统治理,加大生态保护和修复力度,着力提高生态系统自我修复能力和稳定性,共建地球生命共同体。

China will adopt a holistic approach to conserving mountains, rivers, forests, farmlands, lakes, and grasslands. It will make greater efforts to protect and restore ecosystems, enhance their self-restoring capacity and stability, and participate in shaping a shared future for all life on earth.

——实施重要生态系统保护和修复重大工程。加快推进青藏高原生态屏障区、黄河重点生态区、长江重点生态区和东北森林带、北方防沙带、南方丘陵山地带、海岸带等生态屏障建设。加强长江、黄河等大江大河和重要湖泊湿地生态保护治理,湿地保护率提高到55%。推行草原森林河流湖泊休养生息,健全耕地休耕轮作制度。构建国家-地方互联互通的重要生态系统保护和修复重大工程监测监管平台,开展生态状况评价监测。

– Carrying out major projects for protecting and restoring key ecosystems. China will accelerate the building of ecosystem shields including the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau ecosystem shields, the Yellow River and Yangtze River key ecosystem zones, the Northeast forest belt, the North China sand control belt, the South China hilly and mountainous belt, and coastal belts. It will strengthen the protection and improvement of wetlands in the basins of the Yangtze River, the Yellow River and major lakes. The protection rate of wetlands will reach 55 percent. China will promote the rehabilitation of grassland, forests, rivers and lakes, and improve the systems of crop rotation and fallowing. It will build an interconnected national-local platform for evaluating such projects and monitoring eco-environmental conditions.

——构建自然保护地体系。严格管控自然保护地范围内非生态活动,推进三江源、东北虎豹、大熊猫和海南热带雨林等国家公园建设,新整合设立秦岭、黄河口等国家公园。

– Building a system of nature reserves. The government will rigorously control destructive activities within nature reserves. It will advance the building of national parks including Sanjiangyuan (source of the Yangtze, Yellow and Lancang rivers) and parks for protecting Northeast China tigers and leopards, great pandas and Hainan rain forests. Qinling Mountains, the Yellow River Estuary and other national parks will be established through reorganization.

——实施生物多样性保护重大工程。建设珍稀濒危野生动植物基因保存库、救护繁育场所,专项拯救48种极度濒危野生动物和50种极小种群野生植物。

– Carrying out major projects of biodiversity protection. China will build gene banks and rescue and breeding centers for rare and endangered wild animal and plant species, and set up special programs to save 48 critically endangered wild animal species and 50 plant species with extremely small populations.

(六)应对气候变化

6. Response to Climate Change

减少温室气体排放,增强气候变化适应能力,积极参与全球气候变化治理,实现可持续发展。

China will reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and increase its adaptability to climate change. It will actively participate in global climate governance and realize sustainable development.

——努力实现碳达峰、碳中和目标。制定《关于全面贯彻新发展理念做好碳达峰碳中和工作的意见》,编制《2030年前碳排放达峰行动方案》,构建碳达峰、碳中和“1+N”政策体系,落实应对气候变化国家自主贡献目标。完善能源消费总量和强度双控制度,重点控制化石能源消费。实施以碳强度控制为主、碳排放总量控制为辅的制度,支持有条件的地方和重点行业、重点企业率先达到碳排放峰值。提升生态碳汇能力,强化国土空间规划和用途管控,有效发挥森林、草原、湿地、海洋、土壤、冻土的固碳作用,提升生态系统碳汇增量。加强青藏高原综合科学考察研究。

– Peaking carbon emissions and achieving carbon neutrality. To achieve the Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) on climate change, China will formulate a document on the guiding principles for reaching peak carbon emissions and carbon neutrality by fully applying the new development philosophy, and an action plan for peaking its carbon emissions before 2030, to form a policy system for achieving these goals in various regions, sectors and industries. It will improve the double control system over total energy consumption and energy intensity, with controlling fossil energy consumption as one of the main thrusts. A system will be implemented with carbon intensity control as the main target and total carbon emissions control as the secondary target. Localities with requisite conditions and key sectors and enterprises will be supported to peak carbon emissions first. China will raise the capacity of ecosystems to absorb carbon from the atmosphere. It will strengthen territorial planning and land use regulation, ensure that forests, grasslands, wetlands, seas, soil and frozen ground play an effective role as carbon sinks, and boost the carbon absorption increments of ecosystems. Comprehensive scientific investigation and research of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau will be intensified.

——提升适应气候变化能力。编制实施《国家适应气候变化战略2035》,加强全球气候变暖对中国承受力脆弱地区影响的监测和评估,提升城乡建设、农业生产、基础设施适应气候变化能力。

– Increasing adaptability to climate change. The state will formulate and implement the National Climate Change Adaptation Strategy 2035, better monitor and assess the impact of global climate change on vulnerable regions in the country, and improve the climate adaptability of urban and rural development, agricultural production and infrastructure.

——加强气候变化国际合作。坚持公平、共同但有区别的责任及各自能力原则,建设性参与和引领应对气候变化国际合作,推动落实《联合国气候变化框架公约》及其《巴黎协定》,积极开展气候变化南南合作

– Strengthening international cooperation. China will maintain its commitment to the principles of equity, common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, and constructively lead and participate in international cooperation on climate change. It will press ahead with the implementation of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Paris Agreement, and actively carry out South-South cooperation on climate change.

四、特定群体权益保障

IV. Protecting the Rights of Particular Groups

完善对少数民族、妇女、儿童、老年人、残疾人等各类特定群体权益的平等保障和特殊保护,建立常态和非常态相结合的特定群体权益保障机制,促进所有人的全面发展。

China will continue to ensure equal rights for ethnic minority groups, women, children, the elderly, persons with disabilities, and other disadvantaged groups and improve special protection for them. It will introduce a mechanism to this end, for both everyday work and special occasions, to provide for the well-rounded development of all.

(一)少数民族权益

1. Rights of Ethnic Minority Groups

坚持和完善民族区域自治制度,铸牢中华民族共同体意识,支持民族地区加快发展,保障各少数民族的合法权益。

Upholding and improving regional ethnic autonomy, the government supports ethnic minority areas in their endeavors to pursue faster development, and protects the legitimate rights and interests of ethnic minority groups, with the goal of heightening the sense of identity of the Chinese nation.

——依法治理民族事务。全面贯彻落实民族区域自治法,健全民族工作法律法规体系,确保各族公民在法律面前人人平等,反对一切形式的民族歧视。

– Governing ethnic affairs by law. China fully enforces the Law on Regional Ethnic Autonomy. It will improve laws and regulations related to ethnic minorities and their affairs, and ensure citizens from all ethnic groups are equal before the law. China opposes any form of ethnic discrimination.

——保障少数民族平等参与管理国家和社会事务的权利。全国人民代表大会代表名额的分配保证各民族都有适当数量的代表。有少数民族聚居的地方,保证每一聚居的少数民族都有代表参加当地的人民代表大会。保证55个少数民族都有本民族的全国人大代表,人口特少的民族至少也有一名代表。积极培养、选拔少数民族干部。

– Protecting the right to participate as equals in administering state and social affairs. All ethnic groups have a certain proportion of deputies to the NPC. In areas with large ethnic minority populations, all ethnic minority groups are guaranteed to have deputies to local people’s congresses. All 55 ethnic minority groups have deputies to the NPC, and those with very small populations have at least one deputy. More efforts will be made to train and select ethnic minority officials.

——保障少数民族经济发展权利。完善差别化区域政策,支持和帮助民族地区加快发展,深入推进兴边富民行动,不断提高各族群众生活水平。

– Protecting the right to economic development. The state will improve differentiated policies for supporting and helping ethnic minority areas to pursue faster growth, and make greater efforts to help border areas and their residents to achieve prosperity, so that people of all ethnic groups enjoy better lives.

——保障少数民族受教育权利。提高民族地区教育质量和水平,加大国家通用语言文字推广力度。加快普及民族地区学前教育,均衡发展民族地区义务教育。培养各级各类少数民族人才。进一步健全教育对口支援机制。

– Protecting the right to education. The state will improve the quality of education and promote standard spoken and written Chinese in ethnic minority areas. Preschool education will be accessible for more residents in these areas, compulsory education will develop more evenly, and paired-up assistance in education will be carried out more effectively, to cultivate talent of all kinds and at all levels.

——保障少数民族学习使用和发展本民族语言文字的权利。国家依法保障少数民族语言文字在行政司法、新闻出版、广播影视、文化教育等各领域的合法使用。加强对少数民族语言文字的科学保护。

– Protecting the right to learn, use and develop their own spoken and written languages. The state protects by law the legitimate use of the spoken and written languages of ethnic minorities in the areas of administration and judicature, press and publishing, radio, film and television, and culture and education. It will step up protection of the spoken and written languages of ethnic minorities.

——保障少数民族文化权利。推动各民族文化的传承保护和创新交融,提升民族地区公共文化服务水平。保护和传承少数民族传统文化。做好少数民族古籍保护、抢救、整理、出版和研究工作。开展少数民族古籍数字化建设。办好第六届全国少数民族文艺会演。开展好少数民族语电视剧译制片源捐赠工作。

– Protecting cultural rights. The state will further promote the continuation, protection, improvement, and integration of ethnic cultures, and bring better public cultural services to ethnic minority areas. Traditional ethnic minority cultures will be better protected and passed on. Greater efforts will be made in preserving, rescuing, cataloguing, publishing and studying ancient books of ethnic minorities, which will also be stored in digital forms. China will hold the sixth National Ethnic Minority Variety Performance. More domestically made TV series will be made available free of charge for dubbing into ethnic minority languages.

(二)妇女权益

2. Women’s Rights

贯彻落实男女平等基本国策,全面落实《中国妇女发展纲要(2021-2030年)》。持续改善妇女发展环境,促进妇女依法平等行使权利、参与经济社会发展,共享发展成果。

China will continue to implement the basic national policy of gender equality, and enforce the Outline for the Development of Women in China (2021-2030). It will improve the environment for women’s development, facilitate their exercise of rights prescribed by law as equal citizens, increase their participation in socioeconomic development, and ensure their share of development benefits.

——促进妇女平等参与管理国家和社会事务。保障妇女平等享有政治权利,推动妇女广泛参与社会事务和民主管理。逐步提高女性在各级人大代表、政协委员中的比例。培养选拔更多女干部。村(居)民委员会成员中女性比例稳步提高。大力推动基层妇女广泛参与协商议事。

– Promoting women’s participation as equals in administering state and social affairs. China ensures women’s equal political rights, and encourages their participation in social affairs and democratic management. The proportion of women will be increased gradually in people’s congresses and people’s political consultative conferences at all levels. China will train and select more women officials, and in particular increase the number of women on village/community committees steadily. Women will be encouraged to participate extensively in consultation and deliberation on grassroots affairs.

——完善妇女权益保障制度。修改妇女权益保障法。检察机关积极探索开展相关领域公益诉讼。对通过大众传媒或者其他方式贬低损害妇女人格、侵害妇女财产权益、在就业等领域歧视妇女以及不履行预防和制止家庭暴力职责等侵害不特定多数妇女合法权益、损害社会公共利益的行为,检察机关可以发出检察建议或提起公益诉讼。

– Improving the legal framework for protecting women’s rights and interests. China will revise the Law on the Protection of Women’s Rights and Interests. The prosecuting bodies will introduce public interest litigation in some areas on a trial basis. They can make procuratorial suggestions or initiate public interest lawsuits regarding acts that degrade or undermine women’s dignity via mass media or other means, acts that infringe upon women’s property rights, acts that discriminate against women in employment, failure to perform the duties to prevent and stop domestic violence, and other acts that undermine the legitimate rights and interests of a number of unspecified women and harm the public interest.

——保障妇女人身权利。倡导性别平等、责任共担的新型家庭文化。预防和制止针对妇女的一切形式家庭暴力,依法适用人身安全保护令和家庭暴力告诫制度,有效预防和依法打击性侵、拐卖妇女的犯罪行为。提升预防和制止性骚扰的法律意识,有效遏制针对女性的性骚扰。保护妇女免遭网络违法犯罪行为的侵害。

– Protecting women’s personal rights. China advocates a family culture underpinned by gender equality and sharing of responsibilities. The state prohibits and acts to prevent all forms of domestic violence against women. It issues personal protection orders and admonitions against domestic violence by law, and effectively prevents and combats sexual assaults on and trafficking of women. It will increase public awareness against sexual harassment, take effective measures to curb sexual harassment directed at women, and protect women from cybercrimes.

——保障妇女财产权益。保障妇女在家庭关系中的财产所有权和继承权,保障妇女对婚姻家庭关系中共有财产享有知情权和平等处理权。保障农村妇女平等享有土地承包经营权、宅基地使用权等不动产权益,平等享有集体经济组织收益分配、土地征收或征用安置补偿权益。

– Protecting women’s property rights. The state protects women’s property and inheritance rights, and the rights to know about and dispose of community property on an equal basis in the family. Rural women are guaranteed equal rights to land contract and management, to the use of rural residential land, and other real estate, and to a share in the collective income of their villages and compensation for land expropriation and resettlement.

——保障妇女平等享有受教育权利。依法保障女性平等接受义务教育、高中阶段教育及高等教育的权利。提高女性科学素养,培养女性科技人才,为女性终身学习提供支持。

– Protecting women’s equal right to education. The state protects women’s equal right to compulsory education, senior-high education, and higher learning in accordance with the law. More support will be given to cultivating women technicians and scientists, and to lifelong learning for women.

——保障妇女平等就业权利。消除就业性别歧视。规范招聘行为,用人单位在招聘过程中,除国家另有规定外,不得限定男性或者规定男性优先。将就业性别歧视问题纳入劳动保障监察工作之中。对涉嫌就业性别歧视的用人单位开展联合约谈。

– Protecting women’s equal right to employment. Gender discrimination in employment will be eliminated. When recruiting, employers cannot select from male candidates only or make any preference of male candidates over female candidates, unless otherwise specified by the state. Gender discrimination in employment will come under the supervision of labor security. Those suspected of gender discrimination in employment will receive admonitions and warnings from relevant state departments.

——促进工作场所性别平等。用人单位建立健全劳动就业、薪酬待遇、职业发展、生育保护以及帮助职工平衡工作和家庭责任、预防和制止职场性骚扰等工作场所性别平等制度机制,推动建立家庭友好型工作场所。支持和帮助女性实现家庭和工作的平衡。

– Promoting gender equality in the workplace. Employers will formulate mechanisms that ensure gender equality in terms of employment, salary, career development and maternity protection, and mechanisms that help employees, women in particular, balance work and family responsibilities, prevent and stop workplace sexual harassment, and ultimately, make the workplace family-friendly.

——缓解妇女的家庭育儿负担。发展普惠托育服务体系。支持150个城市利用社会力量发展综合托育服务机构和社区托育服务设施。着力补齐农村地区和城市新增人口集中地区资源短板,进一步完善普惠性学前教育保障机制。加强中小学课后服务,探索实施父母育儿假,减轻家庭生育、养育、教育负担。

– Alleviating women’s burden of childrearing. Public-interest childcare services will be developed. Support will be given to developing private childcare services and community facilities in 150 cities. More resources will be channeled to rural areas as well as urban areas with large population inflows, and measures will be taken to increase access to public-interest preschool education. After-class services will be strengthened at elementary and secondary schools, and parental leave will be provided on a trial basis, so as to alleviate the burden of bearing, raising and educating children.

——保障妇女享有卫生健康服务。加大妇女常见病防治力度,完善宫颈癌、乳腺癌综合防治体系和救助政策。探索开展青春期、育龄期、孕产期、更老年期保健专科服务,提供妇女全生命周期健康服务。巩固母婴安全五项制度,确保全国孕产妇死亡率持续稳中有降。加强符合妇女需求的母婴室、卫生厕所建设。

– Protecting women’s access to health services. Efforts will be strengthened to prevent and treat common diseases in women, and the prevention and control mechanism for cervical and breast cancer and the policies for helping victims in need will be improved. Pilot programs will be initiated to provide targeted health services for women in adolescence, pregnancy, childbirth, menopause, and old age, so that their health needs are covered throughout their life cycle. The five mechanisms for maternal and infant safety  will be consolidated to ensure a steady decline in maternal and perinatal mortality rate. More rooms for nursing mothers and family restrooms will be built.

——关心关爱困境妇女。各级人民政府和有关部门采取必要措施,确保低收入、残疾、患重病、留守、单亲母亲等困境妇女享有相应的权益保障,为其提供必要的生活救助和关爱服务。

– Supporting women in need. Governments at all levels and relevant departments shall take necessary measures to ensure the rights of low-income or seriously ill women, those with disabilities, those left behind by their migrant worker partners, single mothers and other women in need, and provide them with necessary assistance and services.

(三)儿童权益

3. Children’s Rights

坚持儿童优先原则,全面落实《中国儿童发展纲要(2021-2030年)》,保障儿童生存、发展、受保护和参与的权利,缩小儿童发展的城乡、区域和群体差距,促进儿童健康、全面发展。

The state prioritizes children’s protection. By carrying out the Program for the Development of Children in China (2021-2030), it is committed to ensuring children’s rights to survival, development, protection and participation, narrowing the gap in children’s development between urban and rural areas, and among different parts of the country and communities, and promoting the healthy and well-rounded development of children.

——保障未成年人的人格权。学校、幼儿园的教职员工应当尊重未成年人人格尊严,不得对未成年人实施体罚、变相体罚或者其他侮辱人格尊严的行为。禁止对儿童进行殴打、体罚、虐待等一切形式的家庭暴力。任何组织或者个人不得通过网络以文字、图片、音视频等形式,对未成年人实施侮辱、诽谤、威胁或者恶意损害形象等网络欺凌行为。保护未成年人隐私权和个人信息,新闻媒体采访报道涉及未成年人事件应当客观、审慎和适度,不得侵犯未成年人的名誉、隐私和其他合法权益。

– Protecting minors’ right to dignity. Faculties and staff of schools and kindergartens should respect minors’ dignity. They must not use corporal punishment in any form against minors or degrade their dignity in any other way. Beatings, corporal punishment, maltreatment and all other forms of domestic violence against children are prohibited. No organization or individual may degrade, defame, threaten or maliciously damage the image of minors in the forms of text, picture, audio and video through the internet. Minors’ privacy and personal information are protected. News media should report on events involving minors in an objective, prudent and befitting manner, and must not infringe on the reputation, privacy and other lawful rights of minors.

——保障儿童的知情权和参与权。重视听取并采纳儿童的合理意见。未成年人的父母或者其他监护人应当根据未成年人的年龄和智力发展状况,在作出与未成年人权益有关的决定前,听取未成年人的意见,充分考虑其真实意愿。

– Protecting children’s rights to be informed and participate. Reasonable suggestions from children should be heard and adopted. Before making decisions concerning the rights and interests of minors, the parents or other guardians of minors should hear what they think and consider their wishes fully, with due consideration to their age and mentality.

——提高儿童健康权保障水平。完善儿童健康服务体系,预防和控制儿童疾病,减少儿童死亡和严重出生缺陷发生。引导儿童科学均衡饮食。有效控制儿童肥胖和近视,实施学龄前儿童营养改善计划。儿童每天接触户外自然光不少于1小时,保障儿童每天至少1小时中等及以上强度运动,合理安排儿童作息。加强儿童心理健康教育和服务。中小学校普遍配备心理健康教育教师。

– Improving the protection of children’s right to health. Measures will be taken to improve children’s health services, prevent and control childhood illnesses, and reduce the incidences of child mortality and severe birth defects. Children should be guided to eat healthy, balanced meals. Effective measures will be taken to control obesity and myopia among children, and nutritional improvement programs will be launched for preschoolers. Children should follow suitable daily schedules, and be exposed to natural sunlight and exercise with moderate or greater intensity for at least one hour a day. Mental health education and services for children will be strengthened, and there will be teachers to provide such education and services in all elementary and secondary schools.

——保障残疾儿童权利。完善儿童残疾筛查、诊断、治疗、康复一体化工作机制,建立残疾报告和信息共享制度。建设残疾儿童康复救助定点机构,推动残疾儿童普遍享有基本康复服务。保障具备学习能力的适龄残疾儿童少年不失学辍学。加强残疾儿童教育的师资能力和资源建设。

– Protecting the rights of children with disabilities. The mechanism for screening, diagnosing and treating children with disabilities and for their rehabilitation will be improved, and a system of reporting and sharing information on disabilities will be established. The state will build designated rehabilitation centers for disabled children, aiming to provide universal access to basic rehabilitation services for such children. The state will ensure that no school-age disabled child who has the ability to learn is out of school. More efforts will be invested in training teachers and pooling resources for special education.

——关爱困境儿童。加强困境儿童分类保障。健全孤儿和事实无人抚养儿童保障机制。支持儿童福利机构建设,提升孤弃儿童集中养治教康水平。孤儿、事实无人抚养儿童保障标准不低于当地平均生活水平。加强对农村留守儿童的关爱保护。落实流浪儿童街面巡查和转介处置职责,依法依规为流浪儿童提供生活照料、身份查询、接送返回等服务。

– Caring for children in need. Children in need under different categories will be provided with more targeted care. The mechanisms for supporting orphans and de facto orphans will be improved. The state supports the development of children’s welfare institutions, and helps them to provide better foster care, education and health services for orphans and abandoned children. Orphans and unattended children will receive allowances on par with the average local living standards or higher. Left-behind children in rural areas will receive better care and protection. Street patrols will be carried out to ensure that homeless children are cared for, identified and escorted back home in accordance with relevant laws and regulations.

——加强对未成年人的司法保护。全面实施修订后的未成年人保护法、预防未成年人犯罪法,完善家庭、学校、社会、网络、政府、司法各领域的未成年人保护,严厉打击侵害未成年人的违法犯罪行为,有效预防未成年人犯罪。青少年犯罪率控制在全球较低水平。健全未成年人司法工作体系。全面推行未成年被害人“一站式”取证工作机制,保障未成年人的名誉权、隐私权和其他合法权益。推动完善刑事案件未成年被害人司法救助制度。

– Strengthening the protection of minors by law. In accordance with the revised Law on the Protection of Minors and the Law on the Prevention of Juvenile Delinquency, the state will improve the protection of minors at home, at school, in society, on the internet, and in the administrative and judiciary systems. It will take strong measures to fight crimes against minors, prevent juvenile delinquency, and control the juvenile crime rate at a lower level in global comparison. The legal framework for affairs relating to minors will be improved. A one-stop mechanism for collecting evidence for cases involving underage victims will be adopted nationwide to better protect the victims’ rights to reputation, privacy and other lawful rights and interests. The legal aid system for underage victims in criminal cases will be improved.

——禁止使用童工。任何组织或者个人不得招用未满16周岁未成年人。禁止任何单位或者个人为不满16周岁的未成年人介绍就业。禁止不满16周岁的未成年人从事个体经营活动。依法查处使用童工的违法行为。

– Prohibiting the use of child labor. No organization or individual shall recruit or employ minors under the age of 16. No entity or individual shall provide job placement services to minors under the age of 16. Minors under the age of 16 are prohibited from opening businesses. The use of child labor is illegal and will be investigated and punished.

——预防和依法严惩性侵害未成年人的违法犯罪行为。加强未成年人预防性侵害教育,提高未成年人家庭、学校、社区识别防范性侵害和发现报告的意识和能力,落实强制报告制度。建立全国统一的性侵害、虐待、拐卖、暴力伤害等违法犯罪人员信息查询系统,完善落实入职查询、从业禁止制度。探索建立性侵害未成年人犯罪人员信息公开制度。严格落实外籍教师无犯罪证明备案制度。

– Preventing and punishing sex crimes against minors by law. Education on preventing sexual abuse for minors will be strengthened, with efforts to increase awareness and ability of families, schools and communities to identify, prevent and report sexual abuse. Mandatory reporting of sexual abuse against minors will be implemented more effectively. A national database with information on criminals guilty of sexual assault, abuse, human trafficking, and violence will be established, and the mechanisms for background checks will be improved to prevent people with such criminal records from engaging in certain occupations. Pilot programs will be launched to release information on criminals committing sexual offences against minors. Provision of proof of no criminal record will be strictly required of foreigners seeking teaching positions in China.

——预防控制针对儿童的暴力伤害。宣传倡导对儿童暴力零容忍理念,强化国家、社会、学校、家庭保护责任,落实儿童暴力伤害发现、报告、干预机制。密切接触未成年人的机构和人员履行强制报告责任,鼓励公众依法劝阻、制止、检举、控告针对儿童的暴力行为。依法严惩针对儿童实施暴力的违法犯罪行为。提高儿童遭受意外伤害和暴力伤害的紧急救援、医疗救助、康复服务水平。

– Preventing and controlling violence against children. China upholds zero tolerance for violence against children. The responsibility for protecting children lies with the state, society, schools, and families. The mechanisms for identifying, reporting and intervening in violence against children will be better executed. Institutions and individuals that work with minors have a mandatory responsibility to report any misbehavior or crime against minors. Members of the public are encouraged to dissuade, stop, and report incidents of violence against children. Crimes involving violence against children will be severely punished by law. The emergency response, medical assistance and rehabilitation services for children harmed in accidents or by violence will be improved.

——有效预防未成年人犯罪。立足于教育和保护相结合,坚持预防为主、提前干预,对未成年人的不良行为和严重不良行为及时进行分级预防、干预和矫治。推动落实家庭教育指导工作,教育未成年人的父母或者其他监护人培养未成年人法律素养,提高守法意识。落实未成年人违法犯罪分级干预制度。依法从严惩治胁迫、教唆、引诱、欺骗等利用未成年人实施有组织犯罪的行为。

– Preventing juvenile delinquency. Emphasizing both education and protection, the state gives priority to the prevention, early intervention and correction of misbehavior and serious misconduct of minors, adopting different measures for delinquencies of different severity. Guidance will be given to parents or other guardians of minors on increasing legal literacy of minors to motivate them to abide by the law. The layered system for intervention in juvenile delinquency will be better implemented. Those exploiting minors through coercion, instigation, inducement and deception for organized crimes will be severely punished by law.

——完善落实未成年人监护制度。强化父母或者其他监护人履行对未成年子女的抚养、教育和保护职责,依法规范父母或者其他监护人委托他人照护未成年子女的行为。强化村(居)民委员会对父母或者其他监护人监护和委托照护的监督责任,村(居)民委员会儿童主任切实做好未成年人监护风险或受到监护侵害情况的发现、核实、报告工作。符合法定情形的未成年人由县级以上民政部门代表国家进行监护,确保突发事件情况下无人照料的未成年人及时获得临时监护。

– Improving the guardianship system for minors. Parents or other guardians of minors will be constantly reminded of their duties of upbringing, educating and protecting their children under 18. The act of entrusting minors to other people by their parents or other guardians will be regulated by law. Village and urban community committees will take more responsibility for supervising parents or other guardians of minors in performing their duties. The head of the children’s affairs section of community committees must identify, verify and report potential risks in minors’ guardianship or cases where minors are abused by their guardians. Minors falling under relevant legal provisions shall be placed in the care of civil affairs departments at or above the county level on behalf of the state, to ensure that unattended minors receive temporary care in a timely manner during emergencies.

(四)老年人权益

4. Rights of the Elderly

提高老年人权益保障水平,实现老有所养、老有所依、老有所乐、老有所为。

The state will improve its protection of the rights and interests of the elderly, and ensure care, support, recreation, and self-fulfillment for them.

——健全老年人福利保障。推进基本养老服务体系建设,逐步提高老年人福利水平,强化对失能、部分失能特困老年人的兜底保障,完善经济困难高龄失能老年人补贴制度和独居留守老年人探访关爱制度,逐步实现老有所养。

– Improving welfare for the elderly. The state will gradually develop basic eldercare services and improve welfare for the elderly. It will increase support for very poor elderly people who are partially or totally incapacitated. It will also build up the subsidy system for incapacitated seniors in financial distress, and the system of home visits for elderly people who live alone in rural areas, gradually realizing elderly care for all.

——健全养老服务体系。构建居家社区机构相协调、医养康养相结合的养老服务体系和健康支撑体系。支持城市依托基层医疗卫生资源建设医养结合设施。优化城乡养老机构床位结构,全国养老机构护理型床位占比不低于55%,更好满足高龄失能失智老年人护理服务需求。支持500个区县建设连锁化运营、标准化管理的示范性社区居家养老服务网络,提供失能护理、日间照料以及助餐助浴助洁助医助行等服务。推进城市新建城区、新建居住(社)区按照标准配套建设社区养老服务设施,配建设施达标率达到100%;老旧城区、已建成居住(社)区基本补齐社区养老服务设施。培养培训200万名养老护理员,每千名老年人配1名及以上社会工作者。

– Improving eldercare services. An eldercare services network and a health support network will be formed to include home care, community-based care and institutional care for the elderly, covering both medical and health care services. Cities will be encouraged to build eldercare facilities that also provide medical services, by leveraging medical and health resources at the community level. More beds (55 percent and above) in eldercare institutions in urban and rural areas will be provided to care for incapacitated elderly and people with dementia at an advanced age. A demonstration program will be rolled out in 500 districts and counties for chain operation and standardized management of community services for home-based eldercare that cover nursing services for incapacitated elderly people, day care, and assistance with meals, showering, cleaning, medical treatment, and travel. Eldercare facilities will be compulsory in new residential communities and newly developed urban areas in proportion to the population, and all such facilities must meet the required standard. Eldercare facilities will be made available in older urban districts and existing residential communities. Two million nursing attendants will be trained, and there will be at least one social worker for every thousand elderly people.

——实施老年人家庭适老化改造工程。为特殊困难高龄、失能、残疾老年人家庭实施适老化改造,配备康复辅助器具和防走失装置等设施。发展康复辅助器具社区服务体系。

– Building elderly-friendly homes. The state will remodel the homes of families with elderly members who are either experiencing financial difficulties or are incapacitated or disabled, and will provide assistive appliances for rehabilitation and tracking gadgets for the safety of the elderly. Assistive appliances for rehabilitation will be more readily available for use in residential communities.

——促进老年人实现“老有所为”。继续办好老年大学,扩大老年教育资源供给,为老年人的再学习和再发展创造更多的条件和机会。

– Helping the elderly seek self-fulfillment. The state will continue to develop colleges for the elderly, increase the provision of elderly education resources, and create better conditions and provide more opportunities for the elderly to study and develop new skills.

——为老年人交通出行提供便利。优化交通信号配时和交通标志标线等交通管理设施,完善行人驻足区、过街安全岛等二次过街设施,为老年人等群体提供出行便利和安全保障。

– Providing convenience in public transport. Traffic lights, signs and markings will be improved, as well as pedestrian waiting areas and traffic islands, to ensure safety for the elderly and make public transport more convenient for them.

——提供适老智慧服务。运用智能技术,对社区和居家养老服务设施、医疗康复设施和机构进行无障碍化、便捷化、智能化改造。推进大数据、人工智能、5G技术在居家护理、点餐用餐、健康管理、远程就诊、紧急救助、智慧出行、消防安全、休闲娱乐等方面的应用。指导基础电信企业持续完善线下营业厅“面对面”服务,推动与老年人基本生活密切相关的互联网网站、移动互联网应用完成适老化改造,扩大适老化智能终端产品供给。切实解决老年人运用智能技术困难,便利老年人使用智能化产品和服务。

– Providing intelligent services for the elderly. Smart technologies will be employed to upgrade home care and community old-age facilities, and medical and rehabilitation facilities and institutions, to make them more convenient and accessible for the elderly. Big data, artificial intelligence, and 5G technology will be more widely applied in home care, food provision, health management, telemedicine, first aid services, transport, fire safety, and entertainment and recreation. Relevant government departments will provide guidance to basic telecommunication service providers to improve their person-to-person services at business outlets. Websites and mobile applications frequently used by the elderly population in daily life will also be urged to upgrade for their convenience, with increased supply of intelligent terminals tailored to their needs. The elderly will receive more help in using smart products and services.

——加强对老年人权益的司法保障。依法及时化解财产、赡养、婚姻等方面涉及老年人权益的纠纷,防范和惩治诈骗、非法集资等严重侵害老年人权益的犯罪行为。

– Strengthening legal protection of the rights and interests of the elderly. Disputes concerning property, elderly support and marriage involving the rights and interests of elderly people will be addressed by law in a timely manner. More measures will be taken to prevent and punish fraud, illegal fundraising and other crimes that severely undermine elderly people’s interests.

(五)残疾人权益

5. Rights of Persons with Disabilities

促进残疾人的平等参与和社会融入,加强对困难和重度残疾人帮扶力度,保障残疾人共享社会发展成果。

The state will facilitate equal participation and social integration for persons with disabilities, strengthen support for disabled persons in need and people with severe disabilities, and ensure that they share the fruits of social development.

——保障残疾人参与权。涉及残疾人权益的重要立法充分听取残疾人、残疾人组织的意见。不断拓展残疾人和残疾人组织民主参与、民主协商渠道,有效保障残疾人的知情权、参与权、表达权和监督权。

– Ensuring the right to participate. The opinions of people with disabilities and their organizations shall be solicited for important legislation regarding their rights and interests. Disabled people and their organizations will have more channels to participate in democratic discussion and consultation, and their rights to information, participation, expression and supervision will be fully protected.

——完善残疾人福利保障。落实困难残疾人生活补贴和重度残疾人护理补贴制度,鼓励有条件的地区扩大补贴范围,普遍建立补贴标准动态调整机制。落实为重度残疾人缴纳城乡居民基本养老保险个人缴费等政策。支持符合条件的农村低收入残疾人家庭实施危房改造。对符合条件的城镇残疾人家庭优先配租公租房。

– Improving welfare for persons with disabilities. In implementing the policy of subsidizing the living expenses of disabled persons and the nursing costs of persons with severe disabilities, a mechanism to dynamically adjust the standards of the subsidies will be introduced across the country, and regions and cities with adequate resources will be encouraged to expand the coverage to benefit more people. Severely disabled people will have their premiums for basic old-age insurance paid by the government, among other measures. Eligible low-income rural households with disabled members are entitled to support from the government to renovate their dilapidated houses. Eligible urban families with disabled members have precedence in allocation of public rental housing.

——提升残疾人康复服务质量。推动残疾预防和康复服务一体化发展。加强残疾人康复医疗,落实残疾儿童康复救助制度,实施残疾人精准康复行动,为残疾人提供基本康复服务。健全残疾人康复服务设施,加强残疾人社区康复,建成康复大学。开展全国残疾人康复专业技术人员规范化培训。在精神卫生服务能力不足的地区建设100个精神卫生福利设施,为困难精神障碍患者提供集中养护、康复服务。

– Raising quality of rehabilitation services. Disability prevention and rehabilitation services will be developed side by side. The state will strengthen rehabilitation and medical services for the disabled and provide assistance to children with disabilities for their rehabilitation. Targeted rehabilitation programs will be launched for persons with disabilities to ensure their basic services. The services and facilities for the rehabilitation of disabled persons will be improved, and communities will take more initiative in this area. A university for rehabilitation sciences will be built. Training will be organized for professionals providing such services. 100 mental health welfare facilities will be built in areas underequipped with such facilities, to care for poor people with mental disorders and help with their rehabilitation.

——完善特殊教育保障机制。巩固适龄残疾儿童少年义务教育普及水平,积极发展学前特殊教育,着力发展以职业教育为主的高中阶段特殊教育,稳步发展高等特殊教育,推动融合教育发展。有效推进孤独症儿童教育。推广国家通用手语和国家通用盲文。禁止任何基于残疾的教育歧视。

– Ensuring special education for those in need. The state will ensure that school-age children with disabilities stay in school for compulsory education. Special education will be developed in the preschool stage with more vigor, in senior-high schools with a focus on vocational education, and in institutions of higher learning step by step. Inclusive education will receive more support. Effective measures will be taken to promote education for children with autism. Standard sign language and Braille will be introduced across the country. In education, any form of discrimination against disabilities is prohibited.

——促进残疾人就业。落实残疾人就业支持政策,多渠道、多形式促进残疾人就业创业。落实税费减免政策,为残疾人自主创业和企业吸纳残疾人就业提供更多的补贴支持。推动残疾人就业辅导员制度建设,开发更多残疾人就业岗位。为城乡200万残疾人提供职业技能培训,实现城镇新增就业残疾人数达到50万人。

– Promoting employment for the disabled. The state will continue to implement policies to support employment for the disabled in various forms and through multiple channels, helping them to find jobs and start businesses. Disabled persons who start their own businesses and companies employing disabled persons will receive more subsidies and continue to enjoy tax and fee reductions. Efforts will be made to establish the practice of job placement advisors to help the disabled find jobs, and more jobs suitable for the disabled will be created. Vocational training will be provided for 2 million persons with disabilities in urban and rural areas, and an additional 500,000 disabled persons will find jobs.

——全面推进无障碍环境建设。编制《无障碍通用规范》。推动城市道路、公共交通、居住社区、公共服务设施和残疾人服务设施、残疾人集中就业单位等加快无障碍环境建设和改造。补贴110万户困难重度残疾人家庭无障碍设施改造,提升社区无障碍建设水平。加快推进信息无障碍建设,支持研发生产信息无障碍终端产品,探索传统无障碍设施设备数字化和智能化升级。加强手语、盲文学科建设和人才培养。确保提供合理便利,促进残疾人的深度融入和平等参与。

– Building an accessible environment. The state will formulate a set of rules for accessibility, and promote construction and upgrading to increase the accessibility of roads, public transport, residential communities, public service facilities, facilities for the disabled, and workplaces with larger numbers of disabled employees. The government will subsidize the remodeling of 1.1 million homes with severely disabled members to make residential communities more accessible. To speed up information accessibility, the state supports the R&D and manufacturing of easier-to-use terminals and products, and will upgrade traditional barrier-free facilities and equipment with digital and smart technologies. The study and teaching of sign language and Braille will receive more support, and more professionals will be trained in these disciplines. The state will accommodate the needs of people with disabilities to help them integrate and participate as equals.

——支持残疾人智能辅助器具的研发和生产。利用先进智能技术,在建筑、设施、交通工具、生活用品、环境、方案和服务等的设计中,改良传统残疾人辅助器具,研发新型残疾人辅助器具。

– Supporting the R&D and manufacturing of smart assistive devices. Advanced smart technologies will be employed to improve existing assistive devices and develop new ones for the disabled in the design of architecture, facilities, means of transport, daily necessities, environment, plans, and services.

五、人权教育和研究

V. Education and Research on Human Rights

将人权教育纳入国民教育体系,开展人权研究,加强人权培训,普及人权知识,增强全社会尊重和保障人权的意识。

China will include human rights education in the national education curriculum, conduct human rights research, strengthen human rights training, and popularize understanding of human rights. The aim is to increase public awareness of the need to respect and protect human rights.

(一)学校人权教育

1. On-Campus Education

在各级各类学校开展生动活泼、形式多样的人权教育,使学生牢固树立人权意识。

Diverse education programs on human rights will be carried out in schools of all types and at various levels.

——加强中小学人权教育。将有关珍惜生命、平等意识、保护隐私、未成年人权益等人权知识融入中小学相关课程,丰富教育方式手段,拓展教育实践活动,以生动活泼的形式促进人权知识在中小学的普及。

– Strengthening human rights education during primary and secondary education. China will include human rights issues, such as cherishing life, pursuing equality, protecting privacy, and safeguarding the rights and interests of minors, in courses for primary and secondary education. In spreading such information, primary and secondary schools will adopt new teaching methods and innovative approaches to engage the students.

——鼓励高校开展人权通识教育和专业人才培养。持续支持高等院校开设人权相关专业课和通识课,编写人权相关教材。加强人权学科建设和人才培养。探索在师范类院校建立人权师资培训中心。

– Encouraging general education and training professionals on human rights during higher education. China will continue to encourage higher institutions to offer professional courses and general education on human rights, and compile relevant textbooks. China will improve the structure of disciplinary subjects on human rights, and set up training centers for human rights teachers in normal universities on a trial basis.

——支持国家人权教育与培训基地的建设。加强国家人权教育与培训基地建设,再增加3家。依托国家人权教育与培训基地探索建设人权国际教育交流中心。

– Supporting the establishment of national human rights education and training bases. Three more bases will be added to the list, and pilot programs will be carried out to develop such bases into international education centers for human rights.

(二)人权研究

2. Specialized Research

立足中国人权实践,加强人权研究能力建设,不断推出优秀人权研究成果。

Efforts will be made to improve human rights research based on China’s own experience and publish more and better research findings.

——开展人权研究。鼓励高校、研究机构开展人权理论、制度、政策研究,结合中国和世界人权发展实践,不断丰富发展人权理论。定期编写出版《中国人权事业发展报告》蓝皮书。

– Conducting human rights research. More support will be provided to higher institutions and research institutes for research on human rights theories, institutions and policies and for theoretical studies on human rights based on practical experience in China and elsewhere. China will continue to regularly publish the blue papers – Report on the Development of Human Rights in China.

——支持人权机构建设。支持在社科院、党校(行政学院)系统建立国家人权研究机构,新设3家国家人权研究基地。

– Establishing human rights institutions. The country will support the establishment of national human rights institutions within the systems of the academies of social sciences and the Party schools (academies of governance). Three new national research bases for human rights will be launched.

——支持人权学术出版物。支持人权学术期刊建设,鼓励人权研究者发表高质量学术研究论文。加大国家社科基金等对人权理论和政策研究的资助力度。支持出版人权研究专著、论文集,奖励优秀人权研究成果。

– Supporting human rights publications. China will lend greater support to human rights journals and encourage human rights researchers to publish more high-quality academic papers. Government programs, including the National Social Science Fund of China (NSSFC), will increase funding for the research on human rights theories and policies. Support will be provided for publishing monographs and essay collections on human rights research and for awarding outstanding research achievements.

——支持举办人权研讨会。鼓励举办多种形式的人权理论和政策研讨会,在国内外开展广泛的人权学术交流。

– Organizing human rights forums. China will encourage efforts to organize diverse forums on human rights theories and policies to facilitate extensive academic exchanges in China and abroad.

(三)人权知识培训

3. Workplace Training

在公共部门和企事业单位开展人权知识培训,形成尊重和保障人权的职场文化。

Human rights training will be organized in government departments, public institutions, and enterprises, to develop a workplace culture that respects and protects human rights.

——强化公职人员人权知识培训。将人权知识培训作为公务员考试、初任培训和任职培训的重要内容,并在年度培训中结合工作实际开展人权培训。把人权法治教育作为国家工作人员学法用法工作的重要内容。编写出版人权知识培训教材。探索建立人权教育培训示范单位。

– Intensifying human rights training for civil servants. Human rights training will be made a key component of civil service entry exams, orientation training, and pre-promotion training, and will be integrated into annual on-the-job training based on actual needs. China will prioritize human rights in legal education for state functionaries, compile and publish textbooks on human rights training, and explore ways to select outstanding agencies for human rights training.

——支持企事业单位人权知识培训。鼓励企事业单位建立常设性的人权培训制度,在人力资源培训中增加人权内容,形成尊重和保障人权的企事业文化,加强对海外中国企业的人权知识培训。探索评设人权培训示范企业。

– Providing human rights training for employees of public institutions and enterprises. China will encourage public institutions and enterprises to establish permanent mechanisms for human rights training, provide training on human rights issues to human resources staff, and create a workplace culture that respects and protects human rights. It will also strengthen human rights training in Chinese enterprises operating overseas, and explore ways to select model enterprises for human rights training.

(四)人权知识普及

4. Promotional Activities for the General Public

运用多种形式,广泛传播、普及人权知识,形成尊重和保障人权的社会氛围。

Diverse promotional activities will be carried out to foster a social atmosphere that respects and protects human rights.

——以多种形式普及人权知识。在博物馆、科技馆、图书馆、文化馆等公共活动场所开展人权专题展览、讲座等活动,运用报刊、广播、电视、网络新媒体等渠道向民众普及人权知识。鼓励中国人权网等网站介绍人权动态,提供人权类文献数据资源。

– Spreading human rights awareness through diverse means. Themed exhibitions, lectures and other events will be organized at cultural venues such as museums, science and technology centers, libraries, and cultural centers. Newspaper, magazine, TV, radio, the Internet and other new media coverage will be applied to popularize awareness of human rights. The state supports websites including chinahumanrights.org in presenting human rights developments in China, and publishing relevant documents and data.

——加强人权议题新闻发布。围绕中国人权事业发展和国际人权热点举行新闻发布会、吹风会、新闻茶座,发表白皮书和专题报告,及时提供权威信息。发布涉及人权司法保障的典型案例。

– Improving news release on human rights. China will hold more press conferences, briefings and press receptions on its human rights progress as well as international human rights flashpoints. It will publish more white papers and reports on human rights to release authoritative information in a timely manner. It will also publicize useful cases on judicial protection of human rights.

六、参与全球人权治理

VI. Participating in Global Human Rights Governance

认真践行国际承诺,深度参与国际人权事务,推动完善全球人权治理体系,构建人类命运共同体。

China will fulfill its commitments to the international community with sincerity. It will engage in international human rights affairs, and lobby for and work toward a better global human rights governance system, so as to build a global community of shared future.

(一)履行国际人权条约义务

1. Fulfilling Obligations to International Human Rights Conventions

及时向相关人权条约机构提交履约报告,与条约机构开展建设性对话,结合中国国情采纳和落实条约机构合理可行的建议。

China will submit its performance reports to relevant human rights treaty bodies, engage in constructive dialogue with them, and adopt and implement suggestions that are reasonable and feasible in the Chinese context.

——参加联合国经社文权利委员会审议中国执行《经济、社会及文化权利国际公约》第三次履约报告。

– Participating in the review by the UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights of China's third report on implementing the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.

——撰写《禁止酷刑和其他残忍、不人道或有辱人格的待遇或处罚公约》第七次履约报告,并提交联合国禁止酷刑委员会审议。

– Completing its seventh report on implementing the Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, and submitting it to the UN Committee Against Torture for review.

——撰写《儿童权利公约》第五次、第六次合并报告(包括《〈儿童权利公约〉关于买卖儿童、儿童卖淫和儿童色情制品问题的任择议定书》《〈儿童权利公约〉关于儿童卷入武装冲突问题的任择议定书》相关内容),并提交联合国儿童权利委员会审议。

– Completing its fifth and sixth combined report on implementing the Convention on the Rights of the Child, including the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography and the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, and submitting it to the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child for review.

——撰写《消除一切形式种族歧视国际公约》第十八至二十次合并履约报告,并提交联合国消除种族歧视委员会审议。

– Completing its 18th-20th combined report on implementing the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, and submitting it to the UN Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination for review.

——参加联合国残疾人权利委员会审议中国执行《残疾人权利公约》第二、三次合并履约报告。

– Participating in the review by the UN Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities of its second and third combined report on implementing the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.

——撰写中国执行《消除对妇女一切形式歧视公约》第九次履约报告,并提交联合国消除对妇女歧视委员会审议。

– Completing the ninth report on implementing the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, and submitting it to the UN Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women for review.

——鼓励和支持国内社会组织积极参与中国执行相关人权条约履约审议准备工作。

– Encouraging domestic social organizations to take an active part in preparing the review of China’s implementation of the human rights conventions it has joined, and supporting their efforts.

(二)深度参与联合国人权机构工作

2. Engaging Substantially in the Work of UN Human Rights Bodies

深度参与联合国人权机构工作,发挥引领性和建设性作用,维护国际人权事业健康可持续发展。

China will engage substantially in the work of UN human rights bodies and play a leading and constructive role in maintaining the healthy and sustainable development of international human rights.

——在联合国人权理事会等多边人权机构提出中国倡议和主张。推动同等重视经济、社会、文化权利和公民、政治权利,以公正、客观和非选择性方式开展工作,反对将人权问题政治化。竞选2024-2026年度人权理事会成员。进一步发挥中国社会组织作用,积极参与联合国人权理事会等多边人权机制活动。

– Putting forward proposals and viewpoints in the UN Human Rights Council (UNHRC) and other multilateral human rights bodies. China advocates for attaching the same importance to economic, social and cultural rights as to civil and political rights, to function in an impartial, objective and non-selective manner, and to oppose the politicization of human rights issues. It will campaign for 2024-2026 UNHRC membership. Chinese social organizations will be encouraged to play an active role in the activities of UNHRC and other multilateral human rights mechanisms.

——参加联合国人权理事会国别人权审议。认真落实中国在人权理事会第三轮国别人权审议中接受的建议,积极参与第四轮国别人权审议。鼓励和支持国内社会组织参与第四轮国别人权审议相关工作。

– Participating in the UNHRC’s human rights review. China will implement the proposals it accepted during the UNHRC’s third round Universal Periodic Review for China. It will participate actively in the fourth round review. It will encourage Chinese social organizations to take part in relevant work in the fourth round, and support their efforts to do so.

——继续参与联合国人权条约机构改革进程。推动条约机构在公约授权范围内客观、公正、独立开展工作。

– Continuing to work for the reform of UN human rights treaty bodies. China will urge them to work within the mandate of relevant treaties in an objective, fair and independent manner.

(三)开展建设性人权对话与合作

3. Joining in Constructive Dialogue and Cooperation on Human Rights

继续在平等和相互尊重的基础上,开展国际人权交流与合作,促进相互理解,增进人权共识。

China will continue to take part in international human rights exchanges and cooperation on the basis of equality and mutual respect, to promote understanding and build consensus on human rights.

——积极拓展与联合国人权事务高级专员办公室交流与合作。继续与人权理事会特别机制开展合作,认真答复特别机制来函。根据接待能力,邀请有关特别机制访华。继续推荐中国专家竞聘特别机制。

– Expanding exchanges and cooperation with the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR). China will continue to cooperate with the Special Procedures of the UNHRC, answer their communications, and invite them to visit China, as appropriate. China will continue to recommend Chinese experts for applying special procedure posts.

——稳步推进人权对话与交流。继续在平等和相互尊重基础上与有关国家开展人权对话,增进了解,相互借鉴。加强与发展中国家和集团人权磋商与合作,向有需要的发展中国家提供人权技术援助。继续举办“南南人权论坛”,参与亚欧非正式人权研讨会等区域、次区域人权交流活动。在求同存异、相互尊重、互学互鉴的基础上与各国政党就人权议题开展交流。

– Pushing forward human rights dialogue and cooperation with other parties. To improve understanding and mutual learning, China will continue to hold dialogues on human rights with other countries on the basis of equality and mutual respect. It will increase consultation and cooperation on human rights with other developing countries and groups of developing countries, and provide technical assistance in the field of human rights at the request of other developing countries. It will continue to host the South-South Human Rights Forum, and participate in the Informal ASEM (Asia-Europe Meeting) Seminar on Human Rights and other regional and sub-regional events on human rights. Based on the principles of seeking common ground while reserving differences, mutual respect, and mutual learning, China will engage in exchanges with political parties from other countries on human rights issues.

——鼓励和支持国内社会组织积极参与国际人权交流合作。继续举办北京人权论坛、中欧人权研讨会、中美司法与人权研讨会、中德人权研讨会等国际会议。

– Encouraging domestic social organizations to take an active part in international exchanges and cooperation in the field of human rights and supporting their efforts. China will continue to hold the Beijing Forum on Human Rights, the China-Europe Seminar on Human Rights, the Sino-American Dialogue on the Rule of Law and Human Rights, and the China-Germany Seminar on Human Rights, among others.

(四)为全球人权事业作出中国贡献

4. Contributing to the International Cause of Human Rights

倡导和平、发展、公平、正义、民主、自由的全人类共同价值,促进全球人权治理更加公平、公正、合理、包容,推动构建人类命运共同体。

China consistently advocates the common values of humanity: peace, development, fairness, justice, democracy and freedom. It will promote more just, fair, reasonable and inclusive international human rights governance, and work to build a global community of shared future.

——全面落实联合国2030年可持续发展议程。继续将2030年可持续发展议程纳入国家中长期发展规划,全面推进国内落实工作。继续分享落实经验,深化务实合作。帮助其他发展中国家做好2030年可持续发展议程的落实工作,为保护和促进发展权作出更大贡献。

– Implementing the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development in its full sense. China will continue to incorporate the agenda into its mid- and long-term plans, and ensure these are implemented. It will make a greater contribution to protecting and promoting the right to development by sharing experience, expanding cooperation, and assisting other developing nations to implement the agenda.

——积极参与国际人权规则制定和议程设置。完善全球人权治理,推动构建公平正义、合理有效的国际人权体系,为国际人权事业发展贡献中国智慧和方案。

– Engaging actively in setting international agendas and creating rules in the field of human rights. China will help to improve global human rights governance, advocate a fair, just, reasonable and effective international human rights system, and contribute ideas and solutions to human rights development around the world.

——继续帮助发展中国家提升发展能力。提供发展援助,开展人道主义援助,以合作促发展,以发展促人权,在维护世界和平与发展、保护促进发展权等方面作出贡献。加大对非洲国家特别是非洲最不发达国家援助力度,深化南南合作,减少贫困、改善民生、促进共同发展。

– Continuing its assistance to other developing countries to improve their capacity for development. It will provide them with assistance and humanitarian relief. China plans to assist them through cooperative projects which will also improve their human rights. It will contribute to safeguarding world peace and development and protecting and promoting the right to development. It will increase its assistance to African countries – in particular to the least developed countries – and expand South-South cooperation to help reduce poverty, improve living conditions and promote common development.

——构建人类卫生健康命运共同体。积极应对重大公共卫生事件,支持世卫组织在全球抗疫合作中发挥应有作用。加强“一带一路”卫生(含中医药)合作,共建“健康丝绸之路”。积极落实“中非公共卫生合作计划”,共同应对重大突发性疾病挑战,支持非洲公共卫生防控和救治体系建设。建立30个中非对口医院合作机制,加快建设非洲疾控中心总部,助力非洲提升疾病防控能力。

– Working to build a global community of health for all. China will proactively respond to public health emergencies, and support the World Health Organization in its due role in global anti-epidemic cooperation. It will strengthen health cooperation (including traditional Chinese medicine) under the Belt and Road Initiative to build a “health silk road”. It will implement the China-Africa public health plan to handle the challenge of emerging infectious diseases, and help Africa to establish a prevention, control and relief system. It will set up cooperative mechanisms for Chinese hospitals to pair up with 30 African hospitals, and accelerate construction of the headquarters of the Africa Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, in order to improve the continent’s capacity to control and prevent diseases.

——促进全球供应链中的负责任商业行为。促进工商业在对外经贸合作、投资中,遵循《联合国工商业与人权指导原则》,实施人权尽责,履行尊重和促进人权的社会责任。建设性参与联合国工商业与人权条约谈判进程。

– Promoting responsible business conduct in global supply chains. It will encourage Chinese businesses to abide by the UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights in their foreign trade and investment, to conduct due diligence on human rights, and to fulfill their social responsibility to respect and promote human rights. It will participate and play a constructive role in negotiations on the UN business and human rights treaty.

七、实施、监督和评估

VII. Implementation, Supervision and Assessment

完善国家人权行动计划联席会议机制,强化《行动计划》实施与监督,完善第三方评估机制,全方位、多层次保障《行动计划》的全面落实。

China will ensure the implementation of the Action Plan in all fields and at different levels by improving its joint meeting mechanism, strengthening implementation and supervision, and completing the third-party assessment mechanism.

——各级地方政府、中央和国家机关各有关部门应高度重视,结合各部门工作职责和各地区特点,制定并细化《行动计划》实施方案,采取切实有效的措施,确保顺利完成各项目标任务。

– Local governments at all levels and related central Party and government departments should attach great importance to the Action Plan, work out detailed measures for its implementation in accordance with their respective functions and regional conditions, and take pragmatic and effective action to guarantee the fulfillment of all its objectives and tasks.

——国家人权行动计划联席会议机制开展阶段性调研、检查、监督和评估,逐步完善第三方评估机制,开发并建立量化评估指标体系,及时公布评估报告。

– Under the joint meeting mechanism, China will conduct phased research, review, supervision and assessment, improve the third-party assessment mechanism, devise and set up a quantitative assessment index system, and release the assessment report in a timely fashion.

——将《行动计划》作为人权教育、研究、培训和知识普及的重要内容,使各级党政干部充分认识《行动计划》的重要性,切实提高实施工作的自觉性和主动性。

– The government will make the Action Plan a key component of human rights education, research, training and awareness raising campaigns, helping all Party and government officials to fully comprehend its importance and to conscientiously act on it.

——鼓励新闻媒体在《行动计划》的宣传、实施、监督和评估等方面发挥积极作用。

– The state will encourage the news media to play an active role in covering, scrutinizing and assessing the implementation of the Action Plan.


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