CATTI考试资料与资讯 2021-06-21 1847次
According to a new International labour organization, unemployment is projected to increase by around 2.5 million in 2020. As the global labour force increases, not enough new jobs are being generated to absorb new entrants to the labour market. Almost half a billion people are working fewer paid hours than they would like or lack adequate access to paid work.
For millions of ordinary people, it's increasingly difficult to build better lives through work.Persisting and substantial work-related inequalities and exclusion are preventing them from finding decent work and better futures. That's an extremely serious finding that has profound and worrying implications for social cohesion.
The mismatch between labour supply and demand extends beyond unemployment into broader labour underutilization. In addition to the global number of unemployed (180 million), 165 million people don't have enough paid work and 120 million have either given up actively searching for work or otherwise lack access to the labour market. In total, more than 470 million people worldwide are affected.
At the global level, income inequality is higher than previously thought, especially in developing countries. Worldwide, the share of national income going to labour (rather than to other factors of production) declined substantially between 2004 and 2017, from 54 percent to 51 percent. With this economically significant fall being most pronounced in Europe, Central Asia and the Americas.
Moderate or extreme working poverty is excepted to edge up in 2020-21 in developing countries, increasing the obstacles to achieving Sustainable Development Goal I on eradicating poverty everywhere by 2030. Currently working poverty (defined as earning less than US$3.20 per day in purchasing power parity terms) affects more than 630 million workers, or one in five of the global working population.
Other significant inequalities—defined by gender, age, and geographic location—remain stubborn features of current labour markets, limiting both individual opportunities and general economic growth. In particular, a staggering 267 million young people caged 15-24 are not in employment, education, or training situation, and many more endure substandard working conditions.
The report cautions that intensifying trade restrictions and protectionism could have a significant impact on employment, both directly and indirectly.
Looking at economic growth, the current pace and form of growth is hampering efforts to reduce poverty and improve working conditions in low-income countries. It is recommended that the type of growth needs to shift to encourage higher-value added activities, through structural transformation, technological upgrading and diversification.
Labour underutilization and poor-quality jobs mean our economies and societies are missing out on the potential benefits of a huge pool of human talent. We will only find a sustainable inclusive path of development if we tackle these kinds of labour market inequalities and gaps in access to decent work.
A metaphor is a poetic device that deals with comparison. It compares similar qualities of two dissimilar objects. With a simple metaphor, one object becomes the other: Love is a rose. Although this does not sound like a particularly rich image, a metaphor can communicate so much about a particular image that poets use them more than any other type of figurative language. The reason for this is that poets compose their poetry to express what they are experiencing emotionally at that moment. Consequently, what the poet imagines love to be may or may not be our understanding of love. Therefore, the poet's job is to enable us to experience it, to feel it the same way as the poet does. We should be able to nod in agreement and say, "Yes, that's it! I understand precisely where this person is coming from."
Let's analyze this remarkably simple metaphor concerning love and the rose to see what it offers. Because the poet uses a comparison with a rose, first we must examine the characteristics of that flower. A rose is impressive in its beauty, its petals are nicely soft, and its smell is pleasing. It's possible to say that a rose is actually a feast to the senses of sight, touch, and smell. The rose's appearance seems to border on perfection, each petal seemingly equal in form. Isn't this the way one's love should be? A loved one should be a delight to one's senses and seem perfect. However, there is another dimension added to the comparison by using a rose. Roses have thorns. The poet wants to convey the idea that roses can be tricky. So can love, the metaphor tells us. When one reaches out with absolute trust to touch the object of his or her affection, ouch, a thorn can cause great harm! "Be careful,"the metaphor warns, "Love is a feast to the senses, but it can overwhelm us, and it can also hurt us and cause acute suffering." This is the poet's understanding of love—an admonition. What is the point? Just this: It took almost 14 sentences to clarify what a simple metaphor communicates in only four words! That is the artistry and the joy of the simple metaphor.
据国家药品监督管理局消息，首批国产肺炎球菌13化合价结合疫苗（Pneumococcal 13-Valent Conjugate Vaccine）已准入市场。肺炎球菌疾病是导致5岁以下儿童发病和死亡的主要原因。此疫苗为中国自主研发生产之首例，位居世界第二。其问世将打破辉瑞（Pfizer）在市场上的垄断地位。肺炎球菌是引起侵袭性疾病以及肺炎和上呼吸道感染的最常见病因。严重的肺炎球菌疾病也会导致耳聋、瘫痪、智力障碍和其他严重后遗症。世卫组织将儿童肺炎球菌疾病列为疫苗接种的重中之重，并建议使用肺炎球菌13化合价结合疫苗。
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