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双语:国新办举行解读《政府工作报告》吹风会

国新办 2022-03-10 136次

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国务院新闻办新闻局副局长、新闻发言人寿小丽:

Shou Xiaoli:

女士们、先生们,欢迎大家出席国务院新闻办吹风会。今天上午,十三届全国人大五次会议开幕,李克强总理作《政府工作报告》。为帮助大家更好地了解《报告》的有关内容,今天我们非常高兴请来了国务院研究室副主任向东先生,请他为大家解读《报告》,并回答大家关心的问题。出席今天吹风会的还有,国务院研究室综合一司司长刘日红先生,国际司司长宋立先生。

Ladies and gentlemen, welcome to this briefing held by the State Council Information Office (SCIO). The fifth session of the 13th National People's Congress (NPC) opened this morning, and Premier Li Keqiang delivered the annual Report on the Work of the Government. To help the public better understand the report, we have invited Mr. Xiang Dong, deputy director of the State Council Research Office, to elaborate on the report and take your questions. We also have with us Mr. Liu Rihong, director general of the First Department of General Research of the State Council Research Office, and Mr. Song Li, director general of the International Department of the State Council Research Office.

下面,首先请向东先生作介绍。

First, we will give the floor to Mr. Xiang.

国务院研究室副主任向东:

Xiang Dong:

各位记者朋友,大家好!

Friends from the media, good afternoon.

今天上午,李克强总理向十三届全国人大五次会议作了《政府工作报告》。《报告》坚持以习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想为指导,全面贯彻落实党的十九大和十九届历次全会精神以及去年中央经济工作会议精神,对过去一年我国经济社会发展取得的重大成就和主要工作进行了回顾,提出了今年经济社会发展的主要预期目标、宏观政策取向和政府工作的重点任务。

This morning, Premier Li Keqiang delivered the Report on the Work of the Government to the fifth session of the 13th National People's Congress. Under the guidance of Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, fully implementing the guiding principles of the19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China (CPC), all plenary sessions of the 19th Party Central Committee and the Central Economic Work Conference last year, the report reviews the major achievements and major tasks in promoting China's economic and social development in the past year, and puts forward the main projected targets, policy orientation and major tasks for 2022.

从总理开始作《报告》时,我就一直在看记者朋友们的报道,关注各方对《报告》的反应。代表委员和网民纷纷表示,《报告》既接天线、又接地气,回应了社会各方面关切。有的说,《报告》总结的成绩,很多自己都有切身感受,在全球疫情仍在持续、世界经济形势复杂多变的情况下,过去一年国家发展取得的成就显得格外来之不易、让人倍感自豪。有的说,《报告》针对经济社会发展重点工作和老百姓关心的热点难点问题,都拿出了实在管用的硬举措,还出台了很多政策“大礼包”,听了《报告》,对未来国家发展更有信心,对新的一年充满希望。可以说,《报告》充分贯彻了党中央决策部署、充分回应了社会关切,是一个求真务实、催人奋进的报告。

I have been reading media reports on the premier's work report and the public's reaction to it. Many NPC deputies and members of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC) believe that the report is down to earth, displays foresight and strategic vision, and responds to the concerns of all sectors of society. Some say that they can feel much of the progress outlined in the report in their own lives. In the context of the ongoing pandemic and the complex and volatile global economic situation, the achievements in the past year have been particularly hard-won and made people proud. Some say that in the report, they found practical measures to address the key tasks of economic and social development and tackle the difficult issues that concern people, and that many packages of policies have also been introduced. They expressed stronger confidence in the future development of the country and greater hope for the new year. It can be said that the report fully implements the decisions and arrangements of the Party Central Committee and fully responds to social concerns. It is a pragmatic and inspiring report.

今年是党和国家事业发展进程中十分重要的一年,我们党将召开二十大。做好《政府工作报告》起草工作非常重要,党中央、国务院高度重视。习近平总书记先后主持召开中央政治局常委会会议、中央政治局会议讨论《报告》稿,对《报告》起草作出重要指示,对进一步修改完善提出明确要求,为起草修改《报告》提供了根本遵循。《报告》提出的今年工作指导思想、宏观政策取向、主要目标任务等都是按照中央经济工作会议精神起草的。李克强总理主持《报告》起草和修改工作,先后主持召开国务院常务会议、国务院全体会议研究讨论《报告》稿,还主持召开多场专题座谈会,直接听取各方面意见和建议。李克强等国务院领导同志还通过到各地调研等方式听取意见建议。

2022 is a very important year for the development of the Party and the country. The CPC will hold its 20th National Party Congress. Drafting the report was a key task, and the Party Central Committee and the State Council attached great importance to it. General Secretary Xi Jinping presided over meetings of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee and the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee to discuss the drafting of the report, made important instructions on the drafting, and put forward specific requirements for further revisions and improvements, which provided fundamental guidelines for drafting and revising the report. The guiding principles for this year's work, policy orientation, and main goals and tasks proposed in the report were all drafted in accordance with the principles of the Central Economic Work Conference. Premier Li Keqiang presided over the drafting and revision of the report and chaired executive and plenary meetings of the State Council to discuss the draft. He also presided over several themed symposiums to directly hear opinions and suggestions from all parties. Li and other leading officials of the State Council also listened to opinions and suggestions through investigation and research in various places.

按照习近平总书记关于开门问策、集思广益的重要指示要求,《报告》起草和修改工作高度重视听取和采纳社会各方面意见。可以说,报告起草是一个集众智、汇众力的过程,也是一个顺应社会期盼、不断细化实化政策措施的过程。《报告》起草从多个渠道听取和征求了几千条意见建议:

In accordance with the important instructions of General Secretary Xi Jinping on openly collecting suggestions and pooling wisdom, we have attached great importance to listening to and adopting the opinions of all sectors of society in drafting and revising the report. It can be said that the drafting is a process of gathering the wisdom and strength of the public, and also a process of meeting the expectations of society, and constantly refining and detailing the policy measures. In drafting the report, we solicited thousands of opinions and suggestions from multiple channels and took them under advisement:

一是李克强总理主持召开多场专题座谈会直接听取意见和建议。今年1月下旬,总理先后主持召开专家企业家座谈会、教科文卫体界人士和基层群众代表座谈会、各民主党派中央、全国工商联负责人和无党派人士代表座谈会,面对面听取社会各界人士对《报告》的意见和建议。

First, Premier Li Keqiang presided over several symposiums to directly listen to opinions and suggestions. In late January, the premier presided over a symposium attended by experts and entrepreneurs, a symposium attended by representatives from the education, science and technology, culture, health, and sports sectors, a symposium attended by representatives from the central committees of non-Communist parties, the All-China Federation of Industry and Commerce, and non-party affiliated individuals. He conducted face-to-face exchanges and heard opinions and suggestions from people from all walks of life on a draft government work report.

二是广泛征求各地区各部门意见。报告稿经过国务院全体会议讨论并修改后,按程序印发各省自治区直辖市、中央党政军群部门、部分企业等单位,大范围征求意见和建议。各单位共提出修改意见上千条,其中300多条重点意见予以吸收。

Second, opinions from various regions and departments were extensively solicited. To collect opinions and suggestions, the draft report, discussed and revised at the plenary meeting of the State Council, was printed out and distributed in accordance with the procedures to all provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities, Party organizations, central government agencies, the military, people's organizations, some enterprises, and other entities. Thousands of opinions for revisions were collected, of which more than 300 important opinions were taken into consideration.

三是利用媒体平台征求意见。比如,中国政府网联合人民网、新华网等22家网络媒体平台和各省区市、相关部委网站,连续第八年开展“我向总理说句话”网民建言征集活动。该活动共设置“就业创业”“企业和个体户”“科技创新”等21个话题分类,累计收到网民建言近百万条,建言量排名前5的话题分别为:群众办事、保障救助、教育、宏观经济、住房。经认真梳理,中国政府网汇总精选了1100多条有代表性的建言,《报告》对其中的重点意见进行了吸收。

Third, media platforms were used to solicit opinions. For example, a campaign called "Share Your Ideas with the Premier" was launched for the eighth consecutive year to solicit suggestions from the public. The campaign was launched by www.gov.cn in cooperation with 22 online platforms, including people.com.cn and xinhuanet.com, as well as the websites of various provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities. People were invited to offer their opinions on 21 topics such as "employment and entrepreneurship," "enterprises and self-employed businesses" and "technological innovation." Nearly 1 million comments from netizens were received. The top five topics that received the largest amount of advice were: public affairs, social security and assistance, education, macroeconomics, and housing. The www.gov.cn carefully sorted through and selected more than 1,100 typical suggestions, and the report has taken some key advice.

在起草过程中,几乎对《报告》每一部分、每个段落,我们都收集到了大量的明确文字意见。对这些意见和建议,无论是来自地方的、部门的,还是来自企业的、普通群众的,总理都要求我们认真梳理汇总、逐条进行研究,力求《报告》能够更好反映民意诉求、汇聚各方面智慧力量。

In drafting the report, we have collected a large number of explicit comments and suggestions on almost every section and paragraph of the report. Regarding these opinions and suggestions, whether they came from local governments, departments, enterprises or ordinary citizens, the premier asked us to carefully sort through and summarize them and study them one by one, in a bid to better respond to the public's demands and gather wisdom from the whole of society.

今年的《政府工作报告》共分为三大部分。第一部分是对去年工作和成绩的回顾总结。第二部分阐述了今年经济社会发展总体要求、主要预期目标和政策取向。第三部分提出了今年要重点做好的九个方面经济社会发展工作。同时,也讲了政府自身建设以及民宗侨、港澳台、国防外交工作。

This year's government work report is divided into three parts. The first part is a review and summary of last year's work and achievements. The second part expounds on the overall requirements, main projected targets and policy orientation for this year's economic and social development. The third part puts forward nine major tasks for achieving economic and social development in 2022. At the same time, it also touches on the topic of government building, the affairs of ethnic groups, religions, overseas Chinese, affairs related to Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan, and national defense as well as diplomacy.

下面,我和我的同事刘日红、宋立先生愿就《报告》起草情况与各位记者朋友进行交流。

Next, I and my colleagues, Liu Rihong and Song Li, would like to discuss the drafting of the report with you.

寿小丽:

Shou Xiaoli:

谢谢向东副主任的介绍。下面进入提问环节,提问前请通报一下所在的新闻机构。

Thank you, Mr. Xiang. The floor is now open for questions. Please identify your news outlet before raising your question.

中央广播电视总台央视记者:

CCTV:

我的问题是,今年的《政府工作报告》开篇中指出“过去一年是党和国家历史上具有里程碑意义的一年”,《报告》中还提到“回顾过去一年,成绩得来殊为不易”。请问如何理解“里程碑意义”和“殊为不易”?谢谢。

This year's government work report pointed out in its beginning part that "last year was a milestone in the history of the Party and our country." The report also said, "Looking back on the past year, we can see that our achievements did not come easily." Could you specify what "a milestone" and "not easily" mean in this context? Thank you.

向东:

Xiang Dong:

谢谢你的提问。《报告》指出,2021年是党和国家历史上具有里程碑意义的一年。以习近平同志为核心的党中央团结带领全党全国各族人民,有效应对了很多难事急事,成功举办了很多大事喜事,隆重庆祝中国共产党成立一百周年,胜利召开党的十九届六中全会、制定党的第三个历史决议,如期打赢脱贫攻坚战,如期全面建成小康社会、实现了第一个百年奋斗目标,开启全面建设社会主义现代化国家、向第二个百年奋斗目标进军新征程。

Thanks for your question. The report pointed out that the year 2021 was a milestone in the history of the Party and the country. The CPC Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core united and led the entire Party and the Chinese people of all ethnic groups to effectively manage many difficult and urgent matters and successfully hold many momentous and joyous events. We solemnly celebrated the centenary of the founding of the CPC, successfully convened the sixth plenary session of the 19th CPC Central Committee, and adopted the Party's third resolution on historical issues. We won the battle against poverty as scheduled, realized the first centenary goal of building our country into a moderately prosperous society in all respects as scheduled, and embarked on the journey of achieving the second centenary goal of building our country into a modern socialist country in an all-round way.

关于过去一年经济社会发展的成绩和工作,李克强总理在《政府工作报告》中做了全面总结。其中让我印象深刻的主要有以下几个方面:

In the government work report, Premier Li Keqiang made a comprehensive summary of the achievements and work in economic and social development over the past year. I was impressed mainly by the following aspects.

在经济恢复发展方面。国内生产总值增长8.1%、总量突破110万亿元,按年平均汇率折算达17.7万亿美元,稳居世界第二,占全球经济的比重预计将超过18%。人均GDP突破1.2万美元、达到1.25万美元,预计超过全球人均水平。稳增长主要是为了保就业,去年城镇新增就业1269万人,城镇调查失业率平均为5.1%。居民消费价格上涨0.9%,可以说经济运行实现了较高增长、较低通胀、较多就业的优化组合。

In the aspect of economic recovery and development, China's GDP increased by 8.1%, exceeding 110 trillion yuan. That was about US$17.7 trillion as calculated at the yearly average exchange rate, ranking second globally and was estimated to account for more than 18% of the world economy. The per capita GDP exceeded US$12,000 and reached US$12,500, which was expected to surpass the global per capita level. The aim of maintaining stable growth is primarily to secure employment. Last year, 12.69 million new urban jobs were added, and the average surveyed urban unemployment rate was 5.1%. Consumer prices rose by 0.9%. It can be said that China's economy has achieved a rapid growth with a relatively low inflation rate and a relatively high employment rate, which is an optimized combination.

在科技创新方面。神舟十二号、神舟十三号等任务相继实施,中国人首次进入自己的空间站,天问一号探测器成功着陆火星。国家战略科技力量加快壮大,设立一批国家实验室。工业制造业持续发展,产业链供应链韧性得到提升。

In terms of scientific and technological innovation, the Shenzhou-12 and Shenzhou-13 manned spaceships were launched in succession, the Chinese people for the first time entered their own space station, and China's Mars probe Tianwen-1 successfully landed on Mars. China's strategic capacity in science and technology has become stronger, and a number of national laboratories have been established. China's manufacturing industry has seen continued development, and the resilience of industrial and supply chains has been improved.

在改革开放方面。供给侧结构性改革深入推进,重点领域改革加快实施。“放管服”改革取得新进展,市场化法治化国际化营商环境加快形成。2021年末,我国实有登记在册的市场主体超过1.5亿户,到现在已是1.54亿户,其中个体工商户1亿户。对外贸易和吸引外资较快增长,货物贸易额、外汇储备余额位居世界第一。2021年,我国经济增长对世界经济增长的贡献率预计为25%左右,继续成为引领世界经济恢复的重要力量。

As for reform and opening-up, supply-side structural reforms were deeply advanced, and reforms in key areas were accelerated. Progress was made in reforms to streamline administration and delegate power, improve regulation, and upgrade services. A market-oriented, law-based, and internationalized business environment was formed at a faster speed. By the end of 2021, China had more than 150 million registered market entities, and the number has now reached 154 million, among which 100 million are self-employed businesses and households. Foreign trade and foreign investment also witnessed rapid growth, with both the volume of trade in goods and foreign exchange reserves ranking first globally. In 2021, China's economic growth was estimated to contribute around 25% to the world economic growth, continuing to be an important force leading the recovery of the world economy.

在保障和改善民生方面。居民收入增长与经济增长基本同步,城乡居民收入差距继续缩小,脱贫成果得到巩固和拓展。基本养老、基本医疗、社会救助等保障力度加大,退休人员基本养老金、优抚等标准继续提高。教育改革发展迈出新步伐。

In ensuring and improving people's living standards, the growth of residents' income has basically kept pace with the economic growth, the income gap between urban and rural residents has continued to narrow, and the achievements made in poverty eradication have been consolidated and expanded. Basic old-age insurance, basic medical care, and social assistance have been better ensured, and the standards for the basic pension and preferential treatment of the retired people have continued to be improved. New steps have also been taken in the reform and development of education.

在疫情防控方面。慎终如始抓好常态化疫情防控,疫苗全程接种覆盖率截至去年底超过85%,到今年2月底已达87%,及时有效处置局部地区聚集性疫情,保障了人民生命安全和身体健康。

Regarding the COVID-19 prevention and control, we have made continued efforts in our long-term fight against the epidemic. By the end of last year, more than 85% of the total population had been fully vaccinated. By the end of this February, the percentage has risen to 87%. We have responded to cluster cases in some areas in a timely and effective manner to safeguard our people's lives and health.

同时,城乡区域协调发展、生态环保、社会治理等领域工作都取得了积极进展。

Meanwhile, we have also made progress in coordinated development between regions and between urban and rural areas, in ecological and environmental protection, and in social governance, among other fields.

事非经过不知难。回顾过去一年,我国发展面临多年少有的复杂严峻局面和诸多风险挑战。经过突发疫情的严重冲击,经济尚处在恢复发展过程之中,复苏基础并不稳固,国内外形势变化又带来一系列新问题新挑战,很多情况超出预期。产业链供应链循环不畅、大宗商品价格大幅上涨、疫情多地散发、部分地区严重洪涝灾害、电力煤炭供应一度紧张等问题接踵而至,保持经济平稳运行的难度不断加大,宏观调控面临不少两难多难抉择。包括在座很多记者朋友一起走过来,很多方面相信大家都感同身受。在这样的背景下,我国发展能够取得这样的成就,确实殊为不易。这些成绩的取得,是以习近平同志为核心的党中央坚强领导的结果,是习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想科学指引的结果,是全党全国各族人民团结奋斗的结果。这充分证明,以习近平同志为核心的党中央的决策部署是正确的。这也充分展现了我国经济具有足够的韧性、巨大的潜力和抗风险能力。

The challenge was unknown until we ourselves went through the process. Looking back on the past year, China faced complicated and grave situations and a number of risks and challenges rarely seen in many years. Reeling from the severe impact of epidemic outbreaks, China's economy was still in the process of recovery which is not solidly based. In addition, as the domestic and overseas situations evolved, a series of new questions and challenges arose beyond expectations. Challenges came one after another: industrial and supply chain circulation was not smooth, commodity prices rose sharply, sporadic COVID-19 cases broke out in many places, severe floods brought damages to some areas, and electricity and coal were once in short supply. These challenges made it increasingly difficult for us to maintain economic stability and make decisions about macro-control measures. Many of you have been through these together with us. I believe we all feel the same in many aspects. Against such a background, it was not easy for China to attain these development achievements. All these achievements were made thanks to the strong leadership of the CPC Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core, the sound guidance of Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, and the concerted efforts of the Party and the Chinese people of all ethnic groups. All of these have fully proved that policies and plans made by the CPC Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core are correct and fully demonstrated that China's economy has ample resilience, enormous potential, and risk resistance capacity.

谢谢。

Thank you.

北京青年报记者:

Beijing Youth Daily:

《政府工作报告》强调今年稳就业的任务更加艰巨,同时也提出来今年城镇调查失业率的目标是控制在5.5%以内,这个目标其实比去年5.5%左右的要求还要更高。这个目标是如何设定的?我们的考虑是什么?今年能否顺利完成?另外,我看到一个说法,我国的灵活就业人数已经达到了2亿,请问怎么看待这个事情?谢谢。

According to the government work report, the task of stabilizing employment is more formidable this year. At the same time, China targets a surveyed urban unemployment rate of no more than 5.5% for 2022, which is even lower than the rate of around 5.5% last year. How was this target set? What are our considerations? Will it be completed this year? In addition, I noticed that it is said that there are 200 million workers in flexible employment in China. What's your take on that? Thanks.

向东:

Xiang Dong:

就业是关乎民生的大事,对我们这样一个拥有14亿多人口的大国尤其如此。去年受大宗商品价格高企、疫情灾情交织等影响,企业特别是中小微企业困难较多,对稳就业造成不小影响。我们精准实施宏观政策,强化保就业保民生保市场主体,各地也积极采取办法,多渠道促进就业创业。经过共同努力,全国城镇新增就业达到1269万人,城镇调查失业率全年平均为5.1%,较好完成了年初确定的预期目标。这十分不易。

Employment is a significant issue concerning people's livelihood, especially for a large country like us with a population of more than 1.4 billion. Last year, stabilizing employment was much affected as enterprise, especially micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs), ran into difficulties due to multiple problems such as high commodity prices, the COVID-19 pandemic and other natural disasters. Nevertheless, we kept macro policy targeted, and strengthened efforts to keep the operations of market entities stable, maintain stable employment, and ensure people's wellbeing. Departments at local levels also took measures actively to support people to start business or secure employment through multiple channels. With the joint efforts, 12.69 million urban jobs were added, and the average surveyed unemployment rate stood at 5.1%. We accomplished the target for the year, which was a hard-won achievement.

今年稳就业任务更加艰巨。需要在城镇就业的新成长劳动力近1600万人,特别是高校毕业生增加到1076万人、再创历史新高,承载数亿人就业创业的中小微企业和个体工商户仍面临较多困难。《报告》提出城镇调查失业率全年控制在5.5%以内,比去年5.5%左右的要求更高。这主要考虑到就业攸关民生和社会稳定,随着经济逐步恢复发展,必须进一步突出就业优先导向,压实各方稳就业的责任。为此,《报告》提出就业优先政策要提质加力,并在税费支持、特殊困难行业帮扶、重点群体就业等政策制定中,充分考虑了稳就业需要。强调要深入推进大众创业万众创新。通过加大政策实施力度,我们有信心实现全年就业目标。当然,调查失业率是对全年而言的,不排除个别月份会高一些,我们将强化工作举措,使失业率尽可能低一点。

This year, the task of stabilizing employment is more formidable. There will be nearly 16 million new entrants into the workforce, including a record high of 10.76 million college graduates. On the other hand, MSMEs and self-employed individuals, which are the sources of employment for several hundred million people, still face multiple difficulties. The government work report set the target of maintaining a surveyed urban unemployment rate of no more than 5.5%, lower than the target of around 5.5% last year. This is because employment is key to people's wellbeing and social stability, and following the recovery and development of the economy, we must further prioritize employment-first efforts and ensure all parties fulfill their duties. Therefore, the government work report said that the employment-first policy should be pursued with intensified efforts to deliver the desired outcomes. And we will take complete consideration of the need to stabilize employment when formulating policies concerning tax and fee reductions, support of industries facing particular difficulties, and key groups, among others. With the intensified measures and policies, we are confident of achieving the target for the year. Of course, the target is for the whole year, and that of some individual months may be relatively high. We will step up our efforts to keep the unemployment rate as low as possible.

你刚才提到灵活就业问题。灵活就业是重要的就业渠道。随着劳动者择业观念变化、企业用工方式多样,特别是新业态新模式加快发展,我国灵活就业不断增加,规模约2亿人。灵活就业为群众特别是困难群众创造了就业机会,同时对就业服务和社会保障也提出了更高要求。这在疫情时期对保障民生尤为重要。我们将完善支持措施,健全灵活就业劳动用工和社会保障政策,促进灵活就业健康发展,鼓励企业在恢复发展中创造更多收入稳定、保障完备、形态多样的就业岗位。

You mentioned flexible employment. Flexible employment is an important way to boost employment. As the mindset of workers on career choice has changed and enterprises have varied their ways of hiring people, especially with the rapid development of new industries and new forms of business, there is an increasing number of workers in flexible employment, which is now about 200 million. Flexible employment creates jobs for people, especially those in difficulty. At the same time, it demands more from the employment service and social security. Flexible employment is particularly important in ensuring the well-being of people during the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, we will improve our support measures for flexible employment and optimize its labor and social security policies to promote its healthy development, and encourage companies to create more jobs with stable income and sufficient guarantees and in different types as they recover and develop.

CNBC记者:

CNBC:

我有几个问题,第一个是关于消费情况,《政府工作报告》提到促进消费会有不同的渠道去实行,背后有什么考虑?落实的时候是通过什么渠道?关注到《报告》中也提到一些海外的情况带来的风险。今年对外资的支持和考虑有什么重点?谢谢。

I have several questions. My first question is about the consumption sector. According to the government work report, there will be different ways to promote consumption. What are the considerations behind that? And how will these measures be carried out? The government work report also mentioned risks from overseas. So what are the significant aspects and considerations for supporting foreign investment? Thanks.

向东:

Xiang Dong:

我先回答关于消费的问题。

I will first answer your questions about consumption.

去年我国消费保持恢复态势,社会消费品零售总额增长12.5%,居民人均消费支出实际增长12.6%,均明显高于2020年增速。全年最终消费支出拉动GDP增长5.3个百分点,对经济增长的贡献率达到65.4%,在“三驾马车”中发挥了主拉动作用。

Last year, China's consumption sector recovered, with the retail sales of consumer goods and per capita consumption expenditure growing by 12.5% and 12.6%, respectively, both higher than 2020. Final consumption expenditure drove China's GDP growth by 5.3 percentage points during the past year. It contributed 65.4% of China's economic growth, playing a primary role among the three major growth drives.

与此同时,也要看到,去年消费是在前年低基数上的恢复。从两年平均看,消费增速仍低于疫情前水平,特别是受疫情持续影响,生活服务消费还比较低迷,旅游、住宿、电影票房收入等相比2019年还是负增长。

At the same time, we should recognize that last year's consumption sector recovered from the low base in 2020. If we look at the average growth rate over the past two years, the growth rate of the consumption sector is still lower than the pre-pandemic level. Especially affected by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, consumption of consumer services remains in the doldrums, with the growth of revenues from the tourism and accommodation sector and box office revenue still lower than in pre-pandemic 2019.

中国是世界上最具成长性的消费大市场,消费有很大的潜力。比如,我国每千人汽车保有量还不到日本、韩国的一半,不及美国的四分之一。又如,我国居民人均服务消费支出占全部消费支出的比重只有44%,与相同发展阶段的其他国家相比明显偏低。再如,近些年我国居民消费快速升级,对高品质消费需求很旺盛,但由于供给跟不上,潜力得不到充分释放。

China is a large consumption market with enormous potential. For example, the number of motor vehicles per thousand people is less than half of that in Japan and South Korea, and a quarter in the United States. Another example is that the per capita consumer spending on services only accounts for 44% of the total consumption expenditure, which is lower than that of other countries at the same development stage. Also, China's consumption sector upgrades rapidly in recent years, and people's demand for high-end consumption is substantial. However, the potential is not fully released due to the supply shortage.

今年《政府工作报告》提出,要“推动消费持续恢复”,并部署了具体措施。主要包括:一是促进生活服务消费恢复。这一块是消费恢复的最大“短板”,也是最大潜力所在。二是稳定增加大宗消费。去年新能源汽车销售“井喷”,全年销量达到352万辆、增长1.6倍,今年要继续支持新能源汽车消费。还要开展绿色智能家电和以旧换新。三是发展社区消费和县乡消费。采取的举措包括加大城市社区生活服务设施建设力度,加强县域商业体系建设,发展农村电商和物流快递配送,以便利性、可及性的提升促进消费。此外,还要在提升产品和服务质量方面下功夫,更好满足居民生活需要。

This year's government work report said that China would promote sustained consumption recovery. And there are concrete measures to be put into place, which are as follows: First, we will boost the recovery in consumption of consumer services. This is the biggest weakness we need to strengthen to recover the consumption sector. And consumption of consumer services has the most significant potential. Second, we will keep major consumption stable. Last year, the sales of new energy vehicles rocketed to 3.82 million, up by 160%. This year, we will continue to support consumer spending on new energy vehicles. At the same time, we will promote spending on green and smart home appliances in rural areas as well as the replacement of old home appliances. Third, we will promote consumer spending at the community, township, and county levels. Efforts will include strengthening the building of community-level consumer services facilities in urban areas and county-level commercial systems and developing e-commerce and express delivery services in rural areas to promote and upgrade consumption by providing convenience and accessibility. In addition, we need to focus on improving the quality of products and services, to meet people's needs better.

你刚才说的是消费,实际上说的是扩内需的问题。扩内需既包括消费,也包括投资,《报告》中也有相应的篇幅谈到有效投资。中国扩大有效投资的潜力和空间很大。今年安排中央预算内投资6400亿元,新增地方政府专项债额度3.65万亿元,还有去年结转的部分资金可用,政府投资的总盘子也比去年扩大,将重点支持“十四五”规划重大工程项目、城市管网等基础设施、社会民生领域补短板建设。民间投资是投资的“大头”,我们将合理用好政府投资资金,充分发挥对有效投资的引导带动作用。

Your question about the consumption sector is, in fact, a question about expanding domestic demand. Growing domestic demand includes efforts to promote the consumption sector and investment. The government work report also mentioned effective investment. China has enormous potential and space to expand effective investment. Investment from the central government budget will reach 640 billion yuan this year. Special-purpose bonds for local governments will total 3.65 trillion yuan. There is still carry-over from last year. The government spending is expanding compared to the previous year. We will focus on supporting the major projects in the 14th Five-Year Plan, infrastructure projects related to urban utility networks and others, and strengthening weaknesses in ensuring people's well-being. Private investment accounts for a large proportion of China's investment. And we will use government investment funds rationally and work to play its role in leading and driving effective investment.

关于外资问题,请刘日红司长回答。

Your question about foreign investment will go to Mr. Liu.

国务院研究室综合一司司长刘日红:

Liu Rihong:

谢谢这位记者。对外开放是中国的基本国策,而利用外资又是中国对外开放的重要内容。实际上你可能已经看到了,有关部门已经公布了去年中国利用外资的数据,实际使用外资首次突破1万亿元,大概合1700多亿美元。为什么在疫情背景下,中国的利用外资还能保持这样一个不错的增速,我觉得有这么几个方面。

Thank you for your question. Opening up is China's basic national policy, and the use of foreign capital makes a major part of China's opening up. You probably have seen the data released by the relevant authorities regarding China's utilization of foreign investment last year, which showed that its actual use of foreign capital exceeded 1 trillion yuan, or more than $170 billion, for the first time. Why has China been able to maintain such a growth rate in its use of foreign investment against the backdrop of the pandemic? From my point of view, the reasons are as follows:

第一,是得益于中国疫情防控有力有效,为企业正常的生产经营创造了条件,可以说这两年中国经济在全球凸显了“安全岛”、“避风港”、“稳定器”的作用。

First, China's effective pandemic prevention and control have created a favorable environment for enterprises to ensure normal production and operation. It's fair to say that Chinese economy has become a "stabilizer" and "safe haven" for the global economy over the past two years.

第二,中国具有完整的产业链供应链,再加上中国人民勤劳智慧,外资企业看好中国的市场,愿意与中国这样一个大市场共成长、同发展。

Second, China has complete industrial and supply chains, and the Chinese people are hard-working and talented. Therefore, foreign enterprises have become optimistic about the Chinese market, and are willing to achieve shared success and common development with such a huge market.

你刚才讲到今年《政府工作报告》对外资方面有哪些政策,我想在这儿给你作一个简单的介绍。重点有几个方面:第一个方面是要落实好外资企业的国民待遇。大家知道,这几年中国的外资准入负面清单在不断压减,中国市场准入的水平在不断提高。比如,在疫情发生后的这两年,中国外资负面清单的全国版、自贸试验区版分别压减了9条、10条,力度是相当大的。目前,汽车制造业外资股比已经全面放开,自贸试验区内制造业的条目已经实现了清零,这是一个力度很大的开放举措。既然我们的负面清单压得越来越短,接下来我们的工作是什么?那就是确保负面清单压减以后外资能够依法平等进入这些负面清单以外的领域,所以今年《报告》讲,要深入实施外资准入负面清单,落实好外资企业的国民待遇,保障各类企业公平竞争。第二个方面,除了外资准入负面清单以外,我们还有鼓励外商投资产业指导目录,我的理解,这实际上相当于一个正面清单。通过这几年的实践来看,我们的负面清单越来越短,但是正面清单越来越长。正面清单是干什么的?就是凡是外资对正面清单领域的产业包括地区有投资的,在企业的税收、用地方面要给予一定的优惠。今年《报告》明确指出,要扩大鼓励外商投资范围,实际上就是指的这个意思。第三个方面,要建设好中国对外开放的平台。这些平台有什么?自贸试验区、海南自由贸易港、开发区、综合保税区,今年我们还要增加服务业扩大开放综合试点。大家知道,中国是一个大国,试点先行是我们对外开放的一个重要经验。我刚才讲到的这些平台,某种意义上讲,就是对一些对外开放的标准规则进行先行先试,这些年已经探讨出了很多制度性成果,并且在不断向全国推广。

Regarding the policies on foreign investment in this year's government work report, I'd like to give you a brief introduction in the following aspects: First, it will ensure the implementation of national treatment for foreign-invested enterprises. In recent years, China has been downsizing its negative lists of market access for foreign investment, and the access to Chinese market has been improved. For example, items on the national negative list and the negative list for pilot free trade zones have been cut by nine and 10, respectively, over the past two years after the breakout of the pandemic. Such reduction is impressive. At present, foreign ownership caps on automobile manufacturing companies have been removed, and restrictions on foreign investment in the manufacturing sector in pilot free trade zones have been removed, achieving remarkable progress in opening up. After the negative lists become shorter, we will work to ensure that foreign investment can access sectors beyond the negative lists in a law-based and equal manner. Therefore, this year's report pointed out that we will fully observe the negative list for foreign investment and ensure national treatment for all foreign-invested enterprises, so as to ensure fair competition among all types of businesses. Second, besides the negative lists, we have a catalog of industries for foreign investment, which from my point of view, is a positive list. After years of practice, our negative lists are becoming shorter and shorter, while the positive lists are growing longer. What is a positive list? Foreign enterprises will obtain some preferential treatment in terms of tax and land use if they invest in the sectors or regions on the list. This was mentioned in this year's report, as it pointed out that we will encourage foreign-invested enterprises to move into a broader range of sectors. Third, we will build and improve the platforms for China's opening up. What are these platforms? They are pilot free trade zones, the Hainan Free Trade Port, economic development zones and integrated bonded areas. In addition, more comprehensive trials on the opening of the service sector are expected to be launched this year. China is a large country, so it has been an important experience for us to launch pilots first while pursuing opening up. Those aforementioned platforms have been launched to implement pilot standards and rules for the opening up. Over the past years, a lot of achievements have been made and enabled us to establish relevant systems, and thereby have been promoted nationwide.

所以我想,在这些政策的加持之下,就像《报告》的这句话说的,“开放的中国大市场,必将为各国企业在华发展提供更多机遇。”

Thanks to these policies, I believe, just as the report says: "The vast, open Chinese market is sure to provide even greater business opportunities for foreign enterprises in China."

谢谢。

Thank you.

中央广播电视总台央广记者:

CNR:

根据《报告》提出将对增值税、留抵税税额实行更大规模的退税。能否介绍一下这一政策出台的背景和具体情况?为什么以前没有出台?另外,存量部分为什么没有覆盖到全部行业?对下一步完善增值税制度有什么重要意义?谢谢。

The report pointed out that we will issue VAT and VAT credit refunds on a bigger scale this year. Could you please brief us on the background and details of the policy adoption? Why now instead of sometime earlier? Moreover, why do the VAT credit refunds not cover all the industries? What is the significance of the policy for the improvement of the VAT system in the future? Thank you.

向东:

Xiang Dong:

谢谢,你这个问题问得很好。这个问题请宋立司长回答。

Thank you. These is a good question. I'd like to invite Mr. Song to answer it.

国务院研究室国际司司长宋立:

Song Li:

增值税留抵退税是今年重要的税费支持政策。在现行增值税制度下,如果一家企业纳税期内的增值税销项税额小于进项税额,就会形成留抵税额。2019年4月份以来,我们持续深化改革,建立和完善增值税期末留抵退税制度,对部分增值税留抵税额进行退税。

VAT credit refunding is an important tax-and-fee support policy adopted this year. Under the current VAT system, an enterprise will have VAT credits if its output VAT is less than the input VAT during a tax period. We have deepened reform since April 2019, establishing and improving the end-of-tax-period VAT credit refund system so as to refund part of the VAT credits.

目前,我国的留抵退税主要集中在增量部分,即退还2019年4月份以来新增加的部分,其中,对先进制造业的增量留抵税额予以全部退还,对其他行业满足条件的增量留抵税额予以退还60%。

Currently, China's VAT credit refunds mainly focus on the newly added part generated after April 2019. Among them, we will refund all the newly added VAT credits to advanced manufacturing enterprises, while for other industries, we will refund 60% of the newly added VAT credits that meet the standards.

《报告》指出,今年要对留抵税额实行大规模退税,从增量和存量两方面入手,明显加大留抵退税力度。这在当前经济下行压力较大情况下,有利于企业恢复发展。政策主要包含两方面内容:

The report pointed out that we will issue VAT credit refunds on a large scale this year, including the newly added and outstanding ones so as to significantly increase the amount of tax refunds. Given the downward economic pressure, the policy will help enterprises resume their development. Major policies lie in the following two aspects:  

一是优先安排小微企业。6月底前小微企业存量留抵税额一次性全部退还,增量留抵税额足额退还。为确保政策落实,中央财政将加大对地方的财力支持,减轻地方财政压力,做到及时退付、应退尽退。

First, we will give priority to micro and small enterprises, refunding outstanding VAT credits to them in one lump sum by the end of June, while also fully refunding newly added credits. In order to ensure that the policy takes full effect, the central government will provide greater fiscal support for local governments to ease their burden. We will ensure that the tax credits are fully refunded in time.

二是重点支持制造业。全面解决制造业、科研和技术服务、生态环保、电力燃气、交通运输行业留抵退税问题。

Second, with a focus on supporting manufacturing, we will work to fully resolve problems in refunding VAT credits in manufacturing, research and technical services, environmental protection, electricity and gas, and transportation industries.

今年实施大规模留抵退税后,今后在此基础上进一步消化存量,及时退还增量,对完善增值税制度意义重大。

After the launch of VAT credit refunds on a large scale this year, we will continue to refund the outstanding VAT credits and refund the newly added credits in time, which is of great significance to improving the VAT system.

谢谢。

Thank you.

21世纪经济报道记者:

21st Century Business Herald:

新冠病毒肺炎疫情现在已经持续了两年多的时间,我们看到有一些国家已经开始“带疫”解封、逐步放宽管制措施。有些地方已经全面放开了。我想问的是,下一步我国的疫情防控策略和举措是怎样的?谢谢。

The COVID-19 pandemic has been going on for more than two years now. We have seen that some countries have begun to lift the lockdowns amid the still raging pandemic and gradually relax control measures. Some places have been fully open without any restrictions. So I want to know, what will China's pandemic prevention and control strategies and measures be in the next step? Thank you.

向东:

Xiang Dong:

谢谢你的提问。我注意到最近好几场发布会上大家都比较关注这个问题。面对这场世纪疫情,中国政府坚持人民至上、生命至上,坚持外防输入、内防反弹,坚持科学精准、动态清零,迅速处置和化解了多起局部地区聚集性疫情,保持了全球疫情防控优势地位,为经济社会发展创造了条件。同时要看到,当前全球疫情走势仍存在很大的变数,给我国疫情防控带来很大挑战。下一步,我们将继续坚持外防输入、内防反弹,科学精准处置聚集性疫情,保障人民生命安全和身体健康,尽可能减少对群众正常生产生活的影响。重点抓好四个方面工作:

Thank you for your question. I have noticed that people have paid great attention to this issue in several recent press conferences. In the face of the pandemic of the century, the Chinese government insists on putting people first and putting life first, insists on preventing imports from abroad and preventing rebounds from within, insists on scientific precision and dynamic zero-case policies, and quickly handled and resolved many clustered cases in local areas. The Chinese government has maintained its dominant position in global pandemic prevention and control, creating conditions for economic and social development. At the same time, it should be noted that there are still many uncertainties and variables in the current global pandemic development trend, which brings significant challenges to China's prevention and control. Next, we will continue to adhere to external defense against imported cases and internal defense against rebounds, scientifically and accurately handle clustered cases, protect people's lives and health, and minimize the impact on people's everyday work and life. We will focus our work on the following four areas:

一是严防疫情输入。近两年来,中国境内发生的40多起散发病例和聚集性疫情,经过基因测序分析和流调追踪排查,都是由境外输入引起的。所以要把口岸城市防控作为重中之重,加大“人、物、环境”同防力度,守好疫情防控国门,坚决避免出现规模性输入和扩散。

The first is to strictly prevent the import of the pandemic. More than 40 sporadic cases and clustered outbreaks occurred in China in the past two years. After gene sequencing analysis and epidemiological investigation, they were all caused by overseas imports. Therefore, the prevention and control of port cities should be the top priority, and the common prevention and control efforts on "people, objects, and environment" should be strengthened. We must guard the national gate of pandemic prevention and control and resolutely prevent large-scale import and spread.

二是精准实施防控措施。针对一些地方防控一刀切、“层层加码”问题,要求各地建立有关问题反映、核实、纠正专项工作机制,严格做到“三不得”:不得突破现有疫情防控相关规定进行封城封区,不得非必要、不报批中断公共交通,不得擅自增加对服务业的疫情防控措施,坚决防止出现“放松防控”和“过度防控”两种倾向。

The second is the precise implementation of prevention and control measures. In response to the problems of prevention and control in some localities, such as one-policy-fits-all and taking excessive policy steps, all localities are required to establish a special working mechanism for reporting, verifying, and correcting relevant problems. In addition, all localities are required to strictly implement the "three don'ts." Don't break through the existing regulations on pandemic prevention and control to lock down cities and districts; don't interrupt public transportation unnecessarily or without approval; don't arbitrarily increase the service industry's pandemic prevention and control measures. We must firmly prevent the two trends of "relaxing prevention and control" and "excessive prevention and control."

三是继续推进疫苗接种工作。我刚才也介绍过,截至去年底,我国疫苗全程接种率已超过85%,今年2月底已超过87%,要推进序贯加强免疫接种,进一步提高免疫效果。

The third is to continue to promote the vaccination work. As I mentioned just now, as of the end of last year, China's full-course vaccination rate exceeded 85%, and by the end of February this year, it had exceeded 87%. Therefore, it is necessary to promote sequential immunization and booster vaccination to further improve the effect of immunization.

四是加强疫情防控科研攻关。积极推进新冠病毒变异研究和防范,加大疫苗适应性和特效治疗药物研发力度,力争尽快找到控制疫情的利器。

The fourth is to strengthen scientific research breakthroughs on pandemic prevention and control. We will actively promote the research and prevention of COVID-19 variants, increase the development of vaccine adaptability and specific therapeutic drugs, and strive to find a sharp weapon to control the pandemic as soon as possible.

谢谢。

Thank you.

海报新闻记者:

The Poster News APP:

《政府工作报告》中说今年发展主要预期目标是国内生产总值增长5.5%左右,结合当前复杂严峻的国内外经济环境,请问这样的设定有什么特殊的考虑吗?谢谢。

The Report on the Work of the Government stated that the main projected target for this year's development is a GDP growth of around 5.5%. Considering the current complex and severe domestic and overseas economic environment, are there any special considerations for such a projection? Thank you.

向东:

Xiang Dong:

谢谢你的问题。李克强总理作完《报告》以后,我看大家比较关注今年增速的预期目标。我国经济两年平均增速比2019年6%的增速有所回落,主要是受到疫情持续等因素影响。从世界范围看,主要经济体两年平均经济增速普遍比疫情前放缓,且放缓幅度大于我国。

Thank you for your question. After Premier Li Keqiang finished delivering the report, everyone has been concerned about the projected growth rate this year. China's economy's two-year average growth rate has dropped from the 6% growth rate in 2019, mainly due to factors such as the continuation of the pandemic. From a global perspective, major economies' two-year average economic growth rate is generally slower than that before the pandemic, and the rate of slowdown is greater than that of China.

今年5.5%左右目标的设定,首先考虑了稳就业保民生防风险的需要。经济稳是基础。经济如果不稳,就业、收入都很难稳得住,一些风险隐患也会水落石出。今年实现5.5%左右的增长,扩大就业、增加收入就有基础,经济运行就能保持在合理区间。

Setting GDP growth target at around 5.5% this year, first of all, has considered the need to maintain stable employment, meet basic living needs, and guard against risks. Economic stability is the foundation. Employment and income will be difficult to stabilize if the economy is unstable, and some hidden risks will be revealed. Achieving a growth rate of about 5.5% this year, we will have the foundation to expand employment and increase income. The economy's operation will be able to be maintained in a reasonable range.

其次,也考虑了同近两年平均经济增速以及“十四五”规划目标要求相衔接。正如你刚才所说,过去两年我国经济平均增长5.1%。在疫情前的2019年,我国经济增长预期目标是6%—6.5%,当年实际增长6.1%。“十四五”规划虽然没有设定具体的经济增长预期目标,但要求保持在合理区间。综合这些因素,把今年经济增长预期目标设定为5.5%左右,是较为科学合理的,符合现阶段我国潜在增长水平,有利于引导预期、提振信心,凝聚发展共识。

Second, it is also considered in keeping with the average growth rates of the last two years and the goals of the 14th Five-Year Plan. As you just said, China's economy has grown by an average of 5.1% in the past two years. In 2019, before the pandemic, China's economic growth target was projected to be 6%-6.5%, and the actual growth rate for that year was 6.1%. Although the 14th Five-Year Plan does not set specific economic growth expectations, it requires keeping within a reasonable range. Taking these factors into consideration, it is relatively scientific and reasonable to set the projected economic growth target for this year at around 5.5%, which is in line with China's potential growth level at the current stage and is conducive to guiding expectations, boosting confidence, and building consensus on development.

第三,就像《报告》所说,这是高基数上的中高速增长,体现了主动作为。去年我国GDP达到114.4万亿元,在这个基础上实现5.5%的增长,相当于5年前增长7.4%、10年前增长10.5%;对应的经济增量超过9万亿元,与世界上排第11、12位的经济体一年的经济总量接近。实现这个目标是不容易的,要付出艰苦努力。为实现经济增长“5.5%左右”的预期目标,今年要着重做好以下方面:

Third, as the report stated, it represents a medium-high growth rate given our large economic aggregate and demonstrates our ability to move proactively. For example, last year, China's GDP reached 114.4 trillion yuan. On this basis, when it achieves an increase of 5.5%, which is equivalent to an increase of 7.4% five years ago and an increase of 10.5% ten years ago; the corresponding economic increment exceeds 9 trillion yuan, which is close to the annual economic aggregate of the 11th and 12th largest economies in the world. But achieving this goal is not easy and will require arduous efforts. Therefore, to achieve the projected economic growth target of "about 5.5%," we should focus on the following aspects this year:

一是坚持稳字当头、稳中求进。要把稳增长放在更加突出的位置。各地区各部门要切实担负起稳定宏观经济的责任,积极推出有利于经济稳定的政策。当然,稳增长不是只要速度不要质量,要坚持新发展理念,推动经济实现质的稳步提升和量的合理增长。

The first is to insist on ensuring stability a top priority and seeking progress while maintaining stability. We must put stable growth in a more prominent position. All localities and government bodies should earnestly shoulder the responsibility of stabilizing the macroeconomy and actively introduce policies conducive to economic stability. Of course, stable growth is not just about speed ignoring quality. It is about adhering to the new concept for development and promoting the steady improvement in quality and rational growth of the quantity.

二是加大宏观政策实施力度。今年财政、货币、就业优先等政策力度不小,财政支出超过26万亿元,退税减税约2.5万亿元,货币政策要强化对实体经济的支持,能够为经济平稳运行提供有力支撑。

The second is to intensify the implementation of macro policies. This year's fiscal, monetary, employment priority, and other policies are sizable. Fiscal expenditure exceeds 26 trillion yuan, and tax rebates and tax reductions are around 2.5 trillion yuan. In addition, monetary policy should strengthen support for the real economy, which can provide strong support for the smooth operation of the economy.

三是坚定不移深化改革扩大开放促进创新,坚定实施扩大内需战略,着力激发市场活力、增强发展内生动力。

The third is to deepen reform, expand opening-up, and promote innovation. We will firmly implement the strategy of expanding domestic demand and strive to stimulate market vitality and enhance the endogenous driving force for development.

这里面有一个重要的前提,还是要做好疫情防控。我们要统筹疫情防控和经济社会发展,做好常态化疫情防控,保障人民生命安全和身体健康,尽可能减少对生产生活的影响,为维护正常生产生活秩序创造条件,这是巩固经济恢复发展的重要前提。

And there is an important premise here: it is still necessary to ensure pandemic prevention and control. We must coordinate pandemic prevention and control with economic and social development, ensure normalized pandemic prevention and control, protect people's lives and health, minimize the impact on production and life, and create conditions for maintaining normal production and living order. This is an essential prerequisite for consolidating economic recovery and development.

总之,我国经济基本面长期向好,市场主体超过1.5亿户并在持续较快增长,14亿多人民勤劳智慧,宏观政策有工具有空间,我们还积累了应对重大风险挑战的丰富经验,在以习近平同志为核心的党中央坚强领导下,全国上下团结奋进、真抓实干,一定能够完成经济社会发展主要目标任务。

Overall, the economic fundamentals sustain long-term growth. The total number of market entities in China has exceeded 150 million and continues to grow quickly. Under the strong leadership of the CPC Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core, we will work together, keep going and make pragmatic and persistent efforts to accomplish the targets and tasks for economic and social development this year, with the result of the hard work and vision of more than 1.4 billion Chinese people, a variety of instruments and space for macro policies and a wealth of invaluable experience on responding to significant challenges and withstanding major risks.

日本共同社记者:

Kyodo News Service:

我的问题,一是最近围绕乌克兰发生的国际动荡,今天的《政府工作报告》有没有考虑到这方面的因素。二是有关今年财政赤字率设定为2.8%的背景有哪些?三是今天的《政府工作报告》上没有看到“动态清零”的词汇,这是否意味着未来调整防控政策的可能性?谢谢。

I have three questions. First, have you considered the international volatility raised by the Ukraine crisis while drafting the government work report of this year? Second, the deficit-to-GDP ratio this year is projected at 2.8%. What's the consideration behind this? Third, this year's government work report has not mentioned the dynamic zero-COVID 19 policy. Does it mean that there are possibilities for the country to adjust its virus control strategy? Thank you.

向东:

Xiang Dong:

你的第一个问题我简要做一个回答。我们起草《政府工作报告》,考虑到了各种因素,我想这是对你第一个问题的回答。

I want to answer your first question briefly. We have taken various considerations into account while drafting this year's report.

第二,关于财政赤字的问题,我给你提供一些信息。

Second, I would like to offer some details about your question concerning the fiscal deficit.

《报告》提出,今年积极的财政政策要提升效能,更加注重精准、可持续。近两年我们适当调低了赤字率,主要有以下考虑:

The work report says the proactive fiscal policy will be more effective, targeted, and sustainable. The deficit-to-GDP ratio has been cut appropriately in the recent two years. We mainly take the following factors into account.

第一,虽然适当调低了赤字率,但积极财政政策的取向没有改变。大家从《报告》中可以看到,今年预计我国财政收入继续增长,加之特定国有金融机构和专营机构依法上缴近年结存的利润、调入预算稳定调节基金等,可用财力明显增加,支出规模比去年扩大2万亿元以上。同时大力优化支出结构,提高财政资金使用效益。实施新的组合式税费支持政策,退税减税规模约2.5万亿元。新增地方政府专项债券额度3.65万亿元,还有去年结转一部分专项债资金今年可以继续使用。安排中央预算内投资6400亿元,比去年增加300亿元。总体看,积极财政政策的实施力度是比较大的。

First, China's proactive fiscal policies will remain unchanged though the deficit-to-GDP ratio was lowered moderately. According to the work report, it is projected that fiscal revenue will continue to grow in 2022. In addition, we also have available to us the surplus profits of state-owned financial institutions and state monopoly business operations from recent years turned over in accordance with the law and funds transferred from the Central Budget Stabilization Fund. This will make it possible for government to increase expenditures by more than two trillion yuan over last year, putting significantly greater fiscal resources at our disposal. We will implement a new package of tax-and-fee policies to support enterprises, with tax refunds and cuts totaling about 2.5 trillion yuan. Furthermore, this year, special-purpose bonds for local governments will total 3.65 trillion yuan, and a portion of special bonds carried over from last year will be available for further use. In addition, investment from the central government budget will reach 640 billion yuan, an increase of 30 billion yuan over last year. As a result, we will see that the proactive fiscal policy is more effective.

第二,适当调低赤字率有利于增强财政可持续性。2020年,为应对新冠肺炎疫情冲击,我们将赤字率提高到3.6%以上,这是非常时期的非常之举。随着经济逐步稳定恢复,我们及时回调赤字率水平,这有利于增强财政可持续性,并为应对以后可能出现的复杂困难局面留出空间。

Second, it is conducive to boosting fiscal sustainability. The government set the deficit-to-GDP ratio in 2020 at more than 3.6% to address the COVID-19 pandemic, which was an extraordinary measure for an unusual time. As economic performance recovers stably, we moderately cut the deficit-to-GDP ratio in time, which is constructive to enhancing fiscal sustainability. We have also considered the need to leave policy space to address risks that could arise in the future.

第三,今年将赤字率调回至3%以内,释放了我国经济和财政运行稳健的信号,能够提振市场信心。

Third, in cutting the deficit-to-GDP ratio to within 3%, we have signaled that China's economy and finance perform prudently, which can boost market confidence.

关于第三个问题,前面已经做了回应。谢谢。

As for your third question, please refer to my answer to a similar question just now. Thank you.

澎湃新闻记者:

The Paper:

去年《政府工作报告》中对于CPI涨幅的预期目标是3%,然而去年实际增长只有0.9%,是什么原因抑制了去年CPI的增长?我们注意到,今年报告也将CPI涨幅设置为3%,请问今年是否还能继续维系低增长态势?去年的“低基数”对于完成今年的预期目标是否会产生影响呢?谢谢。

In last year's government work report, the CPI was projected to increase by around 3%. However, the CPI rose by 0.9% in 2021. What factors slowed down the CPI increases of last year? Moreover, we noticed that the CPI is set to increase by 3% in this year's report. Will China continue to maintain a low growth this year? Will last year's "low base" impact achieving this year's expected goals? Thank you.

向东:

Xiang Dong:

去年居民消费价格涨势温和,全年平均上涨0.9%,为经济恢复、民生改善营造了好的物价环境。在国际大宗商品价格大幅上涨、全球通胀压力加大的背景下,我国CPI能保持基本稳定,与市场供给较为充裕、农业再获丰收特别是生猪生产形势较好,猪肉价格走低有很大关系。同时,党中央、国务院加强市场运行调节,加大能源原材料等的保供稳价工作,也为物价形势平稳创造了条件。

Over the course of last year, the CPI rose moderately by 0.9% on average, creating a favorable environment for economic recovery and improvement of people's lives. Against the backdrop of sharply increasing international commodity prices and increasing global inflationary pressure, China's CPI has remained stable, mainly due to abundant market supply and a bumper harvest in agriculture. In particular, pork prices fall because the pig production has remained favorable. In addition, the CPC Central Committee and the State Council have strengthened market regulation, stepped up efforts to ensure the supply of energy and raw materials, and keep their prices stable, thus creating conditions for price stability.

目前我国工业、农业生产形势较好,生猪存栏量和能繁母猪数量保持在高位,主要工业品和农产品供给有保障,为今年CPI稳定运行奠定了基础。但也要看到,近期国际能源等价格高位上涨,加大了向国内输入传导的压力;受气候因素等影响,不排除国内部分农产品如蔬菜等价格出现阶段性上涨。同时,2020年对2021年的翘尾影响为-0.1个百分点,但去年价格对今年的翘尾影响有0.9个百分点。预计今年CPI同比涨幅比去年有所扩大,但仍将保持温和上涨态势。《政府工作报告》将今年CPI涨幅目标设定为“3%左右”,充分考虑了影响物价的各种潜在因素,留有一定余地,也与去年目标一致,有利于稳定市场预期。

At present, China's industrial and agricultural production situation is pretty good. The number of hogs and "breeding sows remains high. The supply of major industrial and agricultural products is guaranteed, all of which lays a foundation to keep CPI stable this year. On the other hand, energy prices on the international market have risen considerably in recent months, which puts upward pressure on domestic prices. Due to climate change and other factors, we can't rule out that some agricultural products like vegetables will rise for the current period on the Chinese market. In addition, consumer prices of last year were exerting a 0.9 percentage point of carryover effect on prices this year. In comparison, the carryover effect of prices in 2020 was only a minus 0.1 percentage point. It is predicted that a CPI increase rate year-on-year will expand in 2022. However, it will still rise mildly. The CPI is projected to rise by around 3% this year. We have taken complete account of various potential factors affecting prices and leaving some leeway. This is also in compliance with last year's projected target and will help stabilize market expectations.

彭博新闻社记者:

Bloomberg:

我们看到,今年的《报告》显示,今年的财政计划主要是利用国企以及地方债务的一些资金来加强消费,刺激支出。而去年的基础设施方面的开支是比较缓慢的,因为去年没有足够多的好的基建项目让这些资金能够花出去。今年将会如何确保这些资金能够有效得到开支?怎么解决去年一些余钱找不到好的基建项目没花出去的问题?第二个问题是关于这样的措施、这样的财政政策将如何持续,是否能够促进固定资产的投资?

According to the work report, this year's fiscal plan focuses on using funds from state-owned enterprises and local government debt to boost consumption and spending. However, the expenditure on infrastructure was relative slow last year because of insufficient good infrastructure projects. How shall we ensure the effective spending of these funds and ensure the problem of last year be well addressed? And how can you keep these policies and measures consistent, and whether it can promote investment in fixed assets?

向东:

Xiang Dong:

谢谢,你这几个问题综合起来看,主要是财政方面的问题。钱怎么花,《报告》里面今年有两个花钱的最大的去处,刚才已经回答了一个,一个叫退税,还有一个叫减税,有关这方面的情况,请刘日红司长回答。

Thank you. The questions you raised are mainly related to finance. Regarding the government's expenditure mentioned in the work report, there are two major expenditures this year: tax reductions and refunds. I covered the former one, and I'd like to invite Mr. Liu to elaborate briefly on the latter.

刘日红:

Liu Rihong:

正如刚才向东副主任所说,你刚才问的问题,前面我的同事已经涉及到了,这里我再补充几点,供你参考。

As Mr. Xiang said, my colleague covered some of your questions. I would like to add some more details for your reference.

财政支出方面,一个是整体上加大了财政支出的力度。《政府工作报告》中写到,支出规模比去扩大了2万亿元以上。你们可能会问,今年要加大财政支出力度,干什么?主要的一个方面就是支持减税退税。这几年的实践证明,减税降费是创新宏观调控的一个关键性举措,也是支持市场主体最公平普惠、直接有效的办法。这里有一个数字,“十三五”以来,累计新增减税降费8.8万亿元,有力降低了企业负担。虽然在持续减税降费,但是由于市场主体的活力增强和新的涉税市场主体在不断成长,支撑了财政的可持续稳健运行。还有一个数字,2013年以来,新增涉税市场主体,去年纳税达到4.76万亿元。这体现了减税降费的政策效应。

In terms of government expenditure, we will first increase overall spending. According to the report, government expenditure in 2022 is budgeted to increase by more than two trillion yuan over the previous year. You may be curious about the reasons for such an increase. One of the significant reasons is to facilitate tax refunds and cuts. Our practices in recent years prove that tax and fee cuts are crucial measures to innovate macro adjustment and the fairest, most inclusive, and most effective method to support market entities. Statistics show that since the 13th Five-Year Plan was launched, the volume of newly-issued tax and fee cuts has totaled 8.8 trillion yuan, effectively reducing the burden of enterprises. Although policies on tax and fee cuts continue to take effect, China's public finance has achieved sustainable and stable operation due to the growing vitality of market entities and the development of new tax-related market entities. From 2013 to 2021, new tax-related market entities have paid 4.76 trillion yuan in tax. This demonstrates the policy effect of tax and fee cuts.

今年要扩大财政支出,很大的一方面就是加大对地方转移支付力度,支持减税降费政策的落实,确保2.5万亿元减税退税的政策落到实处。

One of the major reasons for expanding government expenditure this year is to increase transfer payments to local governments, help carry out tax and fee cuts, and ensure that policies concerning 2.5 trillion yuan of tax refunds and cuts can be well implemented.

还有一个方面就是带动扩大有效投资。今年专项债券拟安排额度3.65万亿元,和去年差不多。同时中央预算内投资的额度6400亿元,比去年扩大300亿元。我国有效投资的空间很大。你刚才也讲到基础设施投资,确实一段时期以来,基础设施的投资增长是比较低的,今年要加大这方面的支持力度。但现阶段扩大投资,并不是说像以前那样搞粗放式发展,我们扩大的是有效投资。什么叫有效投资?就是经济发展和民生急需的项目。比如今年债券重点支持“十四五”重大工程项目以及一些社会民生领域的补短板项目。随着资金陆续到位,将会不断发挥撬动有效投资的作用,对中国经济平稳运行起到很好的支撑作用。

Another reason is to help expand effective investment. In 2022, 3.65 trillion yuan of special bonds will be issued, similar to the previous year. In the meantime, 640 billion yuan will be allocated for investment in the central government budget, 30 billion yuan more than the previous year. Therefore, there is substantial growing space for China's effective investment. As for the investment in infrastructure you mentioned, indeed, the growth rate in this regard has been comparatively low in recent years, and we will ramp up investment this year. However, our efforts to increase investment are not made in an extensive manner as we did in the past. What we expand nowadays is an effective investment, applied to projects urgently needed for economic growth and people's livelihoods. For example, a bond issued this year will focus on supporting major engineering projects of the 14th Five-Year Plan and those concerning the weakness of society and people's livelihood. With the implementation of the funds, effective investment will be continuously leveraged, which will effectively support the stable operation of the Chinese economy.

谢谢。

Thank you.

经济日报记者:

Economic Daily:

当前中国经济面临新的下行压力,就去年四季度的GDP只有4%的增长,我们注意到《政府工作报告》提出了多方面的政策措施。请问,有哪些具体考虑?谢谢。

Currently, China's economy faces new downward pressure, and the country's GDP in the fourth quarter of 2021 only expanded 4% year-on-year. We noted that the government work report proposed many policies and measures in this regard. What are the considerations behind this? Thank you.

向东:

Xiang Dong:

今年我国经济面临需求收缩、供给冲击、预期转弱三重压力,必须爬坡过坎。《政府工作报告》在深刻分析国内外形势的基础上,对今年政府工作作出了全面的部署安排,提出了保持经济社会持续健康发展的系列政策措施。怎么看,根据我个人的理解,可从以下几个方面具体把握。

China's economy in 2022 faces the triple pressures of shrinking demand, disrupted supply, and weakening expectations, and we must overcome these difficulties. Building on an in-depth analysis of situations both at home and abroad, the government work report has made comprehensive arrangements for the tasks of the government in 2022, proposing a series of policies and measures which aim to continuously maintain sound economic and social development. Regarding your question, I personally think that we can analyze the measures in the following aspects.

一是把握好稳字当头、稳中求进的工作总基调。“稳”是今年《报告》的一个关键词,全文共出现76次。《报告》明确提出,今年工作要坚持稳字当头、稳中求进,把稳增长放在更加突出的位置。各地区各部门要切实担负起稳定经济的责任,积极推出有利于经济稳定的政策。

First, we need to follow the general principle of prioritizing stability and seeking progress while ensuring stability. The term "stability" is one of the keywords of this year's report and has been mentioned 76 times. The report clearly stipulates that the work in 2022 should follow the aforementioned general principle and attach greater importance to stabilizing growth. All regions and sectors need to take responsibility for stabilizing the economy and proactively introducing policies that help ensure economic stability.

二是把握好稳住宏观经济大盘的主要政策取向。《报告》提出提升积极的财政政策效能,财政支出规模比去年扩大2万亿元以上。中央对地方转移支付增加约1.5万亿元、规模接近9.8万亿元,增长18%、为多年来最大增幅。拟发行地方专项债券3.65万亿元,安排中央预算内投资6400亿元。加大稳健的货币政策实施力度,扩大新增贷款规模。强化就业优先政策。确保粮食能源安全。《报告》强调要加强粮食等重要农产品稳产保供,稳定粮食播种面积,促进大豆和油料增产,把14亿多中国人的饭碗牢牢端在自己手中。

Second, we need to stick to the main policy direction, ensuring stability in the macroeconomy. The report proposed that the efficiency of proactive fiscal policies should be improved and that the fiscal spending will increase by over 2 trillion yuan over the previous year. The central government transfer payments to local governments will reach nearly 9.8 trillion yuan, 1.5 trillion yuan more than the previous year, up 18%, the most significant increase in recent years. A total of 3.65 trillion yuan of local government special bonds will be issued, and 640 billion yuan will be earmarked for investment in the central government budget. China will further strive to implement a prudent monetary policy to expand the scale of newly-issued loans. The policy that prioritizes employment will be further strengthened. China will spare no effort to ensure food and energy security. The report stressed that more efforts should be made to stabilize the production and ensure the supply of grain and other vital agricultural products, keep crop acreage stable and boost the yield of soybeans and other oil crops, in a bid to ensure the food supply for 1.4 billion Chinese people.

三是把握好稳市场主体、保就业政策实施力度。《报告》提出了一系列力度大、针对性强的硬招实招。比如,实施新的组合式税费支持政策,全年退税减税约2.5万亿元,其中留抵退税约1.5万亿元。对不裁员少裁员的企业,继续实施失业保险稳岗返还政策,明显提高中小微企业返还比例。对餐饮、住宿、零售、旅游、客运等困难行业企业,进一步加大帮扶力度。

Third, we need to properly implement policies to ensure the stable growth of market entities and employment. The report put forward a package of highly effective and well-targeted, hardcore measures. For example, China implemented a new set of combined taxation policies. The total volume of tax refunds and cuts is expected to total around 2.5 trillion yuan, including 1.5 trillion yuan of value-added tax credit refunds. For businesses that didn't lay off employees or only had a few layoffs, refunding unemployment insurance will be continuously implemented. The ratio of funds refunded to micro, small and medium-sized enterprises will significantly improve. More support will be given to catering, hospitality, retail sales, tourism, passenger transportation, and other industries and businesses facing difficulties.

四是把握好扩大内需、提质升级的新任务。《报告》明确提出将科技型中小企业加计扣除比例从75%提高到100%。对企业投入基础研究实行税收优惠,完善设备器具加速折旧、高新技术企业所得税优惠等政策。针对消费和投资恢复迟缓问题,明确提出继续支持新能源汽车消费、加快城市燃气管道等管网更新改造、对国家重大项目实行能耗单列等硬招实招。同时,还要深入实施区域重大战略和区域协调发展战略,提升新型城镇化质量。改善生态环境、推动绿色低碳发展。

Fourth, we will work to complete the new tasks of expanding domestic demand and improving the quality of economic development. For example, the report rolled out measures of raising the extra tax deduction coverage for small and medium-sized sci-tech enterprises from 75% to 100%. It also calls for granting tax breaks to enterprises that invest in basic research and improving policies on accelerated depreciation of equipment and tools and preferential corporate income tax for new and high-tech enterprises. Furthermore, to speed up the recovery of consumption and investment, the report introduced effective measures of supporting the purchase of new-energy vehicles, accelerating the upgrading of urban pipelines, including those for gas supply, and keeping energy consumption of major national projects under separate management. Meanwhile, according to the report, the government will fully implement all major regional development strategies and coordinate regional development, improve the quality of new urbanization, improve the environment and promote green and low-carbon development.

五是把握好深化改革、扩大开放的新部署。《报告》就加强高标准市场体系建设、深化国资国企、财税金融等领域改革、持续推进“放管服”改革作出一系列新部署。今年稳外贸稳外资面临较大压力。无论国际环境如何变化,我们将坚定不移扩大对外开放,将采取多种措施稳住外贸外资基本盘。

Fifth, we will implement new initiatives to deepen reform and expand opening-up. The report introduced a series of new measures to build a high-standard market system, advance reforms of state-owned enterprises and the fiscal, taxation, and financial reforms, and deepen reforms to streamline administration and delegate power, improve regulation, and upgrade services. This year, we will face tremendous pressure to ensure stable foreign trade and foreign investment. Despite all the changes in the international landscape, we will open wider to the world and take multiple measures to stabilize the overall performance of foreign trade and foreign investment.

六是把握好保障和改善民生的新举措。每年这方面的政策措施都是《报告》的重头戏。今年《报告》又提出了不少实实在在的新政策、新举措。如将依据常住人口规模配置教育资源,保障适龄儿童就近入学;将逐步提高心脑血管病、癌症等疾病防治服务保障水平,加强罕见病用药保障;将适当提高退休人员基本养老金和城乡居民基础养老金标准,惠及近3亿人;还要将3岁以下婴幼儿照护费用纳入个人所得税专项附加扣除,切实减轻家庭生育养育负担等。

Sixth, we will take new measures to ensure and improve people's wellbeing. Policies and measures in this regard have been a highlight of each year's government work report. This year's report has also rolled out a raft of pragmatic measures. For example, the government will allocate educational resources according to the size of the residential population, and see that school-age children can enroll in nearby schools; steadily enhance services for the prevention and treatment of illnesses including cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases and cancer, and better ensure the supply of medicines for rare diseases; appropriately raise the basic pensions and pension standard for urban and rural residents, which will benefit nearly 300 million people; and make care expenses for children under three part of the special additional deductions for individual income tax to ease the burden of giving birth and raising a family.

七是把握好对政府自身建设的新要求。面对新形势新任务,政府工作必须有新作为。《报告》要求各级政府及其工作人员恪尽职守、担当作为,凝心聚力抓发展、保民生,不断创造新业绩。

Seventh, we will meet the new requirements for the improvement of government. Facing new developments and tasks, the government must adopt a new approach. The report requires that governments at all levels and all government employee perform their duties, shoulder their responsibilities, make concerted efforts to promote development and ensure public wellbeing and accomplish new achievements.

红星新闻记者:

Red Star News:

我的问题是,当前美国欧盟等主要经济体进入加息周期,是否会对我国的货币政策产生影响?《报告》提出企业综合融资成本下降,会采取哪些具体措施?谢谢。

Major economies globally, including the U.S. the EU, have entered the interest rate rise cycle. Will this affect China's monetary policy? The report says a considerable drop will be seen in the overall financing costs of businesses. What measures will be taken to this end? Thank you.

向东:

Xiang Dong:

你关注到货币政策,这个问题请宋立司长回答。

You have paid attention to the monetary policy. Therefore, Mr. Song will answer the questions.

宋立:

Song Li:

从历史上看,发达经济体的政策调整的确大多会产生外溢效应,影响全球经济,加大发展中国家特别是新兴市场经济体经济金融波动。我国作为开放型经济体,需要密切关注。但也要看到,与上轮发达经济体加息周期相比,当前我国应对外部冲击的能力显著提升:

Historically, most policy adjustments in developed economies have produced spillover effects, affecting the global economy and increasing economic and financial volatility in developing countries, especially emerging market economies. Therefore, China needs to pay close attention to these adjustments as an open economy. However, compared with the last interest rate rise cycle of developed economies, China's ability to deal with external shocks has been significantly improved:

一是我国经济体量增大、韧性增强,发展前景广阔,回旋余地大。

First, China's economy has grown in size, with stronger resilience, broad prospects, and plenty of room to maneuver.

二是宏观政策调整空间大。我国坚持不搞“大水漫灌”,货币政策工具充足、政策空间较大,有效应对外部冲击的能力较强。

Second, there is much room for policy adjustment. We have been firm in choosing not to adopt a deluge of strong stimulus policies. With ample monetary policy instruments and policy space, we have a strong ability to deal with external shocks effectively.

三是人民币汇率总体稳定,双向浮动弹性提升,能够较好发挥自动稳定器作用。

Third, the RMB exchange rate remains generally stable and floats more freely. So, it can better function as an automatic stabilizer.

四是我国金融体系稳健性增强,金融双向开放深入推进,跨境资金双向流动特征明显,人民币资产吸引力增强,资本市场活力和韧性正在增强。

Fourth, China's financial system has become more prudent; mutual openness in the financial sector has been enhanced; two-way cross-border capital flows have become more active; RMB assets have become more attractive, and the vitality and resilience of the capital market are increasing.

下一阶段,我国将继续实施好稳健的货币政策,保持流动性合理充裕。发挥货币政策总量和结构双重功能,为实体经济提供更有力支持。总量上,要扩大新增贷款规模,保持货币供应量和社会融资规模增速与名义经济增速匹配。要进一步顺通货币政策传到机制。结构上,要引导更多资金流向重点领域和薄弱环节,扩大普惠金融覆盖面。推动金融机构降低实际贷款利率、减少收费,扩大普惠小微贷款包括信用贷款,提高小微企业融资便利度,推动金融机构减费让利,降低企业综合融资成本,进一步推动解决小微企业融资难题。

In the next stage, we will continue implementing a prudent monetary policy and maintaining reasonably adequate liquidity. We will give full play to the role of monetary policy in terms of both amount and structure to provide stronger support for the real economy. Regarding the amount, we will increase new loans, ensure the increases in money supply and aggregate financing are generally in step with economic growth in nominal terms, and further improve the transmission mechanism of monetary policy. Regarding the structure, we will channel more funds to key areas and weak links and extend the coverage of inclusive financing. In addition, we will encourage financial institutions to lower real loan interest rates and cut fees, increase inclusive loans to micro and small businesses, including credit loan, make it easier for those businesses to access financing, and reduce overall financing costs to help them solve financing difficulties.

谢谢。

Thank you.

寿小丽:

Shou Xiaoli:

谢谢向东副主任,谢谢各位发布人,谢谢各位记者朋友们。今天我们的吹风会就到这里,大家再见。

Thank you, Mr. Xiang. Thank you to all the speakers and friends from the media. Today's press briefing is at this moment concluded. Goodbye.

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