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2022年11月份CATTI三级笔译实务真题

网络整理 2022-11-07 627次

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2022年11月份CATTI三级笔译实务真题

E-C部分

In times of stress, like living through a global pandemic, it’s natural to fall back on soothing habits---gardening, playing video games or lighting up a cigarette.

But what are the risks, given that the novel coronavirus at the center of the current crisis attacks the lungs? The science is in its early stages, but studies are finding that cigarette smokers are more likely to have severe infections. There is data to show that if you are a smoker, you’re more likely to have adverse outcomes from COVID-19, need mechanical ventilation and die than if you’re not a smoker. Smoking damages the lungs’ defense mechanisms, making it harder to fight off COVID-19 and other respiratory diseases.

What does science say? Early data was conflicting. Some reports indicated that smoking was not associated with increased adverse outcomes and that smokers were underrepresented in hospital settings, leading some to claim that smokers might even have immunity to the virus. But specialists dismissed the claims as "really fringe staff". One study found that of those who died of COVID-19, 9 percent were current smokers compared with 4 percent of those that survived. Smoking, for one thing, inhibits blood cells that would otherwise clean and repair damaged lungs.

What about e-cigarettes?Less is known about how coronavirus patients who use e-cigarettes products are faring, but several doctors suspect their trajectory will mirror that of cigarette smokers. Smoking e-cigarette’s has all the same adverse effects as smoking ordinary cigarettes does.Smoking anything can irritate the liming of your lungs. If you irritate the lining of your lungs, you set yourself up for trouble,because the disease kills people by attacking the lungs.

What about secondhand smoke? smokers do not expel more of a respiratory virus than non-smokers, although they do cough more.The smoke itself doesn’t seem to increase the amount of virus that gets in the air. However,to the extent that the virus is carried in ting aerosol particles that stay in the air,one of the possible means of transmission,the smoke shows where those particles are located.One study showed that people who had been exposed to second hand smoke were more likely to contract tuberculosis and,once they got it, didn’t do as well as those who weren’t exposed to smoke.In terms of these immune-suppressive effects, as it relates to tuberculosis,secondhand smoke has adverse effects.

Each virus has its unique pattern of dispersion, and scientists in are starting to get a handle on how the novel coronavirus behaves.This understanding is making it possible to rank the risks of different activities from high to low to trivial.

The two drivers of the spread of the disease are close contact and crowding in closed spaces, as the virus is mainly transmitted through respiratory droplets and close contact. It spreads through homeless shelter and nursing homes, where people are crowded in with many others. And it spreads through people's households. Scientists have found some trend. For example, spending time dining together or being on public transport might increase the risk of spreading or contracting the disease, while going to a market briefly for five minutes or a transient encounter while you walk or run past someone is considered low risk.

The studies were all done through contact tracing, which ray ton out to be humanity's greatest strategy for fighting the COVID-19 pandemic. Contact tracing can stop chains of transmission, even after a disease is widespread. Another major benefit is that it offers clues as to how the disease spreads. Each virus has its unique pattern.


C-E:垃圾问题制约城镇化发展

随着经济社会发展和物质消费水平大幅提高,我国生活垃圾产生量迅速增长,环境隐患日益突出,已经成为新型城镇化发展的制约一个重要举措。垃圾分类是按照垃圾的不同成分、利用价值以及对环境的影响,根据不同处置方式的要求,分成若干种类,进行分类投放,并通过分类收集,分类运输,分类处理,实现垃圾减量化,资源化,无害化。

首先,充分回收利用可回收物。通过分类投放,分类收集,把有用物品,如纸张、塑料,橡胶,玻璃等从垃圾中分离出来利用。如1吨废纸可再生新纸0.8吨,相当于少砍伐树龄为30年的树木20棵。

其次,减少垃圾处理量。分类收集便于对不同垃圾进行分类处置。例如果皮转化为有机肥。其他垃圾则进行卫生填埋或焚烧,可减少填埋量。从而节省宝贵的土地资源,实现社会效益和生态环境的双赢因素。实施生活垃极分类(garbage, sorting),可以有效改善城乡环境。促进资源回收利用,提高城镇化质量。垃圾分类是处置垃圾的首要环节,是解决垃圾出路问题的关键。

再者,如果我们不对生活垃圾进行分类,将增加后续处理难度,可造成对空气,水质,土壤的污染,危害人体健康,损害环境。总之,垃圾分类既能提高垃圾利用水平,又能减少垃圾处理量,达到回收可用资源,降低处置成本,减少土地消耗的目标,实现社会,经济,生态三方面的效益。

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